On the Protestant and Russian spirit — an interview with Natalia Narochnitskaya

— The famous TV host Vladimir Pozner said in an interview with "Kaluga crossroads", the main problem and the brake on the development of Russia — is Orthodoxy. How would you comment on this statement?

— I can cite an episode from the history of the XIX century. In the archives of a document — a denunciation of the informant, who requested to follow the populist involved Bund propaganda among the peasants. Populist said the man, pointing to the estate, "Take the ax, and tomorrow everything will be yours." An illiterate man who knows the Scriptures and Psalms, stroking his beard, he replied: "Tomorrow — is understandable. And what will happen the day after tomorrow? If I transgress the law of God and man tomorrow, and created such that is stopping you do the day after tomorrow is the same with me? "- That's the role of unwritten moral rules and commandments — this is not barbarism, and better than any rule of law. Woe to the state in which a person does not commit an offense only because of the fear of criminal punishment.

It is unfortunate that one of the most educated, intelligent, well-bred authors on television as Vladimir Vladimirovich Pozner dedicates his performances to attacks on the very foundations of Russian life but still Pushkin gave a sarcastic judgment about the irrational contempt for their own homeland Russian liberal:

You educate your mind illuminated,
You saw the face of pure truth,
And tenderly embraced by the people he loved,
And wise to his hated …

— But Posner compared the "welfare" of the Orthodox countries: Russia, Greece and Bulgaria — with Protestant, particularly Scandinavian, and concluded that it was Christianity — the cause of Russian backwardness.

— Historically incorrect to do something to impute Greece and Bulgaria, which for 400 years had been under a terrible Turkish yoke. In Europe, there was the industrial revolution, created by universities, science, built roads and factories. And these accidents were under the terrible scourge of oppressors. However, just one and a half century, they basically all compensated and built a fundamentally different level of society and life, though not conquered colonies and were not wars of conquest, like all Protestant nations of the West. But remember that before the conquest by the Turks is sparkling with gold Porphyry Byzantium was a cultural metropolis of the world, and the West — his backyard. There are memories of Anne Comnenus — the daughter of the Byzantine emperor, where she describes the invasion of the Crusaders about as sophisticated European-educated intellectual, would describe the invasion of Paris in the XIX century American cowboys. Kiev until the Mongol massacre was one of the most flourishing and the wealthiest and most developed cities in the whole of Europe, second only to Italian. The daughter of Yaroslav the Wise, Princess Anne, married to the King of France, to the end of his days at the French court remained the only person who knew how to read and write — she could read and write in Greek and Slavonic, and sign it in Latin: Anna, and her husband put a cross !

However, it is useless to take the path of controversy on the facts with such authors as Pozner, U.Laker, A.Yanov, R.Payps — American specialist in Russian and teaches its kitsch version of Russian history at Harvard — the forge of the American political elite. Although it would be easy to catch them, not only in the stretch, but in conscious fraud. It is useless on the documents to prove that the reign of Ivan the Terrible was ruined by people several times less than in a massacre of St. Bartholomew, and Henry VIII beheaded and tortured his opponents far more than the Russian monster, or to show that over the centuries in the "despotic" Russia made only a few dozen of the death penalty, while in German cities by the end of XVIII century were burned on charges of witchcraft to a hundred thousand women. Equally pointless to indicate that the sins of the truly great Russian to the same extent not peculiar to them alone, but too many other nations, especially Western Europeans.

— But Posner was not talking about sin. He even said that the problem is not Russia in the cold and the roads, and in more serious things! Vladimir Posner believes that the entire Russian historical path was incorrect.

— This is what I have done for a long time confirms the conclusion that the object of violent rejection of the authors — not the sins of Russia, for which we are her spit, and its ideals — do not drop it, and its achievements.

Most of these authors irritate indestructible greatness of Russia and forever independent search of the universal meaning of life, amazing ability to stand trial. They are looking for answers in Russian history and reject her because she gives the answer, "devastating for the logic of liberals," that is proof that Russia is not a failure of the universal (Western) history, and powerful alternative to it, and is not doomed.

