Already in the XVI century negros were brought to Europe as exotic, about how the animals of the new open land — chimpanzees, llamas and parrots. But until the XIX century blacks lived mainly in the courts of rich people — are illiterate commoners could not even look at them in books.
This all changed with the modern era — when most Europeans not only learned to read, but also emancipated to the extent that currently has requested the same pleasures that the bourgeoisie and the aristocracy. This is the common desire of white coincided with the widespread opening of zoos in the continent, ie from about the 1880s.
Then zoos were filled with exotic animals from the colonies. Among them were and negros, which the then eugenics also rank as the simplest representatives of fauna.
It is regrettable to realize the current European liberals and tolerastam, their fathers, grandfathers and even willingly did dibs on eugenics: for example, the last Negro disappeared from European zoo only in 1935 in Basel and in 1936 in Turin. But the last "temporary exhibition" with blacks was in 1958 in Brussels at the Expo, where the Belgians introduced "Congolese village together with the residents."
The justification for the Europeans can only serve that many white is really up to the beginning of the twentieth century did not understand — the Negro is different from apes. The case when Bismarck came to look at the Berlin Zoo on Negro placed in a cage with a gorilla: Bismarck really asked caretaker institution, that he has shown — which is actually in the cell people.
(Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany inspects the blacks at the zoo in Hamburg, 1909)
By the early twentieth century negros kept in zoos already mentioned in Basel and Berlin, Antwerp and London, and even in Russia Warsaw, these representatives of humanity have been exposed to the delight of the audience. It is known that at the London Zoo in 1902, a cage with blacks looked around 800,000 people. In total, no less than 15 European cities showed blacks then in captivity.
Most often zookeeper placed in cells called "Ethnographic village" — when in cages housed several black families. They went there in traditional dress and have maintained a traditional way of life — something dug with primitive tools, wove mats, food was cooked over a campfire. Typically, negros long lived under European winters. For example, it is known in the zoo in Hamburg with 1908 to 1912 died in captivity 27 blacks.
Negros while kept in zoos even the U.S., despite the fact that there white lived together side by side over 200 years. However, in captivity placed pygmies, which U.S. scientists thought poluobezyanami, standing on the lower level of development than the "normal" black. In addition, these beliefs are based on Darwinism. For example, American scientists and Branford Blum wrote then:
"Natural selection, if you do not fix it of obstacles, would complete the process of extinction. It was believed that if it were not for the institution of slavery, which supported and defended by blacks, they would have to compete with whites in the struggle for survival. Most of the fitness of the whites in this contest was unmistakable. The disappearance of black people as a race would be only a matter of time. "
Kept notes on the content of pygmy named Ota Benga. First Ota, along with other pygmies has been exposed as a "typical savage" in the anthropological wing of the World Expo 1904 in St. Louis. Pygmy during their stay in America, the scientists studied, compared the "savage races" with the intellectually handicapped by Caucasians on intelligence tests, in reaction to the pain and the like. Antropometristy psychometrician and came to the conclusion that intelligence tests can be compared to the pygmies "mentally retarded people who spend a huge amount on the test of time and allow for a lot of stupid mistakes."
Many Darwinists carried the level of development of the Pygmies "directly to the Paleolithic period," a scientist Getty found in them "primitive cruelty of man." They are not distinguished in the sport. According to Branford and Blum, "So shameful record as the one that was installed miserable savages, has never before been recorded in the history of the sport."
Pygmy Ota asked to spend as much time in the monkey. He even gave a bow and arrow and shoot allowed "to attract the public." Soon Ota was locked in a cell — and when he was let out of the monkey, "he stared at the crowd and stood next to the guard." 9 September 1904 began advertising company. The headline in the New York Times exclaimed, "Bushman sits in a cage with monkeys Bronx Park." Director, Dr. Hornedi argued that simply offered "interesting exhibit" as a warning to the public:
"[It] … clearly see the difference between a small black little man and wild — animals, for the first time in American man was exhibited in a zoo cage. In the cell to Benge hoisted parrot and an orangutan named Dohong. " In the descriptions of the witnesses said that the Father, "a little above their heads orangutan … similar in many ways, and they are equally bare their teeth when something happy."
In fairness, we should mention that in the zoos of the time contained not only negros, but other primitive peoples — the Polynesians and the Canadian Inuit, Indians Suriname (the famous exhibition in Amsterdam, Holland in 1883), the Indians of Patagonia (in Dresden). And East Prussia and in 1920 in captivity in the ethnographic village contained Balts who were supposed to represent "the ancient Prussians" and perform their rituals in front of the audience.
Historian Kurt Jonasson explains the disappearance of human zoos not only the dissemination of ideas of equality among nations, which then spread Persons Nations as the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, when the common people do not become money to attend such events. And somewhere — like in Germany with the rise of Hitler — the authorities have abolished such a powerful order "show".
Hamburg Zoo with blacks and other colored:
Five Indians Kawesqar (Tierra del Fuego, Chile) were kidnapped in 1881 and taken to Europe for display in the human zoo. All five died within a year
Africans often exhibited next to monkeys, to show that they are closer to apes than to humans