FPI as a reaction to the military-technological gap
September 28, the State Duma adopted in the 3rd reading of the law «On the Foundation of promising research» (DRF), and not so long ago, it was approved by the Federation Council. There is no hesitation that have recently begin formation of the structure, which is called the Russian DARPA. At number 28, the weekly «MIC» evaluated prospects DRF.
The idea of the creation of the Russian Federation in the same structure as the Office of the promising research U.S. DoD (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency — DARPA), is credited with, namely, the main «engine» of this initiative — Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin. But for the first time in such form — need an analog DARPA — it was suggested as early as 2010, Dmitry Medvedev. Then taking the presidency, he said: «Not yet efficient structure that would deal with the order of breakthrough research and development in the defense and security interests, including research promising, albeit very risky. Need to think about the organization of such activities. » As an example, Medvedev cited specifically the South American Defence Agency.
The main differences
By the way, the wording is very similar to the above, is contained in the text of the law on the FPI: «In order to facilitate the implementation of research and development in the interests of national defense and national security associated with the highest risk.» So Makar, reversing two years Medvedev «guessing» to the definition. But to make a similar structure tried before. In 1993, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev ordered the military to form the Scientific and Technical Council, which was due to perform planning promising defense technologies. Council acted headed by First Deputy Defense Minister Andrei Kokoshin. While strategic breakthrough research failed. General state of Russian «defense» and Sun led the War Department to engage in «patching up holes.» Even earlier, similar bodies existed in the USSR.
It is believed that with the creation of the DRF, we must obtain an analogue DARPA. Visible link yavna: and Russian Fund and South American agency designed to engage one and the same — to provide technology an advantage. Yet there are significant differences.
1. DARPA is running the U.S. DoD. It is independent only in a very narrow sense — its research and development carried out in isolation from research in major military research centers. R & D in the interests of the Pentagon can be divided into two main groups: internal performed in defense research laboratories — Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos state, Lincoln, U.S. Army Natick; exterior performed in corporations, institutions, small businesses innovatorskih from time to time, in cooperation with the listed defense laboratories.
Russian FPI, on the contrary, has no direct relationship to either the War Department or the leading defense research institute. What specific way on what staff and the science base will be built its activity is not yet clear.
2. DARPA is subject to specific management MO U.S. FPI — Government and President of the Russian Federation.
3. Our fund in accordance with the text of the law «forms the scientific understanding of the likely dangers that are critical to the country’s defense and national security, the reasons for their appearance and ways of elimination.» It turns out that the DRF is entitled to engage in doctrinal matters and may temper some degree responsible for the formation of the country’s defense policy, in other words the basic military science in Russia, apparently, will depend on its activities.
4. DARPA has working groups that are engaged in the generation of ideas. The agency usually develops projects itself, and later finds for perpetrators. Russian fund as only «organizes the search order for development, testing and support of scientific and technical innovatorskih thoughts, advanced design and technological solutions in the design and manufacture of products sverhtehnologichny military, special and dual purpose.» A main objective of the FPI is to promote the research and development.
Pay attention to the keywords «promote» and «support.» Sergei Ivanov explained: «There is no authority, about the same South American DARPA, we will not just create. But distribute streams, including cheap to finance basic science so called exploratory research, it is necessary … «What it resembles either already made some previously state-owned corporation owning not nanobyudzhetom.
5. Speaking of costs. DARPA biennial budget is less than 3 billion dollars. Money, which will operate Russian DRF, according to open sources should be from 3 to 12.5 billion dollars a year. Some sources cite a figure three billion rubles. According to others, the fund once a year will develop 150 projects at the cost of 1 to 90 million dollars and 10 projects — from 50 to 90 million. So Makar, the announced three billion rubles not meet exactly. And of course, if in order to put on a bad asphalt road section length a couple of miles in the suburbs, it takes about six to seven million rubles, there can be no question of a promising study for a million dollars — 31 million rubles.
So makarom if the brakes on the figure of three billion dollars, budgets and DARPA are DRF. But it is necessary to take into account the difference in the yearly volumes of military spending: in the Russian Federation is about 50-60 billion in the U.S. — a little less than 700. For example, in 2011 the U.S. military budget amounted to 672 billion dollars, and the proper expenditure of Russia — about 50. Due implemented with a trillionth state armaments program until 2020 (LG-2020) Russian defense spending in 2013 will increase substantially and will make based on the current rate of about 75 billion dollars. The U.S. military budget remains roughly at the same level: in fiscal year 2012 was declared 662 billion Based on these figures, we see that DARPA uses about 0.45 per cent of the defense budget, while the Russian BAR — at least four. And if we take for granted $ 12.5 billion, as much as 16.5 percent (sixth of the country’s defense budget).
Why our fund such funds when abroad proportionally significantly lowest cost allocations?
Our defense industry — not a place for competition
It remains an open question about how to act when choosing performers DRF approved them development. At DARPA have someone hold a tender: here and «Boeing» and «Lockheed Martin» and «General Dynamics», and a number of companies and consortia much less that can create an entire team for a role in the competition. Russian markets are based on some monopolists.
The example of the role GKNTSP Khrunichev in competition to develop promising booster: the center was the only participant and winner respectively. For other examples also do not need to go far — who will compete with Sukhoi in the creation of systems and promising aviation complex tactical aviation? «Benefits» from that state are obvious: the monopolist always makes expensive and least qualitatively, the customer simply because there is nothing to choose.
Another thing is that the monopolization of the Russian market — a result not of ill will of some group of politicians and businessmen, and impartial investigation of economic processes, sunken Russian «defense» in the 90s of the last century in a state of profound decline. Final picture it does not change.
There are different points of view about the need for the creation of the FPI. Namely, there is a perception that fund — this is another pump for money from the budget. Also considered, and while this look was, certainly, a lot of support than the previous one, that really helps DRF high quality refurbish Armed Forces, eliminates lag from a technical standpoint, and subsequently contribute to the country, including in the civilian sector innovations. In the latter case, again appropriate to recall DARPA, whose activities contributed to the birth of a global network of Web.
By virtue of self-recognition
Yet in the light of the foregoing, it seems likely other options. So, is not groundless conjecture that DRF is created in order to «pass by» the Russian Defense Ministry as in the formation and implementation at the municipal defense contracts, especially in the field of research and development. As you know, in the latter area there are special spaces.
You can imagine that if DARPA was created thanks to the South American defense department, the Russian BAR — contrary to the Defense Ministry. The Russian Defense Ministry will soon observed sample frank lobbying supply and development of certain types of weapons. Is the creation of a fund attempt to neutralize this process?
Another nuance, in our opinion, is that our homeland, creating DRF responds as it may, on its own lag. But when the United States did their agency, they responded to an advantage in our space.
At DARPA soon were prepyadstviya budget. In March supposed to trim it almost doubled — to 1.4 billion dollars. Yet scientists have defended their money — about 2.8 billion One of the justifications reduction funds — need austerity demanded by Barack Obama. On the other hand, such a sample cut funding can be explained by the fact that the right technology an advantage the U.S. has already been achieved. Especially since the main military-technological rival Yankees gave another «gift»: Russian satellites now do not go on the first orbit, and often fall.