To abandon its path, it is necessary to convince her to nihilism own stories.

— But all the same praise to the civilization, wealth and culture of Western countries have soil. They were the subject of role models for many in Russia. Is something to emulate?

— We must not hit the hedonistic attitude — the idea of life as a source of pleasure, and to work as a Christian duty to God and man, as the highest calling of man, that was lost in the God-fighting period, but was deeply osoznavaemo in Orthodox Russia.

But historically completely incorrect to ascribe to Protestantism in general culture. Initially, for example, Calvinism generally prohibited under pain of death, all the manifestations of culture, dance, music, writing of any kind. Contrary to the dictates of the culture continued.

Protestant countries did not showed to the world in general no particular cultural achievements — they showed to the Roman-Germanic spirit of the Catholic and the Orthodox Russia, not the Enlightenment and the Reformation. In culture, recognized leaders in Western Europe are — the Germans, the Italians, the French and Shakespeare — a Catholic. By the way, his wife, Anna, was a puritan and has always been terribly unhappy with his addiction to "empty the fun" — writing, and that was the reason for his move to London, it appears in textbooks. In a work of "King Lear" predicted the degeneration of the Christian spirit — Cordelia, who loved her father "as duty calls," dies: moral obligation is measured and converted into a bill.

The Enlightenment and the Reformation gave birth to is not a culture, and the lender — chief gravedigger of all European culture and Basher of all the great spiritual traditions of humanity and kulturnyzh. His offspring — the characters of Zola, not heroes Schiller.

— Our citizens now seem not interested in culture and the well-being and security, criminalization. In Protestant countries, Scandinavia really high standard of living and are believed to be less crime?

— Russia built the industry and the city in latitudes where even in Canada, no one lives. We have a distance between the centers of 5-10 times longer heating season — 8 months, Agricultural — 5.4 months versus 8.7 in Europe, and the depth of foundation for any building due to freezing 3-5 times deeper than this not just a "success" — is a feat. Protestants would not do that — they would forge plowshares into swords, and went to conquer the other, which they did. It is typical of Protestant countries especially scornful attitude to the natives — apartheid South Africa launched the French and Dutch Huguenots — Calvinists. American Puritans destroyed the Indians is not even in the making of their society, and in its heyday — in the middle of the XIX century.

As for the well-being, the Russian, of course, would be much better off if over four centuries expanding powers appropriated to themselves and the land and labor of the merging of nations. Russia, rsshirivshayasya 22 million square meters. km from the Bug to the Pacific Ocean did not withdraw a single square meter of land from local owners and do not give it to any Russian peasant or aristocrat. The British were driven into the middle of the XIX century, with the Irish land and about 2 million died of hunger. This tragedy is still evident in the Irish hatred for the British. With regard to the habits of the British in India, it is possible to lead a German eyewitness notes the "civilizing mission of the Anglo-Saxon race":

"The railways of India, there are cars for black and for white boy … an Englishman, sitting at a small station in the car and drove to it at least a native of Rajas can push him away with them in the neck with all things ..".

"One day, one of Lord at a dinner party attended by the son of the local rajah, European-educated young man, who fell on the protocol to the table to accompany the spouse of one of the absent English officer …. When he offered her his arm, the latter gave him contemptuously from head to foot, and, turning her back to him rudely and loudly declared his surprise that she was invited here then to insult, giving her a dirty Indian gentlemen … and defiantly came to protest … against this uncivilized antics proud albionki and put out of an awkward situation Raja, my lady … the colonel's wife, with my consent, went to Raja, offered his hand and walked with her dark knight in the dining hall … ".

Not mentorstvovat them.

In the Scandinavian countries really less crime, in particular domestic theft. But in Sweden does not deter crime freedoms and democracy, and the brutal repression that never dreamed of Russia. There for centuries for stealing bread chopped off hand. After such time really stop people hang locks on the gates. In Russia the most greedy shopkeeper would have fallen to his knees and cried out for mercy would be thieves who had stolen bread!

