Short periods of Polish independence costly to its neighbors

In the East, we are fighting a war in the name of order

To understand how the day of September 17, 1939 is significant for every Belarusian, who loves their country, it is necessary to recall the circumstances of the appearance on the map of Europe, the second of the Commonwealth. As soon as it appeared the state, the Polish dictator Jozef Pilsudski attacked ravaged by civil war and the intervention of Soviet Russia, snip off the east part of its territory — Western Ukraine, Western Byelorussia, parts of Lithuania.

Not satisfied with grips on the east and gifts of the Versailles Treaty, Poland and was active in the West — in the territories of the German population … By organizing riots in Upper Silesia, the Polish and occupied it. Together with Katowice. Then Poland captured in Galicia, Austria, and later, in 1930, added to their acquisitions and pieces of Czechoslovakia, which she shared with the Nazis. All of these "feats" It was not difficult to make, as Russia and Germany were defeated by their own revolutions, and Austria-Hungary, with the blessing of Britain, dismembered winners.

August 17, 1920 in Minsk began the Soviet-Polish negotiations, and Pilsudski secretly diet prepared and made another seizure of the Lithuanian territory. October 9 of the same year, the troops of General Pilsudski associate L.Zheligovskogo were within Lithuania (particularly marked — a non-Soviet), and capturing and Wilno Wilno area, declared it "the median Lithuania", which immediately and annexed to Poland.

All attempts to regain the League of Nations Lithuania land occupied Poland were not successful. And the more empty sound was a protest of the Soviet government, and sought at the time in the world to Poland. The day before the signing of the Treaty of Riga, all Polish diplomatic missions abroad have received specific instructions: "We must continue to support the hostile elements of Soviet Russia, as Russian and Ukrainian, Belarusian and Caucasian. Our interests in the East do not end on the line of our borders … We are not indifferent to the fate of the historic lands of the Commonwealth, separated from us by the future Riga Treaty. "

March 18, 1921 the contract was signed, and Poland has become almost an empire in which the Poles made up only 65% of the total population. Incidentally, while Poland had one of the largest armies in Europe: 700 million people, with 14 thousand officers. The French army consisted of 660 thousand people, and Germany, according to the Treaty of Versailles, has reduced his army to 100 thousand people. Now with Poland had considered everything, especially when you consider its close relations with France.

A few words about "humanism" is almost European Commonwealth. According to the 2nd (intelligence) Department of the General Staff of the Polish Army in February 1919 — October 1920. prisoners were taken more than 146 thousand Red Army soldiers. The fate of tens of thousands of people out of these extremely tragic — they were killed by the inhumane conditions in the concentration camps Pilsudski regime that emerged in Europe long before the Nazi. For example, one of the favorite activities of the Polish (the best in Europe) troopers were — to put Red Army prisoners around the huge cavalry parade ground and learn how to "pull down from the waist up" with the whole "heroic" shoulder at full gallop man. Brave lords hacked unarmed and exhausted prisoners "with the fly, with a turn." The parade ground for the "training" in the wheelhouse of the cavalry had set. As well as the death camps. In Bialystok, Pulawy, Brest, Pikulitse, Korosten, Zhytomyr, Alexandrov, onion, Island-Lomzhinskom, Rombertove, Zdunskoy Will, Torun, Dorohusk, Plock, Radom, Przemysl, Lviv, Fridrihovke, Zvyagele, Dabie, Strzalkowo, Tuchola, Baranavichi … Garrisons brave troopers stood in every town. Only in one of the Polish death camps — from the most infamous abuse Tuchola, cane discipline, cold, hunger, disease killed more than 22 thousand prisoners of war …

In relation to the occupied territories Pilsudski took a hard polonization. Orthodox churches were closed. Ukrainian and Belarusian schools and cultural organizations were persecuted. By the mid-1930s, 43% of Belarusians are illiterate, and the students of the Belarusians in all of Poland, and there were not two hundred people. 17 June 1934 on the orders of Pilsudski in Brest, near the border with what was then the Soviet Union, Birch Kartuzskaya opened a new camp, this time for political prisoners.

