Nietzsche by Dostoevsky

Nietzsche has left more than twenty statements about Dostoevsky, sometimes fugitive, "about", sometimes deployed and conceptual. There Nietzsche were all collected and commented on in the article German slavicist Wolfgang Gezemana2. In the country of Dostoevsky is now just a kind of "tree" in the "forest" of problems called "Dostoevsky and Nietzsche." The only exception is Nietzsche synopsis of Dostoevsky's novel "The Possessed" sensational find in the archives of Weimar philosopher, discovered publishers a complete collection of his critical writings. Some of Nietzsche's statements about Dostoevsky, especially from his epistolary heritage and is not known in the Russian translation.

The very first mention of Dostoevsky is contained in the postscript of Nietzsche&#39;s letters to his friend Overbeck on 12/02/1887 was: "I wrote to you about the AI kV TENE? <…> And about Dostoevsky? "The next day, Nietzsche sent a letter to his regular correspondent P. Gast:" Do you know anything about Dostoevsky? Besides Stendhal was not for me to open more unexpected and delivered so much fun: it is a psychologist with whom I "find a common language." The last words are taken in the usual style for ostranyayuschie Nietzsche quotes, forced to in this case to express the uniqueness of inadequacy experienced since conventionality, contingencies as to its means of expression in the language.

23.2.1887, he wrote again Overbeck: "A few weeks ago I ignorant person does not read" newspapers ", and had no idea even of the name of Dostoevsky! Incidentally, in a book store I caught my eye just translated into French work L&#39;esprit souterrain. The same chance I have to meet you 21 year of age with Schopenhauer and 35 years from Stendhal … It&#39;s two novels, one is a kind of music, very unusual, very un-German music, the second a brilliant psychological trick, like «gnothi seauton know thyself (Greek.) "Mocks himself."

Two weeks later, the 03/07/1887, Nietzsche excited to share their first impressions of Dostoevsky with Gast: "From Dostoevsky turned as with Stendhal: open your accident the first available in the hands of a book in a bookshop is unknown author, and all of a sudden instinct you have met your soul mate. While I know little about his position in society, his reputation, his fate. He died in 1881. In his youth, he had tight: illness, poverty (and this is something noble in origin), at age 27, was sentenced to death, he was pardoned on the scaffold, and then spent four years in Siberia in chains among serious offenders. It was a watershed, a crucial moment in his life: he discovered the power of psychological insight, and more than that, his soul was touched and deepened his memoir of that time La maison des morts one of the "naichelovechneyshih books", which just is.

His first work, that I have met, is called «L` esprit souterrain », consists of two stories: the first kind of music is unknown, the second is truly brilliant escapade, terrible and cruel mockery of the principle of" know thyself, "but executed with such reckless audacity and gusto and overflowing strength that I was intoxicated with pleasure. Meanwhile, on the recommendation of Overbeck I read «L` Humilies et offenses », the only thing he knew of Dostoevsky, with the greatest reverence for the Dostoyevsky-artist. I also noticed that the younger generation of French novelists downright suppressed the influence of Dostoevsky and snedaemo zeal to it (for example, Paul Bourget) »(G., 131-132). Is quite obvious it is evident from the rise of total emotional Nietzsche grasped this event (in German Nietzsche himself defined this condition word schwaermend). Of the many books "discoveries" of Nietzsche himself singled out only three Schopenhauer on 21-year life, Stendhal in 35 years, and then, finally, Dostoevsky in &#39;43, when he had a little less than two years prior to immersion in the timeless spiritual darkness. Nietzsche by this time acquired the peak of his spiritual maturity, but what youthful ardor, what enthusiasm of familiarity with the Russian writer. The situation of the meeting of Nietzsche and Dostoevsky is not typical.

In many ways, the history of the opening of the German philosopher Dostoevsky match the description of the creative process, as he was represented by the writer himself, in a letter to the AG on 05.15.1869, the Maykov: "… The poem, in my opinion, is a native gem, a diamond in the the poet&#39;s soul, quite ready, in all its essence, and this is the first case of the poet, as founder and creator, The first part of his creation. If you like, so he did not even creator and the life, the powerful essence of life, the God who is alive and copulating in force in the creation of mnogorazlichii places, and often in great heart and a strong poet, so if not the poet himself GUT-rec (and we have to agree with this, especially you as the expert and the poet himself, because after all one piece too, is finally ready and all of a sudden out of the soul of the poet creature) if he is not the creator, then at least his soul is there is that mine, which engenders diamonds and without which they never find. Only then should second case of the poet, is not as deep and mysterious, but only as an artist: it is by getting a diamond, wrought and rearrange it. Here the poet is almost just jeweler "3.

