To the sources of Russian dissident: Andrew Kurbskii correspondence with Ivan the Terrible

Andrew Kurbski

FIRST MESSAGE Kurbski Ivan the Terrible

Diploma Kurbskii sovereign king of Lithuania

King, preproslavlennomu from God, but even more so in the Orthodox yavivshusya Most Bright, now for the sin of having found our soprotivnym. Razumevyay him understand conscience lepers haves, Jacob, neither is acquired in a godless town. And more than all of this glagolati on a number of not wasting my language, but for the sake of persecution pregorchayshago of thy power, and many of the sorrows of the heart potschisya little izreschi minute, about the king.

Mail, the king broke the Strongest in an Israeli art Thou, O God, and the governor of data ti on your enemies, and various death kill terminated hast, and their blood shall be victorious holy churches of God in proliyal art Thou, O martyr and krovmi prague church stained with art Thou, and thy freewill and soul for thee for ever believing unheard of flour, and the death and persecution of intent art Thou, betrayals and Witchcraft and other dissimilar oblygaya Orthodox tschasya with zeal and light into darkness, and sweet for bitter prelagati prozyvati? What trespassed against thee and thee than angered kristyanskii predstatel? Do not pregordye ravaged the kingdom and improvised around them tobe done, they have the same first and in the work of our forefathers were? Do not predtverdye grads Yermansky diligence of mind of their god you Dunns things were made? And this whether we, the poor, and gave art Thou, vserodno by destroying us? Ali you immortality, the king mnish and nesytnuyu heresy was not deceived, like a not even have predstati neumytnomu ship, hoping hristyanskoy, bogonachyalnomu to Jesus, although the judge the universe in the truth, even more so without hesitation pregordym persecutor and Wishing istyazati Vlas them to their transgressions, for they also words of glagolyut. He is the Christ, my sitteth at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty on heruvimstem prevysokih — suditel Mezhuyev you and me.

Whose evil and persecution of preterpeh do not you! And whom misfortunes and disasters upon me not prompted Thou! And whom lzhey and cheating against me hast not vzvel! And all priklyuchivshasya E Xia from Tobe razlichnyya trouble for a number for a lot of them, I can not izreschi, Inasmuch sorrow still enveloped my soul byst. But all along the river course I: total Bykh deprived of the land of God and thee tuna distilled Bykh. And hast rewarded me evil and the good impact for my Beloved — implacable hatred. And my blood, Thou water shed for thee, cry out to God to thee mine. God — the hearts of the audience — in my mind and conscience diligently smyshlyah my witness is set, and lawsuits, and zreh, mentally addressed, and BEM itself, and not in naidoh than before thee sogreshivsha. Previous hozhah your army and you proceed and Nico bezchestiya privedoh, but did win Most Bright pomoshchiju Aggol Our Lord to the glory of thy delivered, and never the same regiment chyuzhim your spine to turn to, but more so full of glory overcoming the praise you create. And these things are not in the same summer, no dvoyu but satisfied leteh bother to many pots and patience, for theirs is small and rozhdeshii mene zreh and wife moeya not getting to know, and sludges his homeland, but always in dalnokonnyh gradeh against your enemies, and took up arms against Undergoing a natural disease, it is the Lord Jesus Christ is my witness, even more so speeded Bykh wounds from the barbarous hands and the various battles and grievously wounds already have the whole body. But you, the king, And this whole nor in what byst.

But hoteh reschi all martial on a number of my business, they also did in his praise of thee, but not for the sake of this izrekoh, Zane lugchi the only God knows. He bo, god, there's these things and mzdovozdatel of not only this world, but for chyashu icy water. And yet, the king's Tales of the five that: not uzrishi, mnyu, my face Strashnago days before trial. And it is not imaginary mene molchascha five of these things, before the days of my life I will skonchyaniya bezprestanno tears vopiyati upon you prebeznachyalnoy Trinity, in the same ney believe, and call in the help heruvimskago lord mother, reliable, and my intercessor, ruler of the Mother of God and all the saints, God's elect and my master of Prince Rostislav Fedor.

Not imaginary, the king, nor consider the things we suemudrennymi myslmi, Aki already dead and izbennyh from you innocently, and imprisoned, and driven off without truth. Do not be glad about this, like a skinny overcoming boasted razsechennyya from you, at the throne of the Lord is worthwhile, avenge upon you asking the same sharpened and driven away from the devil you the truth from the earth cry out to God day and The Night at cha! For he tmami hvalishisya in their pride in this and privremennom skorotekuschem century umyshlyayuchi on kristyansky genus painful blood vessels, and even more so narugayuschi popirayuschi aggelsky image and a matching tee flatterers and fellow table of demons, according to your boyars, the destroyer of your soul and body, others like her children more so Kronova priests act. And of these things, even until now. A pisaneytse this, tears izmochennoe, to the grave with him, I command Attachand coming in with you in the court of my god Jesus. Amen.

It is written in the city Vollmer my master King Sigismund August, from him endowed with many bestowed be alone and comforted all my sorrows, by the grace of its member Darski, even more so god mi benefiting.