From the report of the Bialystok governor Ostashevskiy to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Poland, entitled "Problems of strengthening Polish holding positions in Bialystok province": "Sooner or later, the Belarusian population to be polonization. They represent a passive mass, without broad popular consciousness without their own national traditions. Wanting to speed up this process, we must defeat the ancient Belarusian culture … In the townships, home to the Belarusian population — must surely be raised to a higher level of material culture of the Poles. This is one of the fundamental conditions of the Polish expansion … In a nutshell, our attitude to Belarusians can be formulated as follows: we want one, and insist that it is a minority thought in Polish — not to give anything back and do nothing in a different direction. " If the need arises, "this population and to give something than either his interest," it can only be done in order to "make it think in Polish and Polish-studied in the spirit of the Polish state … It is necessary to make a decision, that every stock or private land parcelling Polish exactly happens if the transfer of the land to the Poles and, if possible Belarusian elements, only the form of a tendency polonisation. Proletariziruyuschiysya Belarusian element, going from village to town to be there at a more rapid assimilation than in the country … The point is not to reduce land holdings of the Poles, because from the point of view of the policy of the country — are above those in whose hands the land … "( GAOO GO f.6195, op.1 Street 28, l. 4, 16).

By 1939, all Belarusian schools were finally converted into Polish, and two-thirds of the Orthodox churches converted into churches. "KRES Wshodnia" as styled Belarusian and Ukrainian lands Poles were only agrarian and raw material appendage of their country, but also served as a source of cannon fodder. And the use of his brave lords planned in both the East and the West.

Mnya itself a great power, the second Rzeczpospolita dreamed not only of Europe, but also the African colonies! "Living space" is not enough! Since the beginning of 1937 the Poles began to exaggerate the theme of his dissatisfaction with the state of affairs in the decision of the colonial question. April 18, 1938 the whole of Poland is widely celebrated Day of the colonies. All this was accompanied by mass demonstrations demanding the grant of the great Polish nation overseas colonies. In the churches sent a solemn service on this occasion.

The plans in Europe clearly demonstrates an excerpt from the minutes of the meeting number 25 of 03/10/1935, the chief of staff at the Polish Army: "The rule is — developing the" East ", and then try to solve the" West "in the plan" East "." ( Explanation: The plan of the "East" — a plan of the war with the Soviet Union, a plan of the "West" — a plan of war with Germany.).

In dated December 1938 report of the 2nd Division of the Polish General Staff stated: "The dismemberment of Russia is at the heart of Polish politics in the East … So our possible position will be reduced to the following formula: who will take part in the division. Poland should not remain passive in this great historical moment. The challenge is to prepare well in advance physically and spiritually … The main objective — the weakening and destruction of Russia »(Z dziejow stosunkow polsko-radzieckich. Studia i materialy. T.lll. Warszawa, 1968. S.262, 287).

USSR could reasonably be considered Poland the most hostile country of all, which bordered directly. In the 1930-ies. within the military planning guidance of the Soviet Union came from the fact that in the coming conflict would be the main opponent of Poland in alliance with Germany. The fact is that in 1932 in a war against the USSR, Poland undertook to put 60 divisions. By the way, the apotheosis of becoming Nazi Germany was the conclusion of January 26, 1934 German-Polish treaty "On the friendship and non-aggression."

Interestingly, in 1939 the Poles started their mobilization ahead of the Germans. Already on March 22, that is, six months (!) To alleged sudden and treacherous attack by the Nazis in Poland was announced the first partial and indirect mobilization (five compounds) in order to provide cover mobilization and concentration of the main forces of the Polish army! Just how successful it was, evidenced, for example, the entry in his diary the Army Chief of Staff Halder Germany on August 15: "Update on Poland: Mobilizing in Poland will be over 27.08. Therefore, we will fall behind the Poles with the end of mobilization. To complete mobilization of the same date, we must start 21.08. Then our divisions 27.08 3rd and 4th lines will also be ready. "

August 18, 1939 the Polish ambassador in Paris Yu.Lukasevich in an interview with the Minister of Foreign Affairs of France Zh.Bonne boldly declared that "not Germans and the Poles will break deep into Germany in the early days of the war!". "… Dressed in steel and armor, led Rydz-Rydz, we'll go march to the Rhine …" — sung in Warsaw … But for some reason after a few days, in the first days of September 1939, the courageous Polish cavalry (the best in Europe) quickly tired to chop the cabbage German tanks. And after finally convinced that they are "not out of plywood," surrendered "true Aryans" land "from sea to mozha" (from sea to sea) for two days and two weeks.