To begin with, what&#39;s the analogy seems the most vulnerable: the reader as "the founder and creator." There is, however, fairly common point of view on reading if you do not like to work, how to co-creation. But what is a "co-creation"? Creativity is the creation of something new, but the introduction to this new act of creation is not (if it leads to the creation of the new, the result will be another new). Yet this particular case resists this seemingly flawless logic. The fact of dating, the moment of spiritual encounter, as he imprinted on the above evidence of the Friedrich Nietzsche, is almost involuntary association with the creative act that Dostoevsky believes irrational. And Nietzsche&#39;s hard to stand out as the most important aspect of his discovery of irrational Dostoevsky ("instinct of kinship"). Thus Nietzsche also stressed the integrity of perception, impression of Dostoevsky, which was much richer and deeper sound of its transcription. The integrity of impressions came from metonymy. And what kind of metonymy! The first texts of Dostoevsky, who had read Nietzsche was "Mistress" and the second part of "Notes from the Underground" "Regarding the wet snow" (not the first one!). That was enough to not only "impress", but also to shake. Because Nietzsche guessing felt much more than read. Read the second part of "Notes from the Underground", and somehow imbued with the spirit of the first. This is not surprising: in the world literature was another writer, that would be great "to Nietzsche Nietzsche" than Dostoevsky. Nietzsche does not take much to catch the spirit of the "underground" or, as it sounds in reverse translation from the French, "underground" spirit, "the spirit of the dungeon" ("underground mind", "underground consciousness"), because it has long has this a spirit (unterirdisch a German adjective in this context is perceived as tracing paper from the French, their frequency of use in the later works shall, perhaps, its Dostoevsky is not metaphysical, conceptual sense.) Opening Dostoevsky, Nietzsche discovered in it the meanings in them, so to speak, otherness. But this is art. Something similar has happened with Nietzsche when he "discovered" the "eternal return" (1881): the same shocks, the same desire to share his discovery with friends, the same tears. He discovered what had long known — needed a push to get something known actualised "Open". It is also possible that the thinking plasma, semantic clusters that are closely at the threshold of his consciousness, demanding his registration of the word, are suddenly him to consciousness, as a finished product, but from the outside.

But at the same time, paradoxically, Nietzsche does not want to destroy the integrity of his impressions of the works and their use for the evaluation to metaphorics.

Meeting Nietzsche and Dostoevsky was like a programmed predetermined destiny, and that Dostoevsky psychologist. "The human soul and its limits, generally made so far amount of internal human experience, height, depth and distance of the experience, all the former history of the soul and its still not exhausted the possibilities here are a hunting ground, intended for a born psychologist and lover of the "big hunt". But how often he had to cry out in desperation: "I am alone here! Oh, just one! And around this vast virgin forest! "And now he wants to have in his possession a few hundred rangers and scientists acute sense of smell to bloodhounds, which he could send to the history of the human soul, there to drive the its game. But in vain: he bitterly convinced every time is how little use landowners and dogs for the searching of all that attracts his curiosity. The disadvantage of sending scholars into new and dangerous hunting grounds, where necessary courage, discretion and subtlety in every sense, is that they are no longer suitable, where begins the "big hunt", and with it the great danger: just there they lose their keen eyesight and sense of smell. For example, to guess and determine what would be the story still problems knowledge and Conscience in the shower homines religiosi for this, perhaps, the most to be so deep, so wounded, so immense as the intellectual conscience of Pascal, and then everything else would be needed, so on this throng of dangerous and sad remnants of sky light is spread, the evil genius, which could overlook from a height, to put in order, to conclude in the formula. But who would have helped me to this service! But who would have enough time to wait for such services! They are obviously very rare, at all times their cash so incredible! .. "4. Who are more than Dostoevsky, could claim to be represented in this passage, "sverhpsihologa" rhetorical question (unless Friedrich Nietzsche himself, to which he explicitly and hints).

