Today, one of the priorities of the anti-Russian propaganda in the territories west of Smolensk — to turn the 150th anniversary of the Polish uprising in 1863 in the symbol of the Polish-Lithuanian-Belarusian union on the basis of Russo-phobia. A kind of ideological bogey, which should serve as an identification with the current Russian "accursed tsarist government." And not so much in pro-Polish as anti-Russian way. This is done in a Jesuit, with characteristic reticence and omissions of the truth about the events that even contemporaries called "bloody zilch" …
Lithuania. In May of this year, the Lithuanian parliament declared 2013 the Year of the 1863 uprising against the Russian Empire. It is planned to issue commemorative coins and stamps, documentary, informational television programs, etc. In an official statement said the "January Uprising tie together the fate of three nations — Poles, Belarusians and Lithuanians, and it showed them the direction of development …". "We need to cherish the memory of the uprising," — said the initiator of this idea Lithuanian Foreign Minister Audronius Azubalis at the opening of a memorial plaque on the events in 1863 in the Vilnius Museum of Applied Arts.
Such statements do not indicate a cherished memory, and the historical amnesia of the authorities of Lithuania. Lithuanian national formation was only possible thanks to pacify the rebellious in January 1863 the Polish gentry. But not vice versa. This fact is acknowledged and the U.S. government, considered the rebellion as an attempt to restore serfdom aristocrats and fully supported the then Russian authorities.
The formation of Lithuanian intellectuals and national identity have contributed: 1) application Governor-General of the North-Western Territory M.N.Muraveva-Vilna, which the liberals as a thank you label of "hangman", 2) promoting Russian intelligentsia, with which many of the "mladolitovtsy "became well-known figures of Lithuanian culture and art (for example, M.Chyurlenis, at first not knowing the word for" mother tongue "and received his art education and international fame in St. Petersburg).
August 25, 1866 issued a decree of Alexander II, which guaranteed the Lithuanian language (then it was called zhmudskim) official status in schools and other so-called Suwalki Lithuanian territory. The aim — to bring local people from the influence of polschizny. First of all, it was established elementary education for children of farmers. Throughout the school began working with training in Lithuanian. Were organized by the Lithuanian Gymnasium in Mariampil, permanent teacher's workshop in the waiver. Has also established a number of scholarships to Russian universities, designed specifically for the children of peasants of the Lithuanian provinces.
At the same time, many young people from wealthy families, including Y.Basanavichyusa, A.Smetonu and other future founders of the Lithuanian state, set off for the college education of the Russian Empire. He studied at Moscow University and author of "Grammar of the Lithuanian Language" Y.Yablonskis. This language was first normalized them with the help of a professor of the University of Perm K.Buga in 1901, thanks to the introduction of the original based on the Latin alphabet. Printed books on it began to be published since 1904. Until then prints the Lithuanian language (which is on the ground, in the outback, cultured Catholic priests, for example, who was educated at the St. Petersburg Theological Academy A. Baranauskas) came out in the Cyrillic alphabet.
So it was defeated in 1865 by the Polish insurgents gave both political and cultural impetus to the formation of modern Lithuanian nation.
Belarus. Following the Lithuanians Belarusian pro-Western "opposition" created on June 22 this year in Minsk, "the organizing committee for the celebration of the Year of Kalinowski." According to them, "Kalinowski with relevant work may be a brand of Belarus, Belarusian as Che Guevara" and "Year Kalinowski may become international." The figure of the hero is selected suitable: a mentally ill young man, a native of Poland, who after a failed (due to illness) attempts to make a career in the Ministry of State Property of the Russian Empire rushed headlong to "make revolution" in the hopes of becoming the "King of Lithuania." And he made his motto "the Polish business is our business, this is the cause of liberty."
Plans for Belarusian committee-hulk: conferences, publication of a collection of documents, art exhibitions, plein air, painting competitions and literary works of young authors, etc. etc. As they say, if only to sponsors abroad and in the power of isolated penendzy. The organizers believe: "Year Kalinowski will allow us to find points of collaboration. If we can not agree with the government on political moments, we will be able to cultural. " This is not a baseless assertion. For the Ministry of Culture, which is now headed by an extremely indifferent to the whole Polish officials, RB budget for 2013 provided for a 5 times more than for the Ministry of Industry (980 and 193 billion, respectively)!
Events began in the fall of 2012 (it is planned that they will be held and throughout 2013) with festive readings in Grodno, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the release of the first issue of "Muzhytskay praўdy", which was printed in Latin letters ostensibly to "Grodno dialect of the Belarusian language" in Poland and Vilnius. The fact that all seven rooms of this publication does not mention Belarus, Belarusians, Lithuanians, or at least one root of words, but the Poles say almost every column, the organizers modestly concealed.