The reason for such a long delay was that due to the general mobilization regiments formed from the Belarusians (Baranavichy, Slonim, Lida and others) who are forced to take the first deadly attack German troops on the western borders of the Polish "Oychyzny" immediately prisoner did not give up. Brave Polish Lancers at this time more often instead of "Cheers," shouted the famous "Gentlemen, utsekay». This hearty cry came immediately after panstvo became convinced that Germany, driven more recently the Western allies to utter poverty and economic collapse, was "as much iron" (for tanks) that the Germans may be able to get it to Smolensk.

To avoid this, 17 September, when the then Polish government, abandoning his people simply fled, and the German army approached the Brest and Lviv and stormed Warsaw, began a campaign of the Red Army ended accession to the Soviet state of Western Belarus and Western Ukraine. D.Lloyd-George wrote to the Polish ambassador in London in the autumn of the same year that "… the USSR occupied territory who are not Polish and who were forcibly seized by Poland after World War II … It would be an act of criminal folly to put the Russian advance on a par with the promotion Germany. "

It is highly significant that initially was scheduled another, held far west of the border — along the rivers Vistula and San — but by the will of the Soviet Union did not. American historian William Shirer wrote in 1959 about Stalin's decision to abandon the actual Polish territories, "Well having learned a lesson the long history of Russia, Stalin knew that the Polish people had never come to terms with the loss of their independence."

Today's Polish historiography of the events interesting for its thoroughness — up until the detection of a degree of courage of a lancer and the number of strokes of his sword. Once all this petty detail does not answer the one big and important question: why such a bold and desperate in 1919 Lancers surrendered their very large by European standards, the state in 1939 for a couple of weeks? For example, they took in the 1919 Minsk as easily as in 1939 gave Warsaw.

Nabivshaya-old reference to "a stab in the back" and "war on two fronts," to put it mildly, is not relevant. In 1919, this is the war on two fronts did not prevent Poland simultaneously capture huge chunks of territory in the East and the West. Just a fact: by September 1, 1939, the Commonwealth had a 3.5-million mobilized the army. Over the entire period of the September fighting the army lost in killed about 66.300 people (less than 2%) … and gave up.

As for the "stab in the back", then, as the historian J. Gross, in a monograph published in the United States published by Princeton University Press (1988), at a time when the Soviet army entered the land of Western Byelorussia and the Ukraine, the Polish authorities on these territories was totally disorganized as a result of the defeat of Polish troops and the influx of refugees. In turn, the local people "armed against the Poles and the Polish authorities. Large-scale civil war was averted, "says an American historian," but thanks to the rapid deployment of Soviet troops … ".

As an example of actions of the Poles themselves can cause suppression of the uprising of the local population in Grodno and Skidel in September 1939, the Polish lancers, gendarmes and ozonovtsami (members OZONE — Union of Polish nationalist parties, created in 1935).

The uprising began on September 17 when a Polish state did not exist, and the Polish army was crushed by the military machine of the Reich. The president and the government of Poland, escaped from Warsaw, in the very first days of the war, by the middle of the month were first in Romania, and then fled to Paris, then to London.

Working Skidel revolted once learned that the Red Army crossed the border collapsed Rzeczpospolita. The rebels captured the post office, police station, and the police were disarmed and released to their homes. So did the soldiers who were in military train at a railway station Skidel … After a few hours in the city there were Polish soldiers, reinforced by a company of gendarmes Grodno … In the small town of great atrocities began. 30 people punitive immediately shot dead. Were shot and those who just came to hand. Tortured before being shot: one gouged out his eyes, cut other languages, the third broke the butts of his fingers. A wounded member of the underground District L.Pochimku IPPC ears cut off, eyes gouged out, front and back cut out stars.

Then he gathered up to two hundred people. Do not disassemble neither men nor women. Rounded up to the Orthodox Church, made to lie face down and beaten with rifle butts on the head, forced to eat and kiss the ground, screaming at the same time: 'That land is ours, Polish, you do not dwell on it! "While some executioners taunted Belarusians at the church, others were throwing grenades and flares at home supporters of the Soviet Union. Extinguish the neighbors were not given distilled shots. Burned 19 houses, some were burnt alive, women and children. But this small town tragedy was not over.