Elsewhere in the same book, "Beyond Good and Evil", from which the above quotation is taken, Nietzsche elaborates on some aspects of the real, from his point of view, psychology: "The whole psychology could still get rid of moral prejudices and fears: it does not dared to penetrate into the depths. Understand it as morphology and the development of the doctrine of the will to power, I understand it, this is still no one even thought there was … "(NA, 2, 258). And suddenly, in black and white, it reads Dostoevsky, for example, the following words: "… I had a friend once, and somehow. But I was already a tyrant at heart, and I wanted to unlimited dominion over his soul <…> but when he gave himself up to me all, I&#39;m the same hour I hated it, and alienated, as if he needed me for obsessing over him victory, for One of his subordinates "(D., 5, 140). Or: "… The authorities, the authorities I had then, the game was not …", "… I mean love tyrannize and morally prevoskhodstvovat" (D., 5, 173, 176).

What is a "brilliant psychological trick?" "Trick" in German Streich prank, prank, joke, prank, mischief. Etymologically related to the word Strahl beam and maintains a semantic nuance of lightness (light touch), grace, grace. Modern German Dictionary gives the following explanation of this concept: "action, most often committed out of mischief and playfulness (playfully), aiming to tease someone, to deceive, mislead, fool." For Nietzsche, it is also important to emphasize the word spontaneous, improvised beginning that it enhances the word hingeworfen (with constant harping gravitas to Nietzsche said, it also means "thrown at the feet" (as a generous gift). Ambiguity breeds and in the key concept of "trick": a on the one hand, Nietzsche speaks of Dostoevsky himself, the artist, on the other hand it could mean an underground hero, his "experiment" with Lisa.

Our assumption is that Nietzsche could domyslivat based underground hero of the second part of his story as a hero of the first, is also not unfounded. He has to Dostoevsky in the most general terms, was led by the type of a man "who constantly breaks and tormented his own teeth yourself" (NA, 2, 263). It affects almost textual coincidence with the words of the underground hero of the first part of the story when he speaks of "despicable enjoyment", "gnaw at myself for it, tearing and consuming myself till at last the bitterness turned into a kind of shameful accursed sweetness, and finally in positive real enjoyment! Yes, into enjoyment, into enjoyment! I stand by that, "(D., 5, 102). At the same before he met with Dostoevsky and Nietzsche stood. "Of course, you need to drive away away a stupid old psychology, which was able to repeat the cruelty of only one thing, that it occurs in the form of other people&#39;s suffering: there is a lot, too much pleasure and also in his own suffering, in causing the suffering of the Statement and all When a person is inclined to self-denial in religious sense or self-mutilation … or even to the killing lust for killing and crush the flesh, to the puritanical spasms of repentance, to vivisection of conscience, to sacrificio dell&#39;intelletto Pascal, he secretly leads and pushes forward its own cruelty, they are driven by dangerous shuddering brutality facing against himself"(NA, 2, 350).

There is, finally, in "Notes from the Underground", the second part thereof, such lines that Nietzsche could have been mistaken for a paraphrase of his own thoughts. "… Even before weaned, sometimes we feel to this" real life "for some disgust, and therefore can not bear to be reminded about it. <…> What is proper to regard me, that after all I had ever in my life to the extreme that you did not dare to bring up to half, and even took over his cowardice and prudence that found comfort in deceiving ourselves. So I think I "alive" you go out. <…> Leave us alone without books and we immediately get confused, get lost will not know where to join and what to despise? We even people-that being a burden, people with this, own body and blood, we are ashamed of it, for shame believe and strive to be some kind of unprecedented obschechelovekami. We are stillborn, and are born-that had long been on the living fathers, and that we are more and more like it. Enter into the taste. Soon to be born somehow invent the idea "(D., 5, 178-179).