I hear from the scriptures, although the devil be alone keeping out the gender of kristyansky progubitelya, from sexual immorality zachyatago bogobornago Antichrist, and now singklita We have seen, all the knowledge, for they have begotten from prebluzheniya, Who whispers in the ears this day the false king, and blood pours kristyanskuyu, for through the water, and vygubil already strong in Ezra, like a matter of Antichrist is not comely you be alone those potakovnikom, a king! In the law of the Lord in the first written: "Moavitin and ammonitin and bastard to ten genera in the Church of God does not come" and so on.

First Epistle of Ivan the Terrible Kurbski

Pious Great Sovereign Tsar and Grand Prince of All Russia Ivan Vasilyevich message to all his great Rosii state on krestoprestupnikov, Prince Andrei Mikhailovich Kurbskii with their comrades of treason

Our God is the Trinity, before all time and now the former who is the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, having neither beginning nor end, which we live, and move, after whom the kings and rulers are glorified write the truth. God, Jesus Christ was given only begotten son of God victorious, and forever invincible banner — the first of the fair cross pious Emperor Constantine and all Orthodox kings and guardians of orthodoxy. And after all over the place was filled with the divine will of Providence, and the servants of God's word, like eagles flew over the entire universe, a spark of piety reached and the Russian Empire. Filled with this true autocracy of the Russian Orthodox Church in God's kingdom began his own generation by the Grand Duke Vladimir, Russian enlighten the land holy baptism, and the Great Prince Vladimir Monomakh, are honored by the Greeks, and of the brave and the great ruler of Alexander Nevsky, won a great victory over the godless Germans and worthy of praise from the great ruler Demetrius, won a victory over the Don godless Hagrites up to otomstitelya the violence of our grandfather, Prince Ivan, and up to the purchaser of native ancestral lands, of blessed memory, the father of our great emperor Basil, and to us, the humble Russian skipetroderzhateley kingdom. We praise God for his boundless mercy sent down to us, that did not allow it to this day, to the right hand of our ensanguine countrymen, because we do not have desired no one to take away the kingdom, but in God's purpose and the blessing of their parents and grandparents were born pas kingdom and brought up, and grew up, and God's command to reign, and took us to the blessing of belonging prarediteley and their parents, and someone else does not have desired. This is true of the Orthodox Christian autocracy, having a lot of power, command and our humble Christian response to the former first true Orthodox Christianity and the autocracy of our Boyar, and the lawyer and the governor, but now — apostate from an honest and Holy Cross, and the destroyer of Christians, and had joined the enemy Christianity, retreating from the worship of the divine icons, and stamped upon all the divine commandment, and defile the holy temples, desecrated the sacred vessels and stamped upon and images, like the Isaurian, Gnosteznomu and Armenian them all to yourself to connect — Prince Andrei Mikhailovich Kurbski, treacherously who wishes to become a prince of Yaroslavl, — shall be conducted. Why do you, O prince, if mnish themselves pious, rejected his only begotten soul? What do you substitute it in the Day of Judgment? Even if you acquire the whole world, finally, death still snatch you …

You ruined for the sake of the body soul despised the glory of the incorruptible for swift and, for a man enraged, rebelled against God. Understand well, unhappy with what height which precipice you threw your body and soul! Fulfilled the prophetic words for you: "Whoever thinks that he has all lose." In fact if your piety, that you killed himself because of his self-love, and not for God's sake? Can also imagine being next to you and are able to reflect that in your zlobesny poison: you do not run from death, but for the sake of glory in the short term and skorotekuschey life and wealth's sake. If you are, as you say, is just and holy, why is scared to die innocent, because it is not death, but the reward? In the end all die anyway. If you're afraid. death sentence for libel, believing the villainous lies your friends, servants of Satan, it is clear your treasonable intent, as has happened in the past, so it is now. Why have you despised the word of the Apostle Paul, who was saying: "Let every soul obeys the ruler, having the power, there is no authority except from God: he who resists the authorities resists God's command." Look upon it and think about it: who resist authority — God resists, but he who opposes God — he called an apostate, and this is the worst of sins. And it says it's all about power, even about the power produced at the cost of blood and war. Think well over what has been said, because we are not violent mined kingdom, the more so those who oppose such a power — oppose God! The same apostle Paul says (and that you did not heed the words): "Slaves! Obey their masters, working for them, not only in his eyes, as men-pleasers, but as servants of God, be subject not only to the good, but also evil, not only out of fear, but also for conscience sake. " But this is the will of the Lord, if I have to suffer by doing good.

