T-90ms: a big step forward

English monthly magazine IHS Jane's International Defence Review published an article by Christopher F. Foss of the new Russian tank T-90ms. Author — the largest international expert on armored vehicles and armament of the Army. He not only browser such well-known among military experts of the world of magazines, as IHS Jane's International Defence Review and IHS Jane's Defence Weekly, but the editor of the authoritative annual reference book Jane's Armour and Artillery («Armour and Artillery"), his opinion on the T-90ms is definitely deserves attention.

With its main battle tanks, increased effectiveness in urban settings, zeroing in on RUSSIAN EXPORT MARKETS

Christopher F. Foss


 Russian UralVagonZavod developed an improved version of the main battle tank (MBT) T-90S, which is currently focused on the export market. Compared with the base model new version, known as the T-90ms, different improvement of all three components of the triad armored vehicle: firepower, mobility and protection, designed to generally improve its efficiency in urban environments. In some ways, the elements of the T-90ms is very reminiscent of the elements of the tank Leopard-2 PSO company Krauss-Maffei Wegmann, designed for peacekeeping operations.

In Soviet times, Russia has four tank factories. Today she has had only one — "Scientific and Production Corporation" Uralvagonzavod "in Nizhny Tagil. In addition to promoting MBT T-90ms on the world market the company continues to sell the previous version of the T-90S tank commander's T-90SK and combat vehicle fire support "Terminator." The latter was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Russian army, but was among the programs, suspended in 2010, the Party "Terminator" was sold to Kazakhstan, where the machines first appeared in the parade in 2011

T-90ms armed with the upgraded 125-mm smoothbore gun 2A46M-4 (in fact, it is a gun 2A46M-5 — approx. Edition), which is claimed to provide higher accuracy than previous models, and the reduced scattering shells, at least 15%. In contrast to the model 2A46M its trunk chrome, which provides its increased survivability. It is also equipped with an ejector, thermal protector cover and accounting system of the thermal bending of the gun barrel, which allows the gunner to check the line of sight through the bore in the comfort of the tank.

As with all tanks T-72 family, automatic loader located below the turret and provides loading of the gun shell, and then charge a partially burned down the sleeve, from which a shot is a pan. In ammunition includes 22 ready to use the shot (projectile and charge) plus 18 shots in a reserve. Previously, all the backup shots were located in the body of the tank, but the T-90ms of them moved to the aft portion of the tower, which is now installed expelling panels on the roof. The rest of the 125-mm ammunition are stored in the fighting compartment, but in a separate section to improve crew survivability



The actual composition of ammunition 125mm gun will depend on combat missions carried out by the tank. The tank can carry on shooting a full set of conventional ammunition, including armor-piercing discarding sabot projectile fledged (BOPS), cumulative projectile (COP) and high-explosive fragmentation projectile (CFC). He can also shoot the guided missile laser-guided 9M119M at a range of 100 to 5000 m Projectile 9M119M equipped with a tandem HEAT warhead and is capable of hitting targets outside the effective range of the main armament. Of the gunner is required to keep crosshair tool and the associated illumination laser spot on the target to the missile hit the target, which can take up to 15 seconds at maximum range.

Coupled with the gun 7.62-mm machine gun PKTM (6P7K) is set to the right of the main armament and ammunition has a standard 2000 rounds.
On the roof of the tower mounted 12.7-mm machine gun 6P7K (in fact, this gun has a caliber of 7.62 mm, but in its place by the customer can be mounted large-caliber anti-aircraft gun — approx. Edition) into a remotely controlled weapon stations. It can be rotated 316 degrees in azimuth and from -10 to +45 degrees in elevation for destruction of urban labyrinths. Power supply is provided from two machine gun magazine capacity of 400 rounds each, and from the possible shooting on the move.

T-90ms features a computerized fire control system (FCS), which is said to allow the crew to hit stationary and moving targets, including when the tank itself is in motion, with a high probability of hitting the target with the first shot almost all weather conditions . This MSA includes a digital ballistic computer and a set of sensors, including sensor firing conditions, mounted on the roof, and automatic target tracking. There is also a backup sight, associated with the main armament and located in front of the main gunner's sight.

On the roof of the tower has a separate stabilized panoramic sight commander, having a television and thermal imaging channels, and a laser range finder that allows you to implement the principle of "hunter-shooter."

The commander also has a day periscopes for a circular observation. Manhole cover of the tower can be closed or partially folded back like an umbrella, raised.

The place is equipped with a stabilized gunner's TV / teplovovizionnym sighting system which includes a laser rangefinder with a maximum range of 7500 m, and the sight missile guidance 9M119M.

The traditional drawback of Russian tanks were no thermal sights, so the T-90ms as standard is a big step forward, but much improved situational awareness makes tank suitable for use in urban environments. For example, in addition to the sights and periscopes, four cameras provide nearly all-round visibility, transferring images on monitors commander and gunner. Each camera has a field of view of 95 degrees in azimuth and 40 ° in elevation.

As the power plant is used forced a 12-cylinder diesel engine V-92S2F capacity of 1130 hp in combination with an automatic transmission. This 48-ton tank has kitted power density 22.9 ps / m, is sufficient for driving on the highway at a speed of 60 km / h

T-90CM able to overcome ford depth of 1.2 m without preparation and up to 5 m — with special equipment.


In the basic model of the T-90 had a fully welded housing made of steel armor with improved frontal armor plate, and the tower has been fully cast and had a built-in armor. The latest version of the T-90ms has a body and a tower with advanced armor that provides increased protection against ammunition hitting the top.

This set of advanced body armor includes not only dynamic security modules (RS), but also passive armor elements in modules that in case of damage can be quickly replaced.

The rear of the hull and turret fitted with bars that provide more effective protection against rocket-propelled grenades, and in the fighting compartment are also provided splinter-proof screens to protect the crew from the secondary fragments.

Active protection of ammunition with semi-active laser guidance is provided by an automatic smoke-screens. This system consists of a laser detector, arranged to provide a circular scan area. Upon detection of their laser threats, the crew alerted by visual and audible means, and in the direction of the threat is automatically put ae
rosol veil. Furthermore, the tower can be automatically rotated in the direction of the threat and then actuating 81mm smoke grenade installed on both sides of the tower.

T-90ms is also equipped with electromagnetic protection system that can allegedly neutralize anti-tank mines, equipped with electromagnetic fuses.

This armored vehicle is also installed combat control and navigation system, which is said to be integrated down to the division level.

Outside on the back left side of the hull mounted auxiliary diesel-electric plant, which provides the basic functions of the T-90ms when the main engine is shut down to conserve fuel.

T-90ms is also equipped with equipment for self-entrenching set on the front armor plate, which can be used to overcome obstacles. Standard equipment auxiliary equipment includes fire fighting system, NBC protection system and the system of communication between crew.


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