Just as they are silent about the fact that forcing farmers to sign a paper to support the uprising, "lords Halyavskie" hang or cut out those who refused to do so. Often with their families. Even so, the Belarusian peasants in revolt "took part" of less than 20%. Kalinowski in this regard stated: "Axe insurgent should not stop even on the baby crib!" Words with the case. Polish "equipped by Dagger" (killed and loyal oath of their own countrymen, Poles, stab in the back) was destroyed about 20 times more people (in total — more than 2,000 farmers, village officials, policemen and civilians, including teenage girls) What then executed rebels (128 hung on verdicts of courts). Gangs, which are often led by Catholic priests, people's eyes gouged out, pulled out of the joint hands and feet "in order to continue to be able to fulfill its duty as" nailed to his chest nails Russian passports, were buried alive in the ground, teachers and officials cut on his stomach "Andrew's flag" or "uniform", which "buttons" buttons of the bureaucratic corps, farmers stripped from his head scalped, accompanying notes this "squashed his bear polish for sympathy and poslug Russian bears." That is why the peasants began to create self-defense units.
All this does not stop today some descendants of these unfortunate erect monuments "heroes Kalinouski" doing, in fact, cultivating and perpetuating their own provincialism. And at the same time destroy the memory of the past, even tidying the church archives. Belarusian scientists are exploring the rebellion, working in the National Historical Archives of Belarus, bitterly state: "irretrievably lost a number of cases, which were kept in the fund once the Minsk Theological Consistory (Fund 136). Since the fund no matter: "On the murder of Polish insurgents Bogushevichskoy church priest Daniel Konopasevicha and the provision of family allowances it» (№ 51622 for old inventory), "On subscription to the content of the monument over the grave of martyred Polish priest Daniel Konopasevicha in Bogushevich» (№ 53475 on the old. op.), "On metrics Alex and Ludmila Konopasevichey and the record of the Reverend Daniel Konopasevicha (№ 53837 on the old. op.). Along with the murder of the father of Daniel missing the point "about the murder of the Polish rebels Svyatovolskoy church deacon Theodore Yuzefovich» (№ 51648 on the old. Op.). When and under what circumstances, have disappeared from the fund these works, and whether their disappearance an accident, it is difficult to say. But the fact remains that "(quoted in Goldfinches G.E.1863 th. Forgotten pages. — Mn.: The Fellowship in honor of St. Michael the Archangel in Minsk, Belarus Minsk diocese of the Orthodox Church in 2005. — P.4-5 ).
The corrected so the Belarusian-Westerners russophobes historical truth distributed online, spilling outside Belarus. Thus, the pseudo-myths, until recently, even popularized the online MGIMO, where one of the authors assured readers: "The Belarusian government was abolished at the end of the XVIII century … There is no" reunification "of Belarus and Russia was not. There has been a force-connection, in which the Belarusian territory was ceded to Russia and our people more than a hundred years of statehood did not have … There were incessant revolts, conspiracies and rebellions against the Russian government, the main organizers and participants were nobles (Tadeusz Kosciuszko, Jakub Jasinski, Stefan Grabowski, Tomasz Volzhetsky, Michal Valovich, caste Kalinowski and others) … Vincent Constantine Kalinowski (1838-1864) — our national hero, one of the leaders of the uprising of 1863-1864, entered the illegal group, united future fighters for freedom of our country … Before his death, he was able to send through prison bars "List from the gallows" — his spiritual testament, in which he expressed confidence that "all bets are tolkі, narodze, zazhyvesh shchaslіva, kalі over taboyu Meskal ўzho Budza nya."
Poland. August 3rd Polish Senate, led by Marshal Borusewicz adopted the so-called The praise, declaring the year 2013 the Year of the January Uprising (Uchwala Senatu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej ustanawiajaca rok 2013 Rokiem Powstania Styczniowego), the purpose of which, according to the senators was "restitution (restoration of borders. — VV) Commonwealth of both nations» (restytucja Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodow). The initiators of the document are considered representatives of the conservative-clerical (now considered the opposition) party "Law and Justice" ("IPR"), the former prime minister Ya.Kachinskogo, noting Russophobic initiatives still in the innings of his brother, President Lech Kaczynski.
The opposition skillfully used the initiative against the ruling party "Civic Platform" ("GP") Premier Donald Tusk. While associates premiere try, whenever possible, to distance themselves from hard attacks against Russia, typical for the post-Soviet government of Poland, the opposition plays Russophobian strings in the hearts of the Polish electorate and criticizes the "pro-Moscow liberals" for the lack of intensity of patriotism.