If you are righteous and holy, why did not want from me, lord of the Shrew, to suffer and to win the crown of eternal life. But for the sake of transient fame, because of self-love, in the name of the joys of this world, all the sincere piety, together with the Christian faith and the law tramples on you, like unto the seed thrown on the stone and grew up, and when the hot sun shone, at once, because one false word succumbed to temptation, and rejected, and have not grown fruit …

How are you not ashamed of his servant Vaska Shibanov? After all, he has kept his piety, to the king, and all the people stood, did not deny the procession of kissing you, glorify you in every possible way, and calling out for you to die. You do not want to catch up with him in righteousness: because of some minor one angry word has ruined not only his soul, but the soul of their ancestors, for in God's own purpose God gave them souls under the power of our grandfather, the great emperor, and they giving their souls served until his death, bequeathed to you, to your children, to serve the children and grandchildren of our grandfather. And you all forgot, dog treason violating kissing the cross, has joined the enemy of Christianity, and also still not aware of their own wickedness, saying these ridiculous unintelligent words, like throwing stones in the sky, not being ashamed of piety his slave, and not willing to do, like him, in front of his master.

Scripture taken yours and read carefully. And since the venom you hid under his tongue, so although your letter on a plan of yours and filled with honey and honeycomb, but it tastes bitter wormwood, as the prophet said, "The words were smoother than oil, yet they are like arrows." So whether you're accustomed to, as a Christian, to serve the Christian emperor? So there should render honor to the lord, god of this, as you are doing, spewing venom, like the devil? .. What are you, a dog, having made this wicked deed, write and complain! What is like your advice, filthy nefarious feces? ..

And when you are asking why we broke the strongest in Israel, destroyed, and given to us by God to fight the enemies of our governor to different executions betrayed, and their heroic and holy blood shed in the churches of God, and stained with the blood of martyr church doorsteps, and came up with untold agony , executions and persecution for their well-wishers who believe life for us, denouncing the Orthodox and accusing them of treason, witchcraft and other lasciviousness, you wrote and spoke a lie, as you have taught your father, the devil, as Christ said, "You are children of the devil and want to fulfill the desire of your father, because he was a murderer from time immemorial, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him when he speaks a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar and the father of lies. " A strong in Israel we did not kill, and I do not know who is the strongest in Israel, because the Russian land is kept God's mercy and grace of the Virgin Mary and the prayers of all the saints, and the blessing of our parents and, finally, us, their sovereigns, rather than judges and governors, but Hypatia and strategos. We did not betray their commanders different deaths, and with God's help we have a lot of governor and besides you, traitors. A grant their slaves, we have always been free, and were free to execute …

Blood of the same church we no thresholds not be stained with blood, martyrs for the faith we do not have, and when we find the well-wishers who believe life for us sincerely, not false, not those who speak the language of good and evil in the heart of plotting, in front of the donee and praise, and behind his lavish and disapproves (like a mirror that reflects the one who looks at him, and turned away forgetting) when we meet people who are free from these defects, which are fair and do not forget, like a mirror, assigned a service, we reward them with a great salary, and the same who, as I said, opposed deserves punishment for his guilt. And as in other countries'll see how it punishes evildoers — not in these parts! It you're on your liking zlobesnomu decided to love traitors; while others do not like traitors and executed them and thus strengthen his power.

And the suffering, persecution and various executions for anyone we did not come up: if you're talking about traitors, and sorcerers, is it such dogs everywhere executed …

When it was destined by God's predestination of our parent, pious queen Helen, to move from the earthly to the heavenly kingdom, we were left with the deceased in a Bose brother George orphans — Nobody helped us, we remained the only hope in God, and in the most pure Mother of God, and all vsyatyh prayer and blessing of our parents. I was at that time eight years, and as the subjects of our reach of their desires — have received the kingdom without a ruler, about us, the sovereigns of its own, no care of heart failure have shown themselves rushed to wealth and fame, and quarreled with each other . And why do not they just have done! How many of our boyars, and well-wishers of our father and the governor killed! Yards, and sat down, and property of our uncle took them and dwelt in them. And the treasures of the mother moved to the Grand coffers, while furiously kicking and poking them with sticks, and the rest were separated. But doing it your grandfather, Michael cloud. Meanwhile Prince Vasili and Ivan Shuiskys arbitrarily to impose my guardians and thus prevail, those who cheated more than all our father and our mother, was released from prison and closer to him. A prince SHUISKI settled in the court of our uncle, Prince Andrew, and that the court of his people, gathered, like the Jewish sonmische, grabbed Fedor Mishurin, near the clerk with his father and with our pass, and a disgrace to him, killed him, and Prince Ivan Belsky and others imprisoned in various places, and the church pas hand raised, from the throne by overthrowing the Metropolitan Daniel, sent him to prison, and so have carried out all his ideas themselves have come to reign. We are also the only begotten from my brother, George reposed in the Lord began to bring up as strangers or recent poor. Then we have suffered hardship in clothes and food. Nothing we will not, but do not on their own and not as children usually do. Remember one thing: We used to play children's games, and Prince Ivan Vasilyevich Shuya is sitting on the bench, resting his elbow on the bed of our father and putting his foot on the chair, and on us and take a look — not as a parent or as a guardian, and that very nor as a servant in the Lord. Who can bear such pride? How to calculate these nefarious torture suffered by me in my youth? How many times do I eat and not given on time. What to tell my parents about inherited treasury? All looted insidious way: It was said that the children in the pay of the boyars, and took them, and they can not complain for the cause, not appointed by the dignity, and countless coffers of our grandfather and our father took the money for himself and for those nakovali discover gold and silver vessels and inscribed with the names of their parents, as if it is their ancestral domain. And it is known to all the people that when our mother of Prince Ivan Shumsky coat was muhoyarovaya green pas marten, besides on the shabby, as if it was their legacy, what vessels to strike, it would be better to change the coat, and the blood vessels to strike when have money to spare. A treasury of our uncle what to say? All the currently captured. Then he attacked the towns and villages, tortured by various cruel ways residents, without mercy, robbed of their belongings. And as countless wrongs they have caused to their neighbors? All subjects considered their slaves, slaves made their own princes, and pretended to govern and dispose of, and themselves violated the laws and repaired the riots, all take immense bribe, and depending on it, and said, in one way or another, and have been doing … How good is this faithful service? The whole universe will laugh at such loyalty! What to say about the oppression that were at the time? Since the death of our mother and until six and a half years, they did not cease to do evil!