Hence it is clear that a sense of heady pleasure experienced by the philosopher reading Dostoevsky&#39;s not hyperbole. And in general, "intoxication" in Nietzsche&#39;s philosophical language is as much a metaphor as a philosophical term. In "Twilight of the Idols," Nietzsche gives him a detailed explanation, "On the psychology of the artist. In order for there to be an art to exist any aesthetic creativity and contemplation, you need one physiological precondition   intoxication. Intoxication must first strengthen the excitability of the whole machine: otherwise not come to art. All kinds of intoxication, no matter how varied their cause, have the power to do this: first of all intoxication of sexual arousal, the oldest and the original form of intoxication. Similarly, intoxication, which is a consequence of the festival, competitions, bravura, victory, all extreme excitement, intoxication of cruelty, drunkenness destruction; intoxication under the influence of well-known meteorological phenomena, such as spring intoxication, or under the influence of drugs, and finally, the will of intoxication, inebriation overloaded swollen will. Significant in the sense of intoxication is increasing the strength and completeness. From this sense, we pay little things, we urge them to take from us, we are raping them, this phenomenon is called idealizing. Free ourselves here from one of prejudice: the idealization is not, as is usually thought to be a distraction or eliminating minor, side. Rather, it is crucial to monstrous Pushing- main features, so that other, thanks to disappear "(NA, 2, 597-598). What follows is a very significant clarification: "What do I have entered into the aesthetics of confrontation Apollonian and Dionysian, if we understand them as a kind of intoxication? Apollonian intoxication holds primarily in a state of excitement eye, so he gets the ability to visions. Painter, plastic, visionary epic poet par excellence. In the Dionysian state, on the contrary, is excited and raised affects the whole system: so she immediately unloads all his means of expression and at the same time force pushes the image, imitation, transfiguration, all sorts of facial expressions and acting. The essential is the ease of metamorphosis, the inability not react (like some hysterical, which are also included in each wave any role). For the Dionysian man is impossible not to understand any suggestion he overlooking, no sign of passion, he has the highest degree of understanding and the divining instinct, as well as the highest level of art transmission. He enters into every skin, into every passion: he is transformed permanently "(NA, 2, 599).

In the above judgment of the philosopher should highlight the following points. First, very similar to the state of intoxication of inspiration, creative ecstasy. Second, attention is drawn to the contradictory nature of intoxication: on the one hand, it imposes certain things their understanding, raping them, on the other hand guarantees "the ease of metamorphosis" has suppleness, original Proteanism. And I must say that Nietzsche-reader, Nietzsche critic combines both these principles, aggressive assertiveness and "understanding and guessing instinct" in its "highest degree."

Naturally, the attitude of the philosopher to the imperative, "know thyself" could only be negative: "For the longest period in the history of mankind, called prehistoric, dignity or useless act derived from its consequences: the act on their own as little is taken into account, as well as its origin … Let&#39;s call this period domoralnym period of humanity: the imperative, "Know thyself" was then still unknown. On the contrary, in the last ten thousand years in some large areas of the earth&#39;s surface people slowly came to the point that gave the casting vote of the value of the act is not its consequences, and its origin: the great event as a whole, is worth seeing sight sophistication and scale, a consequence of the unconscious the rule of aristocratic virtues and faith in the "origin", a sign of the period, which is more narrow sense of the word can be called "moral ", the first attempt to self-made. Instead, the consequences of origin: what prospects for revolution! <…> But do not come if we now need to decide for another revolution and radical rearrangement of all values, thanks to a new self-awareness and self-absorbed man — if we do not stand at the turn of the period which would have a negative identify primarily as extramoral: Today, when at least among us, immoralist, suspicion arose that it was in that involuntarily in this act, and it is the ultimate value … "(NA, 2, 266-267).

Of course, from this vantage point to see in the "Notes from the Underground" mockery of the slogan "Know yourself" where as logical. But it is an underground hero of Dostoevsky — is both a solid intent, desperate soul-that is, self-knowledge, a walking rejection of all spontaneity in thoughts, feelings and actions. And the effect of this irony is achieved in such a paradoxical way through the maximum potentiation of self-consciousness.

It would be hard to admit that the book, so much to act on Nietzsche, did not leave any traces in his works. And in fact, they are found in the very first pages of the "anti-Christian", and the reference to Dostoevsky made deliberately. In the 17th head office it says the following: "… And yet God is" a large number "this democrat among gods, has not become proud god of language, as he was a Jew, and it still is, God corners, Aogom dark corners, dark hovels God of all unhealthy dwellings in the whole world! .. Continues its global empire is the underworld, underground souterrain, an infirmary, a ghetto … "The French word brings to mind the title of the book in French translation of Dostoevsky« L&#39;esprit souterrain ». Besides souterrain Reich is no more than a pleonasm German Unterwelts Reich, and its use is nothing but the signification of Dostoevsky&#39;s world in itself does not carry. In the head office of 22 we are talking about the original soil of Christianity, which was "Nether world of antiquity." Nietzsche also uses the adjective unterirdisch, which is his semantic equivalent of a noun Unterwelt (cupola 58)4. In «Esse homo» is an expression "underworld ideal. " In "Twilight of the Idols," in the "Problem of Socrates": "Everything in it is an exaggeration … however, differs secretive, back the idea of the underground" (NA, 2, 564).