However, the ruling party, to the extent possible, operates theme of "Russian imperialism" 150 years ago "were not able to cope with the gushing patriotism Polish soul» (nie potrafili sobie poradzic z eksplodujaca patriotyzmem polska dusza) because Yu.Pilsudsky, the creator of Second Commonwealth, which has absorbed pieces of Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine, after more than half a century after the events of 1863, these territories are considered the "cornerstone of independence."
If the party "Law and Justice" uses the myth of the "patriotic dedication and sacrifice Gentry," the 150-year-old in the domestic political aspect, the "Civic Platform", which has a majority in the Polish Senate, does it primarily for external use. First of all — for the pro-Western Ukrainian and Belarusian opposition activists and politicized young people, who for several years lured to Poland by the scholarship program named Kalinouski. About letters rebellious nobles to Emperor Alexander II with the requirements attached to Poland to Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine in these courses, of course, do not say anything …
As well as not talking about the real heroes. Just one example. In mid-August 1863 a detachment under the command of 25-year-old seat of the captain of the Life Guards Grodno Hussars (acquire, mainly aristocrats natives lands of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Alexandra Grabbe in the amount of 42 people (Hussars, the Don Cossacks and linear) drove a gang of several hundred rebels to terrorize the local population. Ulepetyvashih in the whole spirit of the insurgency led by the Pan Bentkovskim caught near the village Sendzeevitse (Sedziejowice), which lodged another band — Pan Tachanovskogo. The combined forces of the rebels were more than 1,200 cavalrymen and 400 infantrymen more — to just 2,000. Instantly emboldened, they surrounded the small group of pursuers, promising to "fellow nobleman" life for the issuance of the Cossacks and over to their side. Those in the answer … attacked a 40-fold greater than the enemy. The unequal battle lasted several hours. Almost all of the Cossacks and hussars, rubivshiesya could squeeze his hand until the blade, died, survived only 4 wounded man.
In addition to this "victory" of the Poles, all the while hoping for the military intervention by Britain and France, have not taken any of the city and not won a single victory in direct engagements. Actually, and as such encounters were few. A key role in the suppression of the rebellion played a hussar swords and Cossacks, and the fiery word M.N.Katkova quickly defuse the tense atmosphere of pro-Polish sentiments of the "liberal-progressive" society in the Russian capital. So probably for good reason, in October 2012 the Commission for Culture of the Sejm (Komisja Kultury Sejmu RP) expressed its attitude to the Senate praise, declaring the year 2013 the Year of Rebellion: The celebration of such anniversaries in Poland — is "masochistyczne katowanie sie porazkami" (masochistic torment lesions ).
PETITION VK KALINOVSKIY to the rector of the St. Petersburg UNIVERSITY PA Pletnev About CASH AID in treating mental illness
A few years ago I suffered a disease like epilepsy. I resorted to many doctors, but no profit, and finally turned to Mr. Zdekauru, on the advice of my health is at least a little bit and it got better, but because I could not think of the poor to perform all the conditions prescribed by Mr. Zdekaurom, that my illness was not completely healed. But now, the 5th of this month, as can be seen from the development of that same disease again returned. Stripped of all means to use myself, I have the honor to request Your Excellency to appoint me as a last resort at 30 rubles. on my recovery.
October 14th day of 1859.
Cit. by: Kalіnoўskі K. For our volnasts. Express Yourself, dakumenty / order., Pradm., Paslyasl. i kament. G. Kіsyaleva — Mn.: "Belarusian knіgazbor", 1999. — S. 83.
Note: Epilepsy (epilepsy) — a chronic disease of the human brain, is characterized mainly by recurrent seizures, as well as the gradual development of the personality changes.
SECRET GUIDE THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE WARSAW major revolution. COMMITTEE IN LONDON, ON WAYS OF REFERENCE OF ARMED UPRISING
The Provisional Government must immediately forward to all the provincial proclamation to the peasants in the local languages:
1. A full release from their land without compensation.
2. On termination of the payment of taxes to the treasury.
3. Of every family should have one hunter per 10-g, 1 horse and cart. Forage and provisions for 5 people from 3 to 7 days.