In these countries, the Protestant rationalism is so great that economic crimes are always punished more severely of all, because the property — this is for them holy. But in the area of morality is the opposite. This is where the sin is not even considered a sin! — Denmark has legalized same-sex marriage with a resolution to adopt children! In Sweden in the 60-70s in teacher teams discussed the problem — to arrange a special room in the schools for teens at least withdrew, and not indulge in amorous pleasures right in the corridors in front of everyone! In Finland, something better, but there is, among other things, the law of God is taught and Christianity — the state religion.

Sweden, Denmark, — a completely impersonal rational society, where moderation and accuracy — the main features. The Dutch have even an anecdote about themselves: "If you see how the balconies laundered dried toilet paper — know this: you're in Holland."

— You have lived for many years in America, which has become the idol of our Westerners. She loves and Posner. What kind of impression you left out?

— Americans in general and in person — very friendly and friendly, very simple-minded. America — the embodiment of the Protestant spirit of liberalism and to clean the board, it is like a clone of a shopkeeper, artificially torn from a multi-faceted environment where other than "tretesosolovnyh ideals" was still an aristocracy, with its "honor more than life!" And fundamentalist foundations of the people. Let us recall the folklore! In fairy tales of all the peoples of the world heroic acts committed either a king or a peasant's son — both for different reasons not related to the objective of increasing ownership. And in all fairy tales have the character — the shopkeeper or changed in the East. His image is filled with scorn content, although he did not commit any crime, but can not act on a high, wide gesture — mercy, pity, compassion. It is ready to use any situation to his advantage. This embodiment is an ideal tretesoslovnyh America. But it is a civilization without culture as a product of the spirit.

The German philosopher Werner Sombart described with sarcasm American ideal, embodied in the "Autobiography" by Benjamin Franklin. Americans have Sombart represent capitalist spirit "in its highest yet finished": "primacy of acquisition of interests … unconditional, unlimited, ruthless profiteering — the greatest economic rationalism". Franklin made a "register of virtues" — every day he divided the page into two parts and in a column recorded the smallest expenses and income, as well as their good and bad posutpki. In the evening, he summed up — "Today I was a good man! Just remember the parable of the Publican and the Pharisee!

Debt, which we find in the incarnate Puritan Benjamin Franklin, is reduced to such virtues as "not overeat", "hoard" or "pray to Almighty God to bestow even greater success and wealth." But this is not a Christian asceticism, like Franklin's judgment: "A man to whom God hath given riches and soul to use it correctly, received this special and excellent sign of grace."

— There is a book by a French author — Alexis de Tocqueville, who visited America in the XVIII century. She is considered the anthem of American democracy — as ideal for everyone in the future.

— In his book "Democracy in America," Alexis de Tocqueville noted with sadness that the future — for the middle classes with their mundane ideals. He predicted the fate of nations that went the American way — to a streamlined exterior and spiritual freedom-dimensionality. No paradox in the fact that at the same time, he acknowledged an enviable rationality with which American laws and "democracy" serve the needs of the American nation. From the book it is clear that Tocqueville assess these needs and ideals as a whole tretesoslovnye, its earthiness makes him extremely skeptical about the spiritual horizon of "democratic nations."

But he wrote about the primitive mind, that in America there is no freedom of the Spirit and therefore there will never be great literature, which is not important for the freedom of the outer and inner freedom is important! Tocqueville predicted by the example of America, sadly the unification of mankind, the loss of spiritual search. Primitive idea of the universe — it throws an American trait — something on the level of 12-year-old. As for culture, America — the undisputed leader in the cultural "mental debilitation" of humanity, there is no need for the two entertainment forty years the father and ten year old son — one of Mickey Mouse and Clint Eastwood will satisfy both.