When wives was fifteen years old, he took to manage their own kingdom, and, thank God, our management has begun well. But as often irritate the sins of God, that happened for our sins by God's anger in Moscow fire, and our treacherous boyars, the ones you call martyrs (I will call them names when I find it necessary), as if seizing the opportune time to his treason, have convinced people void of understanding that if our grandmother, Princess Anne Glinskaya, with their children and servants took out the human heart and conjured, and thus has burnt Moscow, and that if we had known about this plan. And, at the instigation of our traitors to the people gathered at the Jewish tradition, with shouts captured in the chapel of the Church of the Great Martyr Demetrios of Christ, our nobleman, Prince Yury Glinski, dragged him into the cathedral and the great church, and inhumanly murdered in front of the metropolitan areas, the bay church with blood, and , pulled his body from the front church door, put it on the mart as a convicted criminal. And it is killing in the holy church known to all, and not something of which you, the dog lying! We were then living in his village Vorobyov, and the same traitors persuaded the people, and kill us for what we like to hide from them at the Prince George's mother, Princess Anne, and his brother, Prince Michael. How can you not laugh at such a fabrication? Why should we burn his own kingdom? How many valuable things because of the parents' blessing, we burned down, what in the universe will not find. Who could be so foolish and spiteful to, anger at his slaves, burn their own property? He would then set fire to their homes and themselves would watch out! In all seen your dog's betrayal. It's the same as if to try to sprinkle water bell tower of St. Ivan, having such a great height. This is — obvious madness. This is a worthy service to us our boyars and the governor that they are going without our knowledge in such a dog pack killing our boyars and even our relatives? And it down his life for us to believe that there is always eager to send our soul from this world to eternal life? We are told to sanctify the law, but we do not follow this wish! What are you, a dog, and proudly boast praised for military prowess of the other dogs, traitors? ..

And that, according to your crazy words, your blood shed for us foreigners hands, crying out to God for us, that time is not our shed, it is worthy of laughter, blood cries out to the one who shed it, and you're done his duty to the fatherland and we have nothing to do with it: because if you did not, there would be no Christian, but a barbarian. How much more is crying for you, our blood, shed for you, not from the wounds, and blood flows, but a considerable sweat, spilled my many back-breaking labor and unnecessary burden that occurred due to your fault! Also, instead of blood shed many tears because of your malice, oppression and desecration, much sighing and groaning …

What do you "have not seen her and knew little of her that his wife left the country and was always in the campaign against the enemies in dalnokonnyh cities have suffered from the disease and many wounds received from the barbarous hands in battle, thy whole body covered with wounds," that after all this happened when you sway with the priest and Alex. If you do not like it, why are you doing that? And if you did, why, having worked on their own, put the blame on us? And even if we ordered it, but this is not surprising, because you had to serve at our command. If you were a warlike man, I would not consider his abusive feats, but would look for a new, because you and list their abusive acts that he was a fugitive, do not want to swear deeds and seek peace. Do we not appreciate your worthless feats of arms, even if neglected notorious thine infidelities and countermeasures, and you were among our most faithful servants, in the glory, honor and wealth? If it were not for these feats, the execution of which would be his anger would you deserve! If it were not for our charity to you, if, as you wrote in your letter zlobesnom, you are subjected to persecution, you will not be able to get away to our enemies. Your abusive cases are well known. Do not think that I'm weak-minded or foolish child, brazenly claimed as your superiors, pop Sylvester and Alex Adashev. And I hope to intimidate, frighten children, and as a first deceived me and the priest Sylvester and Alexei thanks to its cunning, and do not expect that and it is now you can. As it is said in parables: "Why can not you take, do not try and take."

You cry out to God, give unto the recompense; indeed he rightly pays for all sorts of things — good and bad, but everyone should ponder: what and for what kind of business it deserves a reward? And his face, you're highly appreciate. But who would want such a person to see the Ethiopian? ..

And if you want your writing to put him in a coffin, then you have finally fallen away from Christianity. The Lord has commanded not to resist evil, you and before his death did not want to forgive enemies, as usually do even simple ones, so over you will not have to make and the last funeral.