4. Proclamation to the dissenters: that they took advantage of the uprising in Poland to restore the ancient religion.
Emissaries who received the appointment of anger dissenters should enter into relations with the (parish) scribes, priests in monasteries and, in general, with the chiefs of Old Believer villages. Costume emissaries should not differ from the peasant. They have to be middle-aged, with beards and know well the language and terrain. For the development of this plan to be sent out an appeal to the Russian youth on all educational institutions. Expressing his holiness the case, you need to open all the means and the ways in which young people can achieve the goal. From good presentation will depend on the success. For more action, proclamations may have a signature Herzen, Bakunin, etc.
Proclamation to the troops are urgently needed, especially to the officers.
that Constantine Pavlovich alive, that the revolution he wants to return the stolen throne that France, England and Sweden go to war, that the Emperor had promised to re-tighten the landowners and the peasants do not give them the never land
that will force all raznovertsev lead to Orthodoxy, or exile to the Caucasus, in St. Petersburg make preparations for the flight Imperial Surname and all the wealth went abroad that the Guard has matured conspiracy, etc.
To use all possible means to perturb the peasants and splitters.
All the Don and Ural Cossacks — schismatics, so among them throw the first seeds of hatred towards Orthodoxy.
On the whole of cast priests and burn Russian church, keeping the chapel.
In the Russian districts cause murder landowners and rural police officers.
To act in place of factory, crush garrisons, prisons — to destroy records, court room, and all the signs of power.
Try to form a horse forces in partisan — it is essential for the movement.
Purveyance carry in bags, avoiding cities, held in the villages. Do not have the carts, when following the supply train is difficult to make the retreat.
Retreating to spoil the road, tearing bridges, topple trees. When you follow the artillery to file piles of bridges, to make the hole. Day and night the enemy bore false alarms, for it to have two groups: day and night. During the rest of the first, second acts.
All attacks must be off guard and mostly at night, so that the enemies were not known to our forces.
Patrols and pickets should be awake during the holidays.
In the Bialowieza forest arrange center of the army (the guerrillas). Abounding in those woods bison may serve as food. All Poles, and officers and soldiers serving in the Russian army, to call for a revolution, under the curse of fear and alienation. Force parents to cause their children to the service. In all the cities to establish a secret police.
In the villages of capable people, even as children of landowners to take power in the squad. Squad, trained and acquired experience, divided into small bands of 50 to 100 people and sent at different points, each band, taking in turn, capable people can thus increase.
The signals given whistles. In guerrilla warfare important to know the power of the enemy, hiding their own.
Battles take in an advantageous position. Avoid decisive battles, destroy small units, delaying transport, mail and couriers. Wells in the fields of cover boards and fill with sand or turf that they failed.
During the heat of summer road which follows the enemy squad, sprinkle poison (a list of these substances reported to the Committee), raised dust gets into your eyes and respiratory system, causing dangerous diseases. Vodka, diluted acid, have not only in the units, but also in the estates that during the robbery were poisoned by it. Thumbs up and apply it to the food supplies.
Weaned guns for lack of a harness nail down and thrown into a swamp or river.
On mail traffic during the pursuit of the cavalry stretching from tree to tree with a rope or wire telegraph lines, but above the horse's head to drop riders.
Invert every effort to lure Jews to the revolution. All serfs have to join the ranks of the insurgents.
Villages, where the peasants are seen in adultery, betray the flame.
On the railways station attack, destroying the first telegraph.
Gang operating in the vicinity of cities should be in constant communication with each other, so that, if necessary, to concentrate power in the far point.
In the case of a Russian attack, we must have a hidden squad: while one half of the fight, the other, making the rounds, attacking from behind, in order to put the enemy between two fires.
In the case of a close attack on bayonets, shoot shot, chopped tin, in extreme cases, even small stones.
In the cities of broken glass bottles on the streets, and the board in the form of chips, armed with nails on the roads hamper pursuit of the cavalry.
In each county seat should be arranged department of the Central Committee of the most dedicated individuals. The police and other authorities should be at its full disposal. Duties of the office include:
1. Collect cash indemnity to the city and county.
2. Verbovanie hunters, their equipment, as well Procurement of arms and provisions.
3. Police surveillance, a report on the status of forces and movements.
4. Destruction of spies and police.
5. The tradition of judicial fire places.
6. The publication of written or printed leaflets.
7. Intercourse with the insurgents and supervision of the wounded and sick.
For device specific telegraphs between citizens and the insurgents could be invented signals that are understandable to them and do not know Russian. For example, during the liturgy secretly were church bells ringing of a bell, chimney sweeps on high buildings, lighting famous windows or complete darkness, kite, etc.
Cit. by: Archival materials Muraviovka museum relating to the Polish uprising of 1863-1864, within the limits of the North-Western Territory … Part 2. Vilna, 1915. With .430-432.