Alexis de Tocqueville predicted a "degeneration of personality" and the loss of the stimulus to its growth, threatening a "democratic America" because it is grown out of the Anglo-Saxon third estate, and those who follow her path. Before his eyes in the future were "innumerable crowd of equal and similar to each other people who spend their lives in a relentless search for small and vulgar pleasures that fill their souls."

By the way, Tocqueville very astutely realized that "democracy" will produce "individualism" and the atomization of society. In contrast to the "self-interest — ancient as the hills, vice" of individuals, he treats individualism as the phenomenon of social psychology, which encourages "isolated from the neighbor" and amid proclamations about the happiness of all mankind "stop worrying about the society as a whole." "Over all these crowds towering giant watchdog authority, providing all the pleasures and tracking the fate of everyone in the crowd," this government is committed to ensuring that "keep people in their infancy." She is willing to work for the common good, but it wants to be the only authorized and arbitrator. "Why would she do not deprive them of their restless need to think and live in this world?" What is not a prophecy of the death of culture and spiritual totalitarianism? De Tocqueville here foreshadows not only Oswald Spengler and his "Decline of the West", but also by Aldous Huxley («This brave new world»).

— What is the difference between the Protestant spirit of the Russian Orthodox?

— In the moral aims of life beyond Earth. Protestantism — A departure from the New Testament — the Old. It is a product of heresy chiliasm and philosophy of progress — in contrast to the ideas of salvation and the kingdom of God quest. Wrote about this Russian philosophers V.Lossky, Karsavin that does not mean sinless. Berdyaev emphasized that "the Russian idea" — is not the idea of cultural splendor and powerful kingdoms, and there is an eschatological idea of the Kingdom of God. It is expressed by the way, laconically St. Seraphim of Sarov — the acquisition of the Holy Spirit in themselves.

A characteristic feature of the Russian consciousness, and from the peasant to the aristocrat, is contempt for the so-called narrow-mindedness as the embodiment of the petty-bourgeois virtues, including both the entrepreneurial spirit and "petty bourgeois" ideal medium stable prosperity and comfort. Russian instinctively rejects and despises the "moderation and accuracy" as a feature of the "collective mediocrity and degradation of any strong individuality."

This attitude is equally characteristic of both the militant pro-Western liberals like Gertsen and V.Belinskogo and for their opposites — Slavophiles and traditionalists and thinkers such as F. Dostoevsky and Tolstoy both. Also noteworthy is that after seventy-five years of purposeful development of the "new", that is, a single person in sociology still lacks the term "average Russian," because it does not exist. But the average American — it is firmly established concept in sociology.

At the time, Konstantin Leontiev warned of disastrous "universal" culture by naming one of his texts: "The average European as an ideal and universal instrument of destruction." While Western man has rebelled against himself desakralizatsii, landing Spirit and "brutish materialism", which manifested itself in periodic bouts of heroism and romanticism in philosophy, literature and art. Let us remember Schiller, Edmond Rostand Cyrano with his, who called the eternal quest for the ideal. Today, the "average American", claiming his lips leaders to offer universal human "post-Christian" civilization, becomes an instrument of destruction of a once-great European culture.

Weber — the classic theory of Protestantism as the basis of modern capitalism, recognized, by the way, that the ethics of Protestantism in relation to employment and wealth — the opposite of the Sermon on himself skeptical of Christianity. He recognized that the Protestant ethic — a departure from the Commandments, but it is welcomed, considering the Sermon incompatible with worldly activities.

The supreme goal of the State dorm for Westerners — is fostering "zapoluchat just as possible: power, wealth," — wrote D.Homyakov — son Alexei Stepanovich Homjakova. Ivan Ilyin, mentioning how the French could not understand why the Russian Moscow burned his own, so she did not get a conqueror, writes: "Russia defeated Napoleon is this perfect inner freedom … anywhere people do not give up so easily … creature comforts for a higher purpose, nowhere so definitely do not forget the losses and damages, as in Russian. "