The city of Vladimir, which is in our ancestral lands, the land of Livonia, you call the possession of our enemy, King Sigismund, you finally discover your dog's treason. And if you hope to get from him many awards, this is the way it should, because you do not want to live under the rule of God and the God-given rulers and wanted to arbitrariness. That's why you find yourself such a sovereign, who like to be on your zlobesnomu canine will, he does not run, but worse than the last slave — all orders received, and he himself does not command anyone …

Given this strong admonition in Moscow, reigning throughout the city of Orthodox Russia, in the year 7702 from the creation of the world on July 5th day (5 July 1564).

SECOND MESSAGE Kurbski Ivan the Terrible

The short answer to Andrew Kurbskii preprostrannoe message of the Grand Duke of Moscow

Broadcast and mnogoshumnoe your message received and understood and comprehended that it is from the irrepressible anger with poisonous vomit words, such is not only the king, so great and illustrious in the universe, but just a poor soldier is not proper, and especially because of many sacred books picked up, as can be seen, with a number of rage and anger, no lines and verses, as is the custom of cunning men and scientists when it happens to someone else to write, in brief setting forth an important idea and excessively wordy and windbag , whole books, proverbs, whole messages! Immediately and on the beds, and padded jackets, and much else — a truly absurd word women stories, and so all the ignorant, not only to scientists and men of knowing, but also simple and children to wonder and to ridicule, and even more to send to someone else land, where there are also people who know not only the grammar and rhetoric, but the dialectic and philosophy.

And besides me, a man who was quite humble themselves had undergone a lot of wandering and unjustly expelled to the same, and many a sinner, but having a tender heart, and in a letter to a skilled, because the convictions and so noisily, without waiting for the judgment of God, and condemn so threaten me! And instead of to comfort me in the many sorrows, as if you forgot and rejected prophet, saying: "Do not insult my husband is in trouble it, and so it is enough," your majesty to me, guiltless exile, with words instead of consolation addressed. May it be for you to judge is God. And so cruelly biting for the eyes of an innocent man, in his early years, the former servant of yours! I do not believe that it would be pleasing to God.

And do not know what you want me to do. It is not only edinoplemennyh princes, dating back to the great old Vladimir, the various deaths and destroyed their wealth, movable and immovable, which was not sacked even your grandfather and your father, took up the last shirt, and I can say with boldness, gospel words, your royal pregordomu Majesty in no way hindered. And like the king, to answer your every word and could write as well as you, for the grace of Christ my possession as their abilities syllable ancient, old age is already learned to him, but held out his hand with a pen, because, like in the former his letter, wrote to you, lay everything on the Court of God: and I speculated and thought it best to keep quiet here, and then dare to proclaim before the throne of Christ, along with all of my tortured you, and cast out, as Solomon says, "Then the righteous will appear in the face of his tormentors, "when Christ shall come to judge, and will boldly expose tormented and insulted them, and, as you know, there will be partiality in judgment is, but everyone straightforwardness of his or deceit will be presented, and instead of its own witnesses conscience of every witness to proclaim the truth. And besides, I would say that it is not befitting men of noble quarrel, as commoners, and even more shameful for us Christians, spewing from the mouth of rough and angry words, as I have repeatedly told you before. Better, I thought, to place his trust in the Almighty God, in three persons glorified, because it opened my heart, and he sees that I feel myself in anything in front of you not guilty. And therefore let's wait a bit, because I believe that we're near, right at the threshold anticipate the coming of our Christian hope — the Lord God, Savior Jesus Christ. Amen.

SECOND MESSAGE TERRIBLE Kurbski

This diploma is also sent by the Emperor of Vladimirtsev to Prince Andrew Kurbski by Prince Alexander Polubenskim

Vsederzhitelnoy hand of the Almighty and the Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ, holding in his hand of all the ends of the earth, who worship and praise which, together with the Father and the Holy Spirit, by the grace of their allowed us humble and unworthy of his servants, to keep the Russian scepter of the kingdom, from its vsederzhitelnoy right hand of Christ-church banners as we write, the great emperor, Tsar and Grand Prince Ivan Vasilyevich All Russia, Vladimir, Moscow, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Astrakhan king, emperor Pokovsky and Grand Duke of Smolensk, Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyatka, Bulgaria and other , the monarch and the Grand Duke of Nizhny Novgorod, Chernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Konda and all the Siberian land lord and North of the country — the former governor and our Boyar Prince Andrei Mikhailovich Kurbski.

Humbly remind you about the prince see how our sins, and especially to my iniquity, wickedness surpassed Manasseh, even though I did not back down from the faith, God's Majesty graciously waiting for my repentance. And no doubt the mercy of the creator, which will bring me salvation, for God says in the Holy Gospel, which is more happy about a repentant than over ninety and nine just persons, and the same is said in the parable of the sheep and drachmas. For if the grains of sand and the sea of my iniquities, yet yearning of hope on the mercy of God — may the Lord in his mercy sea to drown out my transgressions. And now the Lord had mercy on me, a sinner, fornicator and torturer, and his life-giving cross deposed Amalek and Maxentius. And the upcoming crusade banners no stratagem is not necessary to know not only Russia, but also Germans, Lithuanians, Tatars, and many peoples. Sam ask them and find out, I do not want you to list those wins, because they are not mine, but God's. You also recall only some of the many, for the wounds to which you wrote to me, I replied with the whole truth, but now I remind a little of a lot. Remember what was said in the book of Job: "I walked the ground and go through the universe", and you and the priest Sylvester, and Alexei Adasheva, and with all his relatives wanted to see under their feet the entire Russian land, but God gives power to whoever he wants.

