Protective mechanisms of the psyche are used to eliminate or minimize the negative, traumatic experiences. These experiences can be linked to internal or external conflict, anxiety or discomfort. In the end, the action of the protective mechanisms aimed at preserving the stability of self-esteem of man, his understanding of himself and of the world image.
Repression — elimination of consciousness unacceptable impulses and emotions. This so-called "motivated forgetting." For example, a man who had a negative experience with someone, can not quite remember. However, the repressed memory of events continues to live in the unconscious, and periodically break "outside" in-jokes, reservations, etc.
Projection — unconscious attribution to others of their own repressed motives, traits and experiences. This protective mechanism is a consequence of repression. Due to the displacement of desire overwhelmed and driven back inside: but that they do not disappear and continue to exert their influence. Eliminate their desire — it is too painful, so they are projected onto others. For example, the granny-old maid will vehemently condemn the morals of the youth of today. But even more severe it will relate to her neighbor on the bench — the same old maid. Like, the character she is bad, no one's married and not picked up. The projection is directed at someone whose situation is similar to that projected. A person who operates a projection, is prone to indecent acts, although this is dishonesty in others, it is prone to envy, to search for negative reasons for the success of others.
Denial —the desire not to accept as reality itself undesirable events: the present and the distant past. For example, many panic fear of serious diseases. The man who runs the mechanism of denial, will not notice at the presence of overt symptoms of the disease. The mechanism of denial to ignore the manifestations of traumatic reality. The denial is common in family relationships, when one spouse completely ignores the existence of problems with a partner.
Rationalization — finding acceptable reasons and explanations for unacceptable thoughts or actions. The rational explanation as a defense mechanism aimed at reduction of tension in experiencing internal conflict. The simplest example of rationalization can serve as exculpatory explanation student who has received a two. To admit that his own fault, not finished learning a lesson — too painful for self-esteem. Therefore the student explains his failure bad mood teacher.
Sublimation — is the most common protective mechanism when we trying to forget the traumatic event (experience), switch to different types of activities that are acceptable to us and the community. A kind of sublimation can be a sport, intellectual work and creativity.
Regression — return to a more primitive way of emotional or behavioral responses that were a person at an earlier age. For example, to inflate the lips, turn away and say nothing all day.
Reactive Education — The behavior, the opposite desired effect. Classic example — the teenage boy's "courtship" for girls, which are reduced to the fact that more painfully hit, pull the braid, etc. This is due to the fact that among teenagers tenderness is perceived as something shameful. So the boys are trying to reduce their expression of feelings into action, according to them, is completely the opposite courtship.
In order to resolve the internal conflict a person usually uses several defense mechanisms. But they all serve the same purpose: to preserve the integrity of the ideas about themselves and the world.