"The transition of the image in the symbol gives it meaning depth and the future, "said Mikhail Bakhtin5. It is perceived as a symbol of Nietzsche&#39;s "underground" by Dostoevsky. Expanding the meaning of the symbol is already in the translation of the French word souternain into German. The semantics of the German Unterwelt much broader universal. It is the kingdom of the dead (in Greek mythology), and the lumpen elements of society, and the underworld, in addition to that particular dating back certainly to Dostoevsky, semantic dominant, which it acquires from the word of Nietzsche himself. Topologically Unterwelt this topos of some ghostly unnatural life. Psychologically, this concept is tightly linked to the ressentiment, "bad conscience", a painful accumulation of negative experiences and self-torture. Again, as in Dostoevsky. But there have been all these features underground Nietzsche before his meeting with Dostoevsky. Nietzsche as a critic of Christianity took place long before he met with Dostoevsky. Just Christianity, in its opinion, and has given rise to the phenomenon of the underground. Dostoevsky, on the contrary, saw in it a consequence of the decline of the Christian faith. So, as always in Dostoevsky and Nietzsche: the coincidence of ideas in the exact opposite of their interpretations.

Read about the philosopher brochure of one of the most prominent representatives of German naturalism Charles Blaybtroya "The revolution in literature" in 1881, and there made judgments about Dostoevsky Nietzsche broke sharp rebuke in a letter to Overbeck (he just sent a brochure called Nietzsche). But first, give yourself these judgments Blaybtroya. Judgment first, "Raskolnikov" is, first and foremost, a novel of conscience and conscience only. Nowhere is a world problem, which occupies a central place in the lives of mankind since Adam and Eve, the almighty power of God, which we call conscience, did not find such an exhaustive solutions, anywhere, with the exception of a few works of Byron and Shakespeare. " The judgment of the second: "Leaving aside the psychological achieve a" split-kov, "then it will remain on the police novel a&#39;la Gaboriau. In the "Germinal", on the contrary, except for its stunning detail, there is a significant world, the idea. " And the answer is Nietzsche: "… And what psychological inferiority in it (ie Blaybtroya) negative remark about the latest novel by Dostoyevsky (" Crime and Punishment ".   VD), For example! in fact the problem, which occupies most of Dostoevsky, that is precisely what most advanced microscopy and psychological insight emphatically adds nothing to the value of man: it is obvious to Russian conditions, he had more than enough reasons izblizi see this! "Turning to your correspondent, Nietzsche continues: "By the way, I recommend you recently translated into French work L&#39;esprit souterrain, the second of which (ie, the second part of" Notes from the Underground "" Regarding the wet snow. "   VD) Illustrates this for certain paradox in all its almost terrifying clarity »(G., 137).

In the "human, all too human," Nietzsche says about the two types of psychology. On the first reads as follows: "… In fact, the famous blind faith in the goodness of human nature, an innate aversion to the analysis of human action, a kind of modesty before the nakedness of the soul, perhaps, is really more desirable for the common good of man than it is useful in some cases property psychological farsightedness, and, perhaps, in good faith, in a virtuous people and virtuous deeds, in an abundance of impersonal good will in the world made the best of people, as it made them less suspicious. When enthusiastically imitate the heroes of Plutarch and are disgusted by the fact that delved suspicious of the true motives of their actions, then it is good, though not the truth, but the well-being of human society … "(AN, 1, 264). Actually, it says here, and the main thing about the second type of psychology. The first type of humanistic psychology maintains the image of man, the second call it the psychology of doubt it is being problematic, it awakens the "moral observation" to the extent that "humanity can not escape the cruel spectacle of psychological autopsy room with its scalpels and forceps" (EN, 1, 264 -265). The psychology of this kind of philosopher compares with "aiming straight arrow" who "always hit the black spot but a black point of human nature" (NA, 1, 264). Consequently, this is a psychologist, from the point of view of Nietzsche, who is sent to study dark and taboo side of the human psyche.