I wrote you that I am filthy mind, as you will not meet and infidels. I bet you yourself judge between me and you: you are a corruption of the mind or I, who wanted to rule over you, and you do not want to be under my authority and I was angry for you? Or corruption of you who not only refused to obey me and obey me, but do I have owned, seized my power and ruled as they pleased, and I was eliminated from the government: on the words I was the emperor, but in fact owned nothing. How many of the ills I have suffered many insults as insults and recriminations? And for what? What is my first wine in front of you? Than anyone offended? .. And what better than I was Kurlyatev? His daughters are buying all sorts of jewelry, it is a blessing and good, and my daughters — damned and the dead. A lot of this was. How much do I have to beat you — do not fill a.

And with my wife why you have been separated? You would not have taken away from me by my young wife, there would be no Kronova victims. And if you say that I then lost his temper and not kept clean, so we are all people. And you took that to streletskaya wife? And if you do not rise with the priest at me, none of this would not happen: all of this happened because of your arbitrariness. Why do you want to put Prince Vladimir on the throne, and me with the kids to kill? Have I stolen the throne captured him go through war and bloodshed? According to the counsel of God's birth was I meant to the kingdom, and I do not remember what my father has blessed the state, on the royal throne and raised. A Prince Vladimir why on earth should be sovereign? He is the son of the fourth Duke share. What are its advantages, what are the hereditary right to be sovereign, but your infidelity and stupidity? What is my fault in front of him? .. And you fancied that the whole Russian land at your feet, but by God's will is your wisdom proved futile. That's for the sake of me and my witty pen to write to you. You're saying, "There are no people in Russia, there is no one to defend," — and now you do not: but who is now gaining pretverdye German fortress? .. Do not wait for the selected battlefield German cities, but their bow their heads before the power of the Holy Cross! Where chance for our sins, the phenomenon of the Holy Cross was not, there was a fight. All sorts of people released: ask them, you'll know.

You wrote to us, remembering the insults that we'll dalnokonnye in the city like a punishment sent, so now we are not regretting his gray hairs, and on your dalnokonnyh cities, thank God, and have been kicking our horses have passed on all your roads — from Lithuania and Lithuania, and went on foot, and the water in all the places they drank, Lithuania now I would not dare to say that not all legs of our horses were. And where were you hoping from all their labors to calm down, to Volmer. to thy rest God has brought us: overtook you, and you still went dalnokonnee.

So, we wrote to you just a few of many things. Judge for yourself how and what have you done, what a great divine Providence drew upon us his mercy, judge for what you've done. Look inside yourself and in front of him to reveal himself! God knows that we have written this to you not out of pride or arrogance, according to remind you of the need to correct you to the salvation of his soul, thought.

It is written in our paternal Livonian land in Volmer, in the year 7086 (in 1577 — approx. per.) At the 43 th year of our reign, the 31 th year of our Russian kingdom, 25th — Kazan, 24th — Astrakhan.

THIRD MESSAGE Kurbski Grozny

The answer to the king of the great Moscow on his second epistle to the wretched Kurbskii Andrew, Duke of Kovel

In his wanderings, and staying in poverty, you expelled, the title of your great and do not give a lengthy, as not proper to do so insignificant to you, great king, but only in the handling of the kings to the kings befits use such naming a voluminous proposals. And what of confession to me in such detail, as if in front of any priest, so that I am not worthy, being a simple man, and military rank, even with half an ear to hear, but most of all because he and burdened by many and countless sins. But in fact it would be really good to rejoice and be glad not only to me, once a faithful servant, but also for all the kings and peoples of the Christian if it were your true repentance, as in the Old Testament, Manasseh, for it is said, as he repented in krovopiystve and in his wickedness, in the law of the Lord lived until his death humbly and righteously and no one and nothing wrong, and in the New Testament — worthy of praise Zakheinom about repentance and how to quadruple the amount returned was all offended them.