Quite the opposite conclusion was Alexis de Tocqueville on the "Protestant democratic countries", organized by tretesoslovnyh ideals, so alien to the Russian national character: "No class does not detect such a persistent and tenacious sense of ownership as the middle class," for which "permanent care and daily efforts to increase their wealth, all tightly tied to their property. The thought of the possibility to give the smallest part of it is unbearable for them, and the total loss of the property they regard as the worst of misfortunes … No country in the world a sense of ownership shall not be so active, restless nature, both in the United States. "

— It seems that our atheist Westerners do not deny Russia for its sins, and for the very essence of its historical path, for what amounts to the values and goals of national life …

— Total nihilism against Russia and an ode to the "Western rationalism" confirm apt judgment of Ivan Ilyin such authors as "all their supporters reject Russia for the same thing, for which they reject Christianity: Russian despised them just for her Christian spirit — so feelingly vygovorenny Tyutchev … "(" These poor villages … "). Ilyin said that, as a rule, these authors are judged on Russia with Nietzsche's point of view, rejecting Christianity as a fable, and "Russia as a country of slaves who went after her hard in the desire to perpetuate despotism and barbarism."

All of their judgments — books A.Yanova, R.Paypsa, and U.Lakera penetrated by the deepest rejection of Christian "inventions", which alone could produce such a blind hatred of the historical path of Russia. For these authors, "Russia — a Slavic nothing hiding behind the teachings of the Apostle Paul on the election of grace, be of good comfort, along with slaves, outcasts and lepers of world history that is still de last shall be first."

Orthodox Russia with its values, and about which we are speaking in the program, for the liberal istmatchikov — the preaching of the eternal night, from which you want to save the whole world, firmly on the path of "progress." Judging by their views of progress — a rejection of all Christian concepts and categories. For them, we — those Russian that even after half a century materialist education are once again trying to revive these ideals are more dangerous than convinced of the Bolsheviks, and our ideal — it is a symbol of barbarism, which manifests itself in a persistent shameful indifference to the consumer society. Throughout history, people have always more religious are more spiritual and less concerned about the dispensation of the world's well-being and his constant rearrangements, as have the aspiration to spiritual horizon and built on this quest patriarchal way of life.

All this, according to our ideological opponents, just shows the "historic futility" "Russian civilization", which, in their opinion, is unable to "build" normal modern society. " But after all the criteria of normality and success may also vary along with the sense of historical existence. What kind of society "successful" — where lawns smoother and more goods, or where fewer people have lost the concept of sin, which is less than transsexuals and sodomites?

Greece, of course, could be economically successful if traded on Good Friday. But in this Orthodox country — in restaurants are closed on Good Friday, and not by decree, but by the owners, who can not imagine that you can enjoy your meal in a day! In America, I know and have seen: the Friday before Easter — it's a day off. And this is the biggest day of the year sales and price cuts on all household goods. And now, all of America that the Protestant Puritans built as a religious country — that America gets in the car and from 10 am to 10 pm "and saves buying, buying and saves» («Buy and save!») — Blankets, coats, utensils, appliances, furniture! His Majesty Pawnbroker triumphs. But in the resurrection of all go to church with the kids dressed up in patent leather shoes and lace hats …

— But why do they always worried about Russia? If she does not succeed, so insignificant, then why do not they forget about it?

— The fact of the matter is that the very fact of the continuing debate about the failure of Russia in all its endeavors to encourage a strained interpretations and distortions of history proves just the opposite — a very real competitive Russia, with both spiritual and material, otherwise it would be on a forgotten.

— And as Europeans themselves assess their own state in the field of culture?

— The great European intellectuals of late XIX — early XX century — the philosopher Spengler, Ferrero predicted the Decline of the West because of the loss of its spiritual mission. This was trumpeted by European intellectuals today's conservatives, linking this decline is to de-Christianization of the consciousness of Europeans. The interest in Orthodoxy among these circles — is huge. They believe that Russia has a chance to save and Europe. Of course, not smooth lawns, with this we are hopelessly behind, but the spiritual mission that Europe was moving at times when it is increasing and the world great powers and great culture.

2003 

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