Now the paradox of psychological microscope, which adds nothing to the value of the person. Dostoevsky is very similar paradox (Nietzsche hardly knew him), contained in a textbook-known words: "My name is psychologist is false, I&#39;m just a realist in the highest sense, that is, depict all the depths of the human soul" (D., 27, 65) . Nietzsche explains this paradox in his discussion of intoxication. Their logic is as follows: the art is "need turn in the commission. " One way of converting the titled "idealization ", "Idealizationnot consists, as is commonly thought, in abstraction or eliminating minor, side. Rather, it is crucial to monstrous Pushing-main features, so that other, thanks to disappear "(NA, 2, 598). What is the "realism in the highest sense"? The answer to this question is, in our opinion, in the works of Pavel Florensky. He says: "It is obvious, at least realism is such a direction that claims in the world and in culture, particularly in the art of some realia, reality or reality, is opposed to illusions. Truly exists is opposed to realism only apparent; ontologically thick, clear, substantial and sustainable — dissipate the accumulation of random encounters. Laws and regulations on the one hand, the whims and caprices of the other "6. "Art is not psihologichno, it is ontological, truly a revelation of the prototype. <…> And on the other hand, our belief in the true meaning of art explicit precondition its a general statement about voploschaemosti and the embodiment of unconditional value. " If it does not, then the art is abolished, "the church is not only an art, and art in general … because the value is nevoploschaemoy and artistic images only an imitation of sensual reality, useless duplication of Being"7. The point is that for Dostoevsky, as well as for Florensky has an ontological value (Christian) status, while Zola and other Western writers of the late XIX century, values, due to the intensive expansion of individualism, acquired a subjective private. Nietzsche correctly grasped the difference. That&#39;s why he refers to "Russian conditions", referring to the spiritual environment where the values retained their ontological, but where in full force declared himself individualism. He himself wanted to, as it follows from the above statements give individualistic values ontological character. Ontological individualism and the conflict of values and was "a problem which occupied most of Dostoevsky."

If Dostoevsky saw in the underground consequence of the decline of the Christian faith, Nietzsche, on the contrary, was convinced that just Christianity gave rise to such a phenomenon as the underground.

Now try to deal with what I had in mind a philosopher, certifying Dostoyevsky&#39;s novel "Mistress" as "very un-German music." But first, it should be noted that the same as in the case of "Notes from Underground", the tendency to symbolize in the estimates. Explaining the character "Mistress" is music, "Nietzsche would inevitably impoverished his tangle of meanings and associations would have turned around directness thread. But as if that is how Nietzsche and goes in the "human, all too human" (1878), when he tries to dispel the "mystery" of the character, giving it a positive meaning: "Music is not in itself is so important for our internal state and does not make such a deep impression that it could be considered direct the language of feelings, but its long-standing relationship with poetry has invested so much symbolism in rhythmic movement, strength and weakness of the tone that we are now seems if it is directly says inner feelings and proceeds thereof. <…> By itself, no music is deep and full of value, it does not say "will", the "thing in itself", the intellect could only imagine in an era that has won for musical symbolism of the whole area of the inner life "(H . 1, 349).

But later, in the collection of aphorisms entitled "Wicked Wisdom" (1882-1885) Nietzsche does not match the music and poetry, and separates them. "It is only now dawns man that music is a symbolic language of affects: a later learn to recognize more clearly the system drives a musician of his music. He must have had no idea that pretends to be the one. This is the innocence these voluntary admissions in contrast to all literary works "(EN, 1, 750). However, the opposition is not limited to: music and literature hierarchically reversed. "The most intelligible language is not in word, but the tone, strength, modulation rate, which blurts out a series of words, in short, the music behind the words, the passion for this music, the personality of this passion: therefore, all the things that can not be written. Therefore, anything to do with pisatelschinoy "(EN, 1, 751).

