Vladimir Menshov was born in 1939? In Baku. He graduated from the Moscow Art Theatre School in 1965. Then he studied at the Institute of Cinematography (workshop Mikhail Romm). Made films: "Draw" (1977), "Moscow does not believe in tears" (1980), "Love and Pigeons" (1984), "Shirley Myrli" (1995), "Envy of the Gods" (2000). Played a variety of film roles, including the films "A man in his place," "own opinion", "courier", "Zero City", "Spartacus and Kalashnikov", "Night Watch", "Elimination" …
Honored Artist of the RSFSR People's Artist of Russia, laureate of the State Prize of the RSFSR (for the film "Draw") and the State Prize of the USSR ("Moscow does not believe in tears"). Winner of the "Oscar" Academy Award. Chevalier Order "For Services to the Fatherland» IV? Degree, "For Services to the Fatherland» III? Degree.
— What are the factors of modern social life can put you out of balance?
— Most annoying moments are related to the way the story is presented in our country of the twentieth century. To this one might have to get used to, but I can not. I can not take formal triumphant glance at the history of the Soviet Union, which is aggressively trying to introduce into the minds of the younger generation. Communicating with those who shaped modern books and television, often simply dumbfounded. The new generation is based in the judgments on the anti-Soviet officialdom, unfamiliar with the alternative view of the past, and therefore unable to work out their own position.
If a movie or TV show anything about the Soviet Union, nearly one hundred percent probability this falsification of history. We are convinced that life in the Soviet Union was hopeless, try to make this idea into every cell of social consciousness.
The West has long been a stereotype of thinking in relation to Russia, he skillfully formed, consciously. Their highbrow intellectuals can still operate opposing concepts, but the average westerner is in the absolute power of the anti-Soviet myth.
Here, for example, I saw the movie BBC «Who Killed Stalin? '. Level Expert sovietologists peremptory evaluations primitive language initially produced comic effect. But the course of action, when Russian actors portraying the "inner circle" — high-ranking Soviet politicians — began wildly drunk, fall snouts in the salad, to turn into a beast, and Stalin looked drunk with a sarcastic smile on this orgy movie was just an insult to our country But … almost the same thing in a few adapted form, I see and Russian movies!
More recently, with some pride we have presented the French film "Concerto". On our side, good actors involved, and the premiere they told me that this has turned warm comic strip … But what about you guys, you look at it through the eyes of ordinary Frenchman who came to the movie theater! What are the conclusions he comes out? .. It turns out that in the Brezhnev era in the early 80's, the conductor of the Bolshoi theater has suffered for refusing to dismiss all the Jews from the orchestra. He himself was fired, and the Jews were killed in Siberian labor camps. Just a little girl noble Frenchmen were taken to the West in a case of double bass … and my colleagues agree to play in the film and did not feel any sense of shame!
Even if all this nonsense was true, surely would have cost to participate? Maybe it's time to learn from the Europeans, which we always offer as a model of dignity and honor? German, for example, you are talking about the war not pull it out there almost every skeleton in the closet stashed grandfather, who fought on the Eastern Front. And try to touch the shameful behavior of the French during World War II. As far as I know there were directors who were trying to make a movie about collaborators, what were the cruelest ostracized. France decided to speak only about the Resistance, which even de Gaulle recognized only successful propaganda myth. The Germans, at least, were surprised to see at the signing of the surrender of the French as winners … Try to talk to the British about how vile they were pulling with the opening of a second front, waited until we got harassed by the Germans with each other. Try to talk with the Romanians and Hungarians, who fought alongside the Nazis, with the Czechs, who have made at its plants two of the three tanks of the German army … They are all skillfully ignore the shameful pages of its history, and will not allow anyone to raise these issues.
Self-flagellation has always been inherent in the Russian mentality, and especially it has blossomed with perestroika. Any attempt to debunk the heroic pages of our history has been regarded as a contribution to the fight against the hated Communist regime. It penetrated into the pores of our public life, it has become commonplace. Then it will be very difficult to uproot all-out anti-Soviet, who for twenty-five years has gained a strong root system, but to do this, of course, necessary. We can not exist in a situation of utter historical injustice.
In this regard it was indicative program, "the Court of time." Finally, in the public space could hear the position opposite to the anti-Soviet. The concept that after a 17-year in Russian history is nothing good happened, were countered by powerful counter-weighted. And of course, just hit the audience voting.
— Despite the stream of anti-Soviet in the media, it is still ratio — ninety to ten. With what you associate?
— I can not explain it. I know that the results produced an overwhelming impression on the liberal intelligentsia … It would seem that the final figures to juggle, suggest something neutral — 48? 52 (as it did in the studio, where the discussion was going.) But when the vote count was included in the country, the result is absolutely not coincide with the studio. Whether the time has not figured out whether the organizers of the project have shown integrity.