And if you followed in his repentance by holy examples that you bring from Scripture of the Old Testament and the New! And what follows is the letter of yours, not only disagree, but worthy of wonder and amazement, for is within you as a man, lame in both his feet and walking neblagochinno, and especially in the land of your enemies where there are many men who do not only worldly philosophy adept, but also strong in Scripture: that you're too humble ourselves, the boundless and boast beyond measure! Lord broadcasts to his apostles: "If all the commands execute, you still say we are unworthy servants, and the devil incites us sinners, repent in word only, but in heart and exalt themselves to equate with the holy men of the Most Glorious." God commands no one to blame Judgment and first remove the beam from your own eye, and then pull out the mote out of his brother's eye, but the devil incites only mumble some words, as if repent, but in fact is not only carried up and be proud of the countless lawlessness and bloodshed, but also revered holy men taught to curse and even the devils name, like Christ in the ancient Jews called a liar and a demon-possessed man, who with the help of Beelzebub, the prince of demons, casting out demons, and all of this can be seen from the letter of your Majesty, where are you faithful and holy men and devils call those whom the spirit of God teaches, is not ashamed to blame for the spirit of the demons, as if you backed down from the great apostle, "No one is — he says — does not call Jesus lord, by the Holy Ghost." And who is a Christian believer slander, not to slander him, and to the very spirit of the holy abode in it, and neotmolimy sin itself will bring on his head, for the Lord says: "If someone blasphemes the Holy Spirit, you will not be forgiven him, neither in this world, or on ".

And besides, it can be very nasty and that nefarious than his confessor to correct his torment I subject, who head the royal led to repentance, sins against his neck wear, and lifting you out of sheer filth, clean set before the king purest Christ, our God, and having our repentance! So whether you vozdash him after his death? O wonder! As defamation, prezlye and insidious insinuations maniacs thy holy and glorious for men, and after the death of their still alive! Do not horrified, the king, remembering the parable of Hama, laugh at his father's nakedness? What was the punishment for it is his seed! And if one happened because of my father in the flesh, how much solicitude should condescend to misdemeanor spiritual father, even if that had happened to him in his human nature, as is whispering to you and your flatterers about that priest, even if it is you, and appaling not true, but the made-up signs. Oh, the truth, and I'll say it was a cunning, crafty and cunning, deception mastered for you, and drew on the networks and the devil as if from the mouth of a lion and brought you to Christ our God. Just a really wise and doctors come: wild meat and incurable gangrene razor cut in the living body and then heal little by little and heal the sick. In the same way he did, the priest blessed Sylvester, seeing your mental illnesses, for many years, this old and intractable. As some wise men say: "this old bad habits in the hearts of men through the years have become the very people by nature, and it is difficult to get rid of them" — that's the same way and that, Reverend, for the intractable disease tvogo resorted to sticking plasters: a scathing words showered you and reproached and severe admonitions, like a razor, cut out your bad habits, because he remembered the prophetic word: "Yes, better Having endured the wounds of a friend than an enemy affectionate kiss." You do not remember and forget about being seduced by evil and cunning, and drove him away, and our Christ with him. And at times he seemed strong and bridle reins held your intemperance and inordinate lust and rage. But her words came true example of Solomon: "Teach the righteous, and will be grateful for," and again, "reprove righteous, and loves you." Others, on the following passage does not cite: I hope for your royal conscience and know that you are proficient in Scripture. And why not too bichuyu his harsh words your imperial majesty I, worthless, and do what I can, and will refrain from swearing, not befitting for us, the soldiers, like the servants swear.

And can you remember and that, as in the days of thy life: all godly things you did well by the prayers of the saints, and on the instructions of the Chosen glad worthy of your advisers, and then how, when you seduced cruel and deceitful flatterers, and thy destroyers and his homeland, as well as what happened: and what plagues were sent by God — I say about hunger and arrows flying in the wind, and at last, and the sword of the barbarian, otomstitele for desecration of God's law, and the sudden burning of the glorious city of Moscow, and the devastation of the whole earth Russian, and, most bitter and shameful, the fall of the royal soul, and the shameful flight of the king's troops, before the former brave, as some here we are told — as if then buries the Tatars from the forest, with its kromeshnikami, and you just do not hunger died! And before that Ismail dog when you're pleasing to God reigned from us, insignificant thy running in the wild, the place is great and the place of the current heavy and your tributes that it points you to the Christian blood, paying tribute to him by our swords — your soldiers , a tribute was paid infidel heads.

And the fact that you are writing, calling us traitors because we were forced willy-nilly you kiss the cross, because there you have a custom, if a man does not swear, you will die a horrible death, for it all to you my answer: all the wise men so agree that if anyone swears by force or swears it is not a sin to be counted, who kisses the cross, but most of all to the one who leads. Is persecution and were not? But whosoever is saved from the cruel persecution, the killer himself, going against the word of the Lord: "If you chase in the city, go to the other." A example of this is shown Lord Christ our God, to us, his faithful, for not only was rescued from death, but also the pursuit godless Jews.

And the fact that you said if I was angry at the man raised his hand in God, and God's church is destroyed and Pozega on this answer, or we wasted no slander, or scrape, the king, these words, for David and was forced to because of the persecution of Saul to go to war against the land of Israel, together with the king of the Gentiles. I did the will not pagan and Christian kings, by their will and went. But I confess to their sin, which was forced by your command to burn the big city Vitebsk and in it 24 Christian churches. Similarly, at the behest of King Sigismund-August was to destroy the town of Lutsk. And there we strictly followed with Koretsky prince to the wrong God's church did not burn and is not ruined. And truly could not because of the multitude of soldiers to follow, for it was then fifteen thousand soldiers with us, among whom were many and barbarians: the Ishmaelites, and other heretics, renewers ancient heresies, the enemies of the cross of Christ, and without our knowledge and in our absence the wicked burned a church with a monastery. And this is confirmed by a monk who had rescued us from captivity! And then, about a year later, the main enemy is — the king Wed, sent to the King, he urged him, and me, too, to go with him to the part of the Russian land that under the rule of yours. I, in spite of the king's command, refused, and did not want to think about this madness to go under infidel Christian banners on the ground with a stranger godless king. Then the king himself that surprised and complimented me that I do not become like mad until I solved on the like.