It is as if to say about the "Mistress": "… the music behind the words, the passion for this music, the personality of this passion" … "For Nietzsche, a musician was not difficult to catch," zvukomuzykalnuyu "dominant story of Dostoevsky. Especially as the narrator consistently stands comparison sounding words, speeches, with the music, "as sweet as music, the whisper of someone&#39;s gentle, gentle speeches", "what she said to him, still rang in his ears like music", " Again, as if penetrating the heart of the music struck his ear "," C ringing like music, laughter … "," … sounded familiar, like the inner music, familiar to the human soul in the hour of joy for his life … "(D., 1, 278 , 289, 303, 302). There is a "Mistress" passage, almost perfectly accurately reflects the above words of Nietzsche, the description of Catherine: "Close, close, close at the head of it, the song began, softly at first and plaintive voice … then rose, then fall off, frantically breathless, as if concealing himself and fondly cherished his rebellious flour same insatiable desire squeezed, hopelessly concealed in the heart of longing, then again overflowed and the trill of a nightingale, trembling, already nesderzhimoyu flaming passion, was poured into a sea of delight, a mighty sea, boundless as the first moment of bliss of love and sounds. Ordynov is different and the words, they were simple, sincere, composed of long, straight, quiet, clean and clear sense of self. But he forgot them, he heard only one sound. Through a simple, naive warehouse songs he flashed other words, gremevshie his desire that filled his own breast, which gave the response of the hidden, it is unknown, bending his passion, he sounded as clear an awareness about it. And then he heard a groan hopelessly last zamershego in the passion of the heart, the will and pleasure of the spirit, break the chains, and their zeal is light and loose in the Non-Source forbidding sea of love, it was heard first oath mistress with fragrant shame for the first paint in the face, with prayers, with tears with a mysterious, timid whisper that wish Bacchantes, proud and joyful force of their own, with no cover, no secrets, with a sparkling laugh, which marks all around drunken eyes … "(D., 1, 303).

The key to unlocking the phrase "very alien (fremd), a very non-German music" is, of course, the word "un-German." About the German music Nietzsche spoke frequently and often dramatically.

Philosopher rejected it plebeian revolutionary ("Only German musicians are experts in terms of the billowing masses, including a monstrous artificial noise …"), its morality, its "clubfoot" hill "(Beethoven next to Goethe is" poluvarvarstvo next to the culture ") (N, 1, 577). In the liability of German music should also include all of the claims of the philosopher to the music of Richard Wagner, and above all its decadent character of "decadence", reducible to their predilection for "brutal, artificial and innocent"All the things that he outlined in his famous work of Wagner. It is interesting for us first of all what Nietzsche said about the music, which he opposes to music by Bizet. Some of the following thoughts will allow ourselves to this assumption can occur under the influence of the "very strange, very non-German music" in "Mistress" by Dostoevsky:

"This music is evil, thinned, fatalistic …"

"… Finally, love, translated back into the language of Nature Love! Not love "higher virgins!" Not St. sentimentality! And love as fate, asfatality, cynical, innocent, cruel, and it is in this nature! Love, in its means is war, by its nature deadly hatred sexes "(N. 2, 528-530).

"Ever noticed that the music makes free mind? gives wings to the mind? that becomes more of a philosopher than a become a musician? "(N. 2. 529).

If you look at the "Mistress" Nietzsche&#39;s eyes, it is read as a kind of artistic paraphrase "The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music." In the confession about his first book, philosopher, wrote: "For my most intimate experience I opened only an allegory and the like, which has a history, that&#39;s what I first understood the wonderful phenomenon of the Dionysian "(N. 2, 729). This is not true. And in general somehow difficult to believe that a philosopher to articulate the phenomenon of the Dionysian, otreflektirovavshy it was almost impervious to the waves Dionysianism, rising in the "Mistress" as in a stormy sea. As proof could result in an extract from the novel Dostoevsky almost entire pages 277-278, 302-303, 307-311. But here&#39;s the quintessential Dionysianism no way not to quote: "… Then his life languishing in unbearable agony, and it seemed the whole of existence, the whole world stops dying on for centuries all around him, and a long, thousand-night extended over the whole …" (D., 1 , 278). And Katherine says that she "would like to death" (D., 1, 276). What is not Nietzsche&#39;s "joy of destruction"?

See the "eyes of Nietzsche" is, of course, a metaphor, a convention. See the "eyes of Nietzsche" could only himself. We can only look from the perspective of the philosophy of Nietzsche. And it&#39;s not the same thing. Therefore, it is logical to assume also that Nietzsche did not see in the "Mistress" is nothing of the Dionysian, as noticed, for example, is nothing "super-human" characters in the novel "The Possessed."

H. Wautischer

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