Diarrhea (diarrhea) in children

Diarrhea (diarrhea) in children.  Photo from www.sciencephoto.com

Intestinal infections

Intestinal infections are common in infants. Even the most careful and cleanly parents do not always manage to avoid the development of a baby has an intestinal infection. The fact that the protective functions of the intestine (the acidity of gastric juice, local immune factors) in infants is not formed completely, and some pathogens are not hazardous to adults can cause serious disturbances in infants.

Typically, infection begins suddenly — with abdominal pain (baby cries Sucitu feet) and diarrhea (sometimes with inclusions of mucus, green, blood and other impurities). Intestinal infections may be accompanied by a rise in temperature, but this does not always happen. When the any of the above symptoms be sure to call the doctor, and to try to facilitate the arrival of his child's condition by the following measures:

  1. With loose stools a child loses a lot of water and salts, and he may develop dehydration. To avoid this, the baby should drink a salt solution — for example oralitom, rehydron. Preparation Enterodesum, besides salts also comprises activated charcoal adsorbing toxins from the intestine. One of these drugs should be kept in the home medicine cabinet. It is important to fully compensate the child that the volume of liquid it loses with a chair and vomiting (preferably this volume measure). If the baby does not drink from the bottle, the liquid can be given from a spoon or even a pipette — a small portion of the liquid is not so much provoke vomiting as large. Normal child drink boiled water is undesirable because the intestinal contents lost a lot of salt — if you give a liquid without salt, this shortage will worsen.
  2. In addition to solutions for fluid replacement, a child can be given adsorbents (smektu, Polyphepanum, enterosgel) — drugs that absorb like a sponge toxins in the gut. But keep in mind that by absorbing toxins, these drugs do not kill pathogenic bacteria. In large amounts, they may cause constipation.
  3. To feed a child in the midst of an intestinal infection? Yes, feed. But the volume of food per day should be reduced by 1 /3-2/ 3 as compared with normal (depending on the maximum number of food does not vomit). If the child is breastfed, continue to feed him breast milk, bottle-well in these situations it is better to give milk mixture. Breastfeed often, but in small portions. At each feeding, you can add 1/4 tablet of the enzyme preparation mezim forte. Here, perhaps, all the measures that can be taken to the medical doctor.

In no case do not give a nursing baby antibiotics without prescription: some of the antibiotics commonly used in intestinal infections in adults, newborns are