And the fact that you eat, as if your enchanted princess and you parted with it prezhdenazvannye those men and I'm with them, I am to you for those saints do not answer, because their deeds cry out like a chimney, proclaiming the sanctity and their virtue. About me briefly tell you the same: although very mnogogreshen and unworthy, but, however, born of noble parents, I kind of Grand Prince of Smolensk Fedor Rostislavich, like you, great king, know very well from the Russian chronicles, that the princes of the kind not used to torment his own body and blood of their brethren to drink, as some become customary: for the first dared to do so, Yuri Moscow, being in the Horde, speaking against the Holy Grand Prince Mikhail of Tver, and then the other, whose cases are still fresh in the memory and were before our eyes. What is done with the Uglich and that Yaroslaviches and others of the same blood? And like all their race destroyed and exterminated? It's hard to hear and awful. From maternal breasts cut off, in the darkest dungeons of the shutter and for many years was in prison, and one grandson eternally blessed and bogovenchanny!

And that's your queen to me, unfortunate, a close relative, and you will be convinced in our kindred of the writing on the same page.

And about Vladimir and his brother, I remember, as if it wanted to build on the throne is truly about this and did not think, because it was not worthy. And then I guess what you think of me, even when my sister took me by force and handed over to his brother, or, I can honestly say with all boldness, in that long since your krovopiystvenny race.

And everywhere and proud boast that supposedly life-giving power of the cross Livonians damned enslaved. I do not know and I do not think that this could not believe it: rather, the shadow crosses the robber! Back when our king from his throne did not move, and all the nobility still remained in their houses, and all the host of the Royal were beside the king, and the crosses are those in many cities have been nekiim Zhabko, and Kesey — capital city — Latvians. And so it is clear that it is not Christ's crosses, and the cross crucified robber who carried before him. Hetmans Polish and Lithuanian but also began to prepare for a campaign against you, and your damned voevodishki and correct to say — beggars from the shadow of these crosses were dragged out of your related, but here, in the great diet, which is a lot of people were subjected to universal ridicule and abused, cursed, and much to the eternal shame of thy Holy Russia and all over the earth, and a reproach to the people — the children of Russian.

And the fact that you are about to hiss Kurlyateve about Prozorovsky and Sitsky, and I do not understand about what Uzoroche about what the curse, and then recall the acts of Crohn's and Aphrodite, and the musketeer wives, all of this is worthy of ridicule and, like tales of drunken women and the answer to all this is not required, as the wise Solomon says: "Fools are not befitting reply," because those are all the above, not only Prozorovsky and Kurlyatevyh, but also numerous other noble men, absorbed the ferocity of their tormentors, and in their place were beggars , which put silishsya governors, and obstinately are against reason and. God, and therefore they will soon disappear along with the cities, not just trembling at the sight of a single soldier, but also fearful of a leaf, worn by the wind, disappear along with the cities, as in Deuteronomy holy prophet Moses wrote: "One because of your iniquity to take flight a thousand, and two — tens of thousands. "

And in the same letter recalls that to my letter already answered, but I have long been on the broadcast list your written response, but could not because of the shameful custom of sending those lands, for you shut the kingdom of Russian, the free human nature, as if in Hells stronghold, and if anyone went out of your land, following the prophet, and the lands of others, as Jesus Sirach says, you're a traitor to this call, and if caught it at the border, the coffers of a horrible death. Here, too, will be like you, come violently. And so long as you did not send the letter. And now, as this answer your message on the present, and that — in the verbose message send to your previous high your highness. And if you find yourself wise, but read them in the silence of soul and without anger! And besides, I beg you: do not try to write more than a stranger to the servants, because here know how to respond, as a wise man said: "He wanted me to say, but you do not want to hear," that is the answer to your words.

And the fact that you write as if you did not submit and would like to take over your state and call me a traitor and fugitive, all these calumnies leave without attention because of the sheer me your hex or slander. Also, leave the other answers, because it was possible to write in response to your message, or reducing what you have already written to my letter was not barbaric because of the many unnecessary words, or surrendering to the court of the incorruptible judge of Christ, the Lord our God what I have repeatedly reminded you in my previous letters, so I do not want to, unhappy, bandy words with your royal majesty.

And sending you two chapters drawn from the book of wise Cicero, the famous Roman adviser, who lived back in the days when the Romans possessed the whole universe. And he said, answering his enemies who reproached him as an exile and a traitor, just as your majesty, unable to contain his fury of persecution, shoots the ball, squalid, fire arrows from a distance of threats and their vain vain. Andrew Kurbski, Prince Kovel.

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