The result was surprising also because it is not consistent with the results of the elections in our country. I do not believe that the election is a mass manipulation — hence, there is a reason for which the tele-voting reveals a clear support for socialist ideas, but on the real elections are not.
In general, I think it is very important to carry out profound sociological studies, spend a lot of money and determine the condition of the our society. We need to understand what people want, what their preferences and discontent. After all, from the time of Gorbachev, we've learned a lot and changed their views.
— Your movies are called "popular", and you — the "people's director". You may know something about the people they do not know the rest? ..
— For me it is a very important topic. I remember of my youth I was impressed by the idea, and I even wrote her: "The crowd — it's not the people, Pushkin — the people." Well, it sounds impressive. And now I think: why did the crowd, the masses of refuse in the manifestation of people's mentality? And because Pushkin and the genius that he was able most clearly and powerfully express the spirit of the people. While it is unfair to write about Russian riot as senseless and merciless. Cutthroat — of course, but — pointless … I'm far more impressed by the position of the Bloc, which in uprisings, rebellions, revolutions seen mixing historical accounts, the sudden straightening of the spring, the shrinking for decades, if not centuries.
Arguing about the people, must inevitably come to fuzzy concepts, laws that are impossible to articulate. Yet subconsciously realize that somehow everything around is filtered and crystallized masses beliefs, mythological representations. Gradually, views, take a stable form — regarding some of the ruler, the entire historical period or a specific event. On the surface, the public process can boil disputes boiling passion, but in parallel in the back of the crystal is formed — an immutable point of view, which is not affected.
This process applies to all — including the arts. How I watched my life ephemeral, which hardly appeared, received the status of netlenki. Sometimes classic appointed from above, but more often arose from below whisper: it's a must see, must hear, must read! Time passed, and became a genius capable guys, new bosses … Methodically, imperceptibly time and people were doing their job.
— The result of crystallization always seem fair to you?
— It's already out of the moral and judgmental, it's like a law of nature … At the time, I read in the memoirs of his wife, Robert Rozhdestvensky, a life butting each other Yevtushenko and Voznesensky, not Humorous, and quite seriously, proving his own right to be considered the best Russian poet the second half of the twentieth century. And just burned her resume on this point: "And it turned out — Vysotsky …"
Perfect as Mayakovsky in "Conversation with fininspektorom of poetry": "… These poems and odes today, in the roar of applause rheumatic, go down in history as the overhead made us — two or three …"
— Regarding your pictures crystallization occurred. Do you agree?
— "Love and Pigeons", no doubt, has become a folk painting, it is accepted by all social groups, even the Communists together with the Liberals. Interesting story of "Moscow does not believe in tears," which would seem to belong to his time. It includes the realities of a bygone era, is not quite clear the current young people, but in a strange way the film turns into a matrix not only Soviet, but simply Russian national life.
But the picture was born, so to speak, of the breeze, not the result of some serious training. At that time I was more interested in the movie social, political. More VGIK I wrote the script of the film "is required to prove" with the subtitle: "Based on the books by Lenin," Left-Wing-Wing Communism. " When he read my teacher Mikhail Romm, he invited me to his house, closed the office door and said, "Volodya, if you wanted to prove you're a person capable and talented even then you do it. But in order to avoid serious trouble scenario do not show anyone else. " It upset me very much, because no anti-Soviet intentions I did not have. The script went polemic, but then the "Left-Wing Left-Wing" extremely polemical. It was written in connection with the Brest peace, it collected the arguments "for" and "against", which are then discussed in the party circles. In essence, after all, the whole party, and the Central Committee did not accept the idea of the Brest peace, but Lenin was a rock … I was interested in this conflict, but then realized it was impossible to such material. Maximum polemic, which allows — it plays Shatrova. Then seemed unusually bold, today they look naive, but in the late 60's he was "Bolsheviks" in the "Contemporary" became for me the most powerful theatrical experience — outstanding direction of Ephraim, fine acting work …
The script for "Moscow does not believe in tears" when compared with this global conception seemed too small, uninteresting, toothless. But it made me think of biographies friends, relatives, work the episodes of his life (after school between going to college I worked in a factory, mine). Incidentally fell notebooks, which I started a while back I wrote down some phrases, expressions, successful sharpness. Fortunately, for me, the working class was not that hostile zhlobskoy common, they are trying to portray some intelligenstvuyuschie directors. According to the modern cinema, the working class — is something deeply marginalized, wild drinking, not burdened by intellect. So are those who stand at the machine, steel cooking, collects bread … And I fell in love with these people, began to understand them, to appreciate their humor … Now reign kaveenovskie jokes, and we have forgotten the real Russian humor, and this is an amazing phenomenon. Its important feature is the self-irony. Russian humor is more directed at himself, and not on others …
When I was making this film, no Napoleonic plans are not nurtured and most importantly, nothing to worry about — not to embarrass myself. After all, "Moscow does not believe in tears" was my first "adult" picture after the "Rally".