Late in the afternoon of the two hundred people who had lain all day at the church, seized the "most active rebels" and drove to the beach to be shot KOTRA. When the first five-torn people snatched from the crowd and put doomed to be shot because of a grove seemed wedge with a red star on board. This is the rescue of the rebels in Skidel hurry flying squad led by captain Chernyavskiy — two armored cars and two tanks. They were loaded with weapons. Captain armed with this weapon of peasants from the surrounding villages. With their help Skidel been completely cleared of the executioners.

Their Soviet reports: "On the morning of September 19 tank battalions of the 100th and 2nd Infantry Divisions and broneroty intelligence battalion of the 2nd Division was formed by a group of 16th Motorized Infantry Corps under the command of the brigade commander Rozanov … At 7:00 on September 20 she was given attack the problem of Grodno.

Moving to the city, motogruppa in Skidel faced with the Polish detachment (about 200 people), the overwhelming anti-Polish performance of the local population. This punitive raid killed 17 local residents, including 2 teenagers 13 and 16 years old. Turning, motogruppa attacked the enemy in Skidel from both flanks. Hoping to stop the tanks, Poles set fire to the bridge, but the Soviet tankers sent a car through the fire and managed to slip through the burning bridge that collapsed after the passage of tanks, on the other bank of the river Skidel. "

A similar tragedy occurred in those September days in Grodno. Two days of bullets, beatings and fire killed about thirty people, including children, the wounded and beaten — up to a hundred people. The agony of the Second Polish Republic for the residents of Grodno and Skidel turned bloody massacre. As the mortally wounded beast, created Pilsudski regime, going from political life, brought human sacrifice their own ambitions, avenging people for their own failure and defeat in the war with Nazi Germany.

According to the historian AD Markov, almost everywhere in the east of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth "Ukrainians, Belarusians and Jews organized rebel groups … attacking the retreating Germans on the Polish side … turned the non-Polish population Polish flags, taking them from the white stripes in red, covered with CEE ¬ Tami columns of the Red Army … It indicates where the Poles hid their weapons, took part in the removal of small pieces of Polish "… This is a" non-Polish "population ranged from 67 to 90%!

Entered the territory of the so-called "KRES Wshodnia" as liberators, the Soviet troops avoided, where possible, clashes with Polish troops. Chief of Staff at the rate of the Polish army chief General V. Stahevich in the report noted: "The Soviet soldiers did not fire on our own, strongly demonstrate their location …" Deputy Chief of Staff General J. Yaklich in those days, wrote in his diary: "The Bolsheviks had crossed the border at dawn tank and motorized units. The tanks are open to the white flag … Our army disoriented. Some have a stubborn resistance, others miss the Soviet troops. Those bypass them and move on. "

All Western researchers noted that the incidents at the time of entry of the Red Army had local and wide sizes are not accepted. Celebrated the fact that the Soviet troops advanced slowly deliberately, allowing the Polish part of the waste to the Romanian border. Particularly slow progress was going to the south of the city.

The Germans, as admitted later the German ambassador in Bucharest Fabricius, "were furious that the Russian did not try as quickly as possible to close the corridor for the Polish Romanian authorities and the army …". Most of these same researchers came to the conclusion that the actions of the Soviet Union could not change anything, the defeat of Poland in the war with Germany was almost a fait accompli.

September 22, 1939 in English and French General Staff had prepared the report, to characterize the actions of the USSR against Germany as a "pre-emptive" and notes that they have been taken only when it became apparent the final defeat of Poland, with which history has played a cruel joke. As noted by the American historian B. Budurovich, in June 1936, Poland has prevented the adoption of international sanctions against fascist Italy, seized the territory of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) is due to the fact that the latter, according to the head of the Polish J. Beck, supposedly "ceased to exist as a state." In September, 1939, and second, the Commonwealth itself similarly fell apart "from the waist up," scattered "on all four sides," as the saying goes, "with the fly, with a turn."

voprosik.net

Like this post? Please share to your friends: