"At first, 1964 in the newspaper" Literature and Art "asked the villagers Gorodechno Novogrudskii district. In his letter, they identified that" full freedom of the press and a large development of the native capabilities of the written word we can not (which year!) To find and purchase a wall or desk calendar Belarus. Many people want to vyyasnits: what kind of aliens entered the Belarusian publishing house in Minsk? I who gave them the right vyastsi denatsyyanalizatarskuyu policy? Have they never read Lenin’s writings on the state issue? "
Letter Onishchenko and his fellow villagers did not go unnoticed. Section Head, print, radio and television ideological department of the Central Committee of the PBC Arkady Toustsik noted that the letter is considered, and its creator said that since 1963, Table calendar published in the Belarusian language, which has a circulation in 1964 amounted to 20 thousand copies. "
Vyacheslav Rakytskyy: "In the studio without barriers we talk with historian Valentin Mazets. Valentin, explain to why there is a situation with the release of Belarusian calendar? It was at that time 60 years of the 20th century, a single or a natural phenomenon?"
Valentin Mazets: "The situation was sinful situation with the Belarusian-edition books. Managers bookselling not allowed to buy Belarusian-language books. They were kept in warehouses, and later as spisvalisya Overstocked products. After same stated that the Belarusian unmarketable book that nobody wants to read. The steady growth trend share of Russian printed materials and reduce the Belarusian-language. If in 1946 the circulation of magazines in the Russian language was only one per cent, in 1955, he had already reached the January 30 th cent. And in 1970, the total circulation of Belarusian books amounted to 9 million copies, and Russian — 16 million. "
Rakytskyy: "These processes historians and philologists dubbed Russification. Which areas previously affected very Russification? "
Mazets: "Russification trend outlined in the late 1930s, first in education. Beginning of the process can be considered as the SNK decree of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party and on March 13, 1938 of mandatory study of the Russian language in schools state republics and regions. Practice prior to 1940 higher and secondary special educational institutions had no training in the Belarusian language. Even philological departments, where trained teachers Belarusian language and literature, all of the items except the Belarusian language and literature, taught, usually in Russian. "
Rakytskyy: "What reason did and where to find the origins of this phenomenon?"
Mazets: "The premise was a tendency to unify the national cultural life in the Soviet republics to the Russian base, which was aimed at strengthening the state in the form of the USSR."
Rakytskyy: "But why specifically in 1950 — 60 years more rigidly displaced from the consumption of the Belarusian language and is fitted to Russian? Killed Stalin, Khrushchev came to power with his political thaw …"
Mazets: "But the thaw has affected the main sphere of political relations, it did not concern public policy. State policy occurred not thaw and freeze the truest. At 22 Party Congress in October 1961 adopted a brand new programm CPSU. She announced the transition to communism generation that will live in the 1980s. Chief postulates applets — merging of individual nations in a separate communist civilization, and their languages into a single language. "
Rakytskyy: "And what place in this global process took BSSR?"
Mazets: "In the USSR, the Belarusians have always been at the forefront. Was not an exception for them and the process of Russification. Khrushchev push was made when he was in 1959 on the steps of the Belarusian State University, said that the faster everyone will read the Russian language, the faster will be built communism. And who of ordinary Belarusians did not want to live under communism!
Rakytskyy: "Who acted in BSSR ideologue and who guide Russification?"
Mazets: "It was the same party and state structures. In June 1952 was accepted by the Council of Ministers of the BSSR on teaching Russian and Belarusian languages in schools BSSR in light of the teachings of Stalin on linguistics. It emphasized the need to study the Russian language and all citizens of mandatory BSSR owning it. BSSR Ministry of Education issued an order in April 1951 abolished in Russian schools transferable exams and matriculation exams Belarusian language. And in 1952 at the suggestion of the Central Committee of the PBC (b) at BSU was limited to teaching the Belarusian history and culture, and through quite some time and closed the Department of History of Belarus. "
Rakytskyy: "Very often you can hear that the Belarusians themselves abandoned their own language. Indeed if it was their self-selection?
Mazets: "The process of Russification was not an independent choice. Choose possible only when there is freedom of choice. A Belarusians were practically the same as in the biblical situation when God called Adam and said to him to choose a spouse. And the choice was between Eve and the serpent. Tempted serpent, Adam was expelled from paradise … "
Rakytskyy: "What is the benefit of Belarusians had that renounces the Belarusian language? Bureaucrats, teacher, other categories?"
Mazets: "In the criteria, when most schools training was conducted only in the Russian language, of course, none of the parents was not an opponent for their own kids. Ancestors usually chose Russian as the language of instruction. In addition, knowledge of the Russian language was a guarantee of the respective zaymannya social status in the society. Also for the Russian language, and huge amounts of money to pay teachers. May 26, 1983 was accepted by the Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers for an increase of 15 per cent of salary of teachers of Russian language in the Belarusian-language schools. According to this decision, from January 1984 was increased by 15 per cent rate for teachers and pre-second-third graders who knew the Russian language, and a teacher of Russian language and literature in the 4 — 11 classes of secondary schools of all types with the Belarusian language learning, which were both in the countryside and in the towns Fri urban ".
Rakytskyy: "Neuzh Russification processes that occur without conflict? Was resistance to Russification? Who opposed when it was?"
Mazets: "Resistance Russification was throughout the period after the war, as part of ordinary people as well as by representatives of the party nomenklatura. So, in June 1953 at the plenum of the Central Committee of the PBC then second secretary Zimyanin proposed to adopt a resolution calling for the party organs BSSR transfer all paperwork in the Belarusian language. A secretary RK PBC Minsk Leninsky Fedorov’s report-back election party meeting in the Ministry of Communications, said: "Shameful to live in Belarus and Belarusian newspapers not to write. Must be respected Belarusian republic. Who knows, you need to teach the Belarusian language. "But her appeal is not sought support from the caucus participants. Some of them, named so Kosov Fedorova said:" You were incorrect here and pursue policies which were previously Zimyanin. You get Belarusian newspapers write and teach Belarusian language? This — beryyshchyna "
Rakytskyy: "And, of course, in favor of the Belarusian language advocated public intellectuals. What were the consequences for her?"
Mazets: "Depending on the form in which held a protest against Russification, and t
he reaction was from the party-state and the secret police. So, for example, in 1956 teacher of the Grodno Pedagogical Institute Bronislaw Rzhevskij was convicted for the written appeal to the authorities of discrimination against the Belarusian language for 7 years. nephew in 1957 Kolas Leon and Misha whitewashed received respectively 10 and 7 years in prison for posting leaflets in support of the Belarusian language. In 1960 Ales and Viktor Ryazanov Yarats for appeal to the Central Committee of the PBC with the requirement to translate training in Belarusian Department of Philology BSU Belarusian language could not continue to learn, as it is not able to pass a test of military training. "
Rakytskyy: "Valentine, let us formulate, what evil has brought Russification Belarusian civilization?"
Mazets: "The result of Russification appeared deprivation Belarusians own identity. A deprivation of identity leads evenly, but inevitably, to the disappearance of civilization."
Rakytskyy: "And what would happen if Russification in Belarus was not?"
Mazets: "If it were not Russification, the criteria for what was then a multinational country — the Soviet Union — still there would be some other form of unification. Most Belarusians own in an enchanted sleep were sitting would be expected that there will be some messiah and lead them to a brighter and happy life. And most Belarusians themselves own and have not found zeal to change something in your life private. "
"Over the subsequent (2008 — VR), the suspended release calendar" Native Land. "
"Unprofitable" — says chief editor of "Belarus" Jacob Alekseichik. According to Mr. Alekseichik calendar sold poorly.
We called the store "Akademkniga." Commodity Svetlana told us that their calendar "Native Land" always excellent bought:
"It is very popular with customers, and of people in general often require calendars in the Belarusian language, and they, unfortunately, badly produced little."
"Nasha Niva", October 16, 2007. "
Tags: atlyantyda, Mazets Russification