Was a resounding success with audiences and totally unexpected for me.
— Standing in line bolshey than "Moscow does not believe in tears," was not necessary.
— Even gaydaevskie movies were blocked and a half to two times. And above all, due to the multiple display. Some viewers wrote me that watching a movie on 10-20 …
Now it is clear that already worked and the time factor and the factor of crystallization. I see that picture of the people selected. Despite the fact that no one was promoted, no lobbyists, intellectuals, on the contrary, critics urged the audience: those who like the picture — immature people who have no taste …
Let it does not sound very modest, but it is these movies — "Love and Pigeons", "Moscow does not believe in tears" — I will stay in the memory, "and so long will I kind people" … but clearly something else: "Shirley What a Mess!" and especially "Envy of the Gods" made much more professional hand, were not included in the fund of national cinema, not crystallized. No matter how sad it has to say.
— About "Shirley Myrli" you can bet …
— Yes, I hope that maybe this picture is taken with certain ahead of time and will to work for it. There is a lively sense of humor, the atmosphere of timelessness, crazy farcical 90's, but still this film was not included in the national consciousness as something inherent needed. A "Moscow does not believe in tears" was included. Her characters have become almost family, they are referred to, they quoted, they are present in people's lives, and even serve as an example. Vera Alentova offended that she is not the fat part, in the first series reprises her character overshadows the character of Irina Muravevoj, and the second — there Gosh and pulls the blanket over himself. And I think I found the right formula: you role-destiny, life will be with you to do …
Then I was incomprehensible earnest hatred of the "Moscow does not believe in tears" by the elite intelligentsia. People just could not find words to express the extent of his contempt for the painting and cattle, which it looks. For me, the nature of this hatred was opened much later. She was completely social. Sitting in the kitchen, intellectuals agreed among themselves that here "in this country," one can not live. I am also actively involved in such conversations, but I was thinking how to remodel life for the better!
Now read the memoirs of the apologists of adjustment, those who can be considered the current winners, and wonder: they're just shaking with hatred for the country. They claim they did not accept the system, but between the lines clearly discerned: they did not accept Russia do not take a nation that put up with the ugly social systems and the monster Stalin. Of course, they could not accept the picture that proves that you can live, you can make a career, you can just be happy.
— If you dissect a work of art belonging to the category of folk, look inside, what is the mechanism of how it works?
— It's a mysterious process that can be explained only in hindsight.
— But the general criteria, generic signs of "nationality" should be. Can offer, such as a version — folk art comforting and inspiring …
— However, in the "Quiet Flows the Don" these components virtually present. And even in "War and Peace". It seems strange, but the first in this novel have seen not so much his nation as historical discrepancies. It seems that even Denis Davydov had noted flaws: a regiment do not actually stationed there. But then on the "War and Peace" was the time to work …
On the Great Patriotic War, not many works that could be called a true folk. Few managed to penetrate into the heart of the phenomenon, to show what the people-winner. Tvardovsky failed. Of course, "Vasily Terkin" — is the pinnacle of … But you know, I'm reading in the concerts of Simon's, he did not seem the most prominent poet considered, but his military lyrics so poignant! And not just textbook "Wait for me." The war was over his fate intertwined with love, relationships with Valentin Serov …
These have hit many, perhaps, in the life of the poet happen unique coincidence with the pulse of life. We Gudzenko, for example, two poems just great: "We do not regret …" and "When are going to die — they sing …". Two or three masterpieces have every poet belonging to the war generation … But with the military prose more difficult …
— But popular films about the Great Patriotic set.
— Apparently, this genius of folk art is always in motion — today it is in literature, in music tomorrow, then in film. The first thing to remember "The Ballad of a Soldier" and "The Cranes Are Flying." However, the picture Kalatozov for my taste, somewhat mannered, though a major breakthrough in terms of visual culture. There were still the second-tier films such as "The Living and the Dead", a wonderful picture Orda "At your doorstep …" Directors who returned from the front, remember the smell of sweat, blood and gunpowder, could not lie, they have turned out very present and strong movie .
The Great Patriotic War was an incredible feat of the Soviet people. It seems that this led us to exploit all the thousand-year history of Russia, to this highest point of our lives — Victory … Which we did not want, could not take advantage. Already some forty years, we have failed state. This is the result of Victory? .. Stalin had not raised their successors. He was a genius, no doubt about that, and those who carried out his orders, we also felt very talented people, but they were left to themselves …
As a result, the Soviet system in the mid-80s was no longer prepared to meet the challenges of the time. There is an urgent paradigm shift in social development, but the restructuring, to our misfortune, led by figures are not large, they are brought to the return of Russia to the fold of the so-called European civilization. Their own way did not look …
The most despicable of the story — the injustice of what happened. Destroyed the country by those who made a career for dissertations about the inevitability of building communism. At some random people were frightened rich. Now they are heard by our fate, and even say that before everything was arranged wrong. Although made their billions in capital on what is built, created in Soviet times! ..
But I realize there is no reverse. Let a lot of unhappy people, but in the Soviet Union, they did not want. For the right to go on holiday to Turkey or Egypt, many people willing to donate.
— The idea of the impossibility of returning firmly embedded in the consciousness of it — the prevailing public opinion.
— I think this idea is not to introduce it already crystallized. In Kara-Murza our outstanding contemporary, one of the most powerful thinkers, explaining the essence and meaning of the Soviet Civilization, noticed that the USSR lot of responsibilities imposed on the person … There was corruption — what the hell up and go to work if you want to be masters of their own Fate, nowhere to go, and stay home and lie down. The new government has declared: live as they please, like the garbage to eat — eat healthy, you want to make the way — work. But for the most part people in general have forgotten how to work. Migrant workers are working for us.
— When an art worker declares its political position, the audience is hard to ignore. Someone in the audience certainly changed my attitude to you … How do you feel about this fact?
— With respect to my liberal audience really is extremely wary, because I do not hide their biases and even in the late 90's said openly that the vote for the Communists. At the time, it was for liberals is tantamount to pedophilia.
Generally when we talk about our club intellectuals, his 90? Percent — on the side of the liberals. With them is useless to argue. I read a lot offers compelling logical Sergei Kara-Murza, smashing humor Vladimir Bushina, believing that an intelligent person should grasp the opponent's argument. I did at one time studied the position and Yakovlev, and Afanasyev and Sakharov … But the Liberals have made their choice, they would not budge. And they are called reactionaries are? ..
So as to communicate with colleagues: you can either stay with them in perpetual conflict or accepts them as they are, and strictly away from discussing political issues.
— How do you assess the way in which appears in today's world of Russian cinema? Why this craving for the description of the bottom, admiring the black side of life?
— Too long time in various forms to declare the thesis that "ashamed to be Russian" — the origins of the aesthetic here. It is quite prosperous Moscow boys got carried away of the life of homeless people, the study of mental abnormalities — up to necrophilia. Furthermore, there destination. On the western film festivals, particularly popular any shame Russia.
Generally, as soon as there are play, book, movie, insulting our people, once there are people who require support for this work, insist on awarding bonuses and …
Over the years, it became quite clear that by entering into the anti-Soviet, surely you will come to a frank russophobia. A person consistently anti-Soviet occupying positions inevitably realizes that the people of these views are not shared, and then he has to say — people are not the same. Since these people can not create anything at all, it is a mistake of nature. Next — pure racism: to root out this people, and only then mankind will be able to move by leaps and bounds, thankfully.
— Currently shooting a lot of anti-Soviet films in different genres: epic, drama, comedy, musicals. Tell me how a person who knows the film production cuisine: it is possible today to withdraw the pro-Soviet movie? With the same power of propaganda, propaganda force that removed the anti-Soviet cinema. If there was some kind of crazy man with a bag of money? ..
— In theory — yes. Public demand for such art exists. If the money is there, the problems seemed to arise should not, run and shoot. In principle, there are strange millionaires, life is not so single-line … But … It will take place in an atmosphere of serious moral pressure not only from the political elite, but even your own crew. For example, I had a documentary film about the Moscow cemeteries under the "One hundred films about Moscow." I shot at Novodevichy, the Kremlin wall. We were allowed to shoot in the mausoleum. And the operator refused to go there. In principle, I will not be close to this monster …
— If you could make a claim to a certain generalized image of the writer that combines talent Gabrilovica, ridge, Volodin, which would have asked the script?
— Whom shall I now do not have enough crazy for making a movie adequate our lives today, so it's absolutely wonderful and unjustly forgotten writer — Evgeny Grigoriev. A wide audience, he is known mainly for "Romance of the Lovers." He and many conceived in the early 90s, but nothing, unfortunately, was never implemented …
While slowly and painfully come up with the story alone.
— Questions were asked by Oleg PUHNAVTSEV
See also: Aleksandr Blok: The people and the intelligentsia
Enough to feed the darned intellectuals