November 2, 1996 in the town of Severodvinsk in a festive atmosphere was laid first (both in our country and in the world) strategic nuclear submarine belonging to the 4th generation. New strategic missile submarine mission was named «Yury Dolgoruky». Research in the field of missile submarines, related to the brand new 4th generation began in the USSR in 1978. Specific development of nuclear submarines of Project 955 (code «Northwind») engaged in CDB «Ruby», the main designer for the project was VN Zdornov. Active work began in the late 1980s. At this point, the situation changed and worldwide that left a definite mark on the latest view of the submarine. Namely, it was decided to abandon the exotic assembly and cyclopean possessed PLA «Shark» by returning to the «classical» scheme.
According to the initial plans new submarine missile missile system planned arm made «Makeyevka» company. Main armament boat had become a massive solid rocket «Bark» kitted latest system inertial satellite targeting, which would significantly do better accuracy. But a series of unsuccessful launches and Nebogatov funding forced designers to revise the composition missile missile. In 1998, the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology (MIT), which had previously specialized in designing strategic ballistic solid ground-based missiles (among which the missiles «Courier», «Pioneer», «Topol» and «Topol-M»), and anti-missile systems ( eminent «Medvedka») began work to establish a fully modern missile system, which is known as the «Bulava». The complex on the accuracy of target destruction and the possibility of overcoming the enemy defense should overshadow South American counterpart — «Trident» II.
Newcomer sea missile pretty much unified with the armament RVSN intercontinental ballistic missile, «Topol-M», without being all that its direct modification. Significant differences in the features of onshore and offshore does not allow to create a universal missile, which would be similar in degree to satisfy the requirements of the Strategic Missile Forces and the Navy. Brand new sea-based missile R-30 «Bulava» according to various sources capable of carrying 6 to 10 nuclear warheads personal guidance that own room for maneuver in pitch and yaw. Overall missile throw-weight is 1150 kg. Most start at the range 8000 km, which is enough for the destruction of almost all points on the terrain south of the United States except California and Florida. At the same time, during the last test launch overcame 9100 km.
According to current plans to modernize the Russian submarine fleet, SSBN 955 «Borey» must be one of the 4 types of submarines, which will be adopted by. At one time one of the features of Russian and then Russian fleet was the introduction of the 10-s of various modifications and types of submarines, which complicates their repair and maintenance.
Currently, between the Defense Ministry and USC — United Shipbuilding Company signed an agreement to develop a modified version of the SSBN Ave 955A «Northwind». Amount of the contract to develop the boat was 39 billion. rubles. Construction Project 955A submarines will be in Severodvinsk «Sevmash». Submarines of the new project will have 20 SLBMs «Bulava» and an improved set of computational tools.
Story of creation and design features
Beginning in the late 80s, the submarine Project 955 was designed as a twin-shaft SSBN similar to his own design submarines Series 667 BDRM «Delfin» with reduced height mines ballistic missiles under the missile complex «Bark». For the project and was founded in 1996 with the submarine factory number 201. In 1998 it was decided to refuse from SLBM «Bark» in favor of the creation of the modern solid-fuel missile «Bulava» having other dimensions.
This decision led to the redesign of the submarine. Immediately, it became clear that the submarine will not be able to be built and put into operation within a reasonable time in the criteria for reductions in funding and the collapse of the USSR. Destruction of the USSR led to the cessation of the supply of specific brands of metal production Zaporozhye steelworks, which was on the terrain-independent Ukraine. With all of this in the design of boats was decided to use the groundwork for unfinished projects 949A submarines «Antey» and 971 «Pike-B.»
The movement of the submarine by means of water jet propulsion installation of a single shaft having propulsion properties.
Similarly, missile-carrying submarines of project 971 «Pike-B» newcomer submarine had retractable bow hydroplanes with flaps, and two reclining thrusters, which increased maneuverability. Submarines «Borey» project equipped rescue system — the quick rescue camera that can accommodate the entire crew of the submarine. Rescue the camera is in the rear of the hull SLBM launchers. In addition to missile submarines has 5 liferafts class KSU-600N-4.
Hull of the submarine project 955 «Borey» has a double-hulled design. Most likely, sturdy hull is made of steel up to 48 mm in width and indicators of yield strength 100 kgf / mm. Submarine hull assembly is done by the block method. Equipment inside the submarine set her body in depreciation blocks on special shock absorbers, which are part of a two-stage system obschekonstruktsionnoy depreciation. Any depreciation of the blocks is isolated from the hull of the submarine using rubber-pneumatic shock absorbers. Bow cabin enclosure PLA made with tilt forward, it is made to improve the flow.
Submarine hull is covered with special rubber coating protivogidroakusticheskim also in its design may use active noise reduction means. According to the words of AA Djachkov CEO CKB «Rubin, submarines of Project 955» Borey «Key 5 times lower noise level than PLA projects 949A» Antey «or 971» Pike-B. «
Sonar submarine represented CIM-600B «Irtysh-Amphora-Northwind» — a single automatic digital HOOK that connects voedinyzhdy inside himself SJC in its pure awareness (ehopelengovanie, shumopelengovanie, ordering purposes, the GA-link detection signals GA) and all hydroacoustic station so called «small acoustics» (sound velocity measurement, measuring ice thickness, mine-detector, detecting torpedoes search polynyas and leads). The implication is that the range of the complex acts outshine HOOK U.S. submarines «Virginia».
Installed on a submarine nuclear power plant (NPP), most likely with pressurized water reactor thermal neutrons or VM-5 is like with a capacity of about 190 MW. Reactor used control and protection system PPU — «Alioth». According to unconfirmed disk imaging on boats this project will install the latest generation of nuclear power facilities. For submarine motion activated single-shaft block steam turbine plant with the main unit turbozubchatym OK-9VM or similar for it with improved cushioning and a power of about 50 000 hp
To improve maneuverability submarine Project 955 «Borey» equipped with 2 dual-speed propeller thrusters motors PG-160, each rated at 410 hp (According to other data capacity of 370 hp). These electric motors are nominated columns aft submarine.
Main armament boats are solid ballistic missile R-30 «Bulava», made by the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology. Ship combat launch complex (KBSK) was created in SRC them. Makeev (Miass). On the first boat project 955 «Borey» will be located at 16 SLBMs «Bulava», boating project 955A their number will be increased to 20 units.
Also missiles boat has 8 nasal 533mm torpedo tubes (40 torpedoes largest ammunition, rocket-torpedoes or samotransportiruyuschihsya min). On the side of the boat can be used torpedoes USET-80 and UGST missiles PLRK «Waterfall». There is also a one-time non-rechargeable 6 533 mm launchers REPS-324 «Barrier» means to start sonar countermeasures, which are placed in the superstructure (similar to Project 971 boats). Ammunition — 6 self-propelled devices sonar countermeasures: MG-104 «Throw» or MG-114 «Beryl».
As of May 2011, it was clear that since the 4th Corps submarines of Project 955 «Borey» (conditional Ave 09554), will change the shape of the hull, which would be closer to what was intended at first canonized submarines. Perhaps data boats will be built without the use of reserve, which remained from the SSNs of Project 971. SSBNs in the nose compartment planned to abandon double-hulled. Together with nasal antennas SJC «Irtysh-Amphora» will be used lingering housing antenna HOOK. Torpedo plans to move closer to the center of the body and make them airborne. Wheel depth rudders are going to move on logging. Number of silos to be increased to 20, with decreasing size add-permeable near the mines. Undergo a facelift and power plant that will be unified with the other submarines of the 4th generation.
Crew — 107 people (including 55 officers);
Length big -170 m;
Large width — 13.5 m;
Draft housing average — 10 m;
Displacement underwater — 24 000 tonnes;
Overwater Displacement — 14,720 tons;
Submerged speed — 29 knots;
Speed surface speed — 15 knots;
Diving depth limit -480 m;
Immersion depth work — 400 m;
Endurance — 90 days;
Armament — 16 PU missiles R-30 «Bulava», boating Project 955A — 20PU, 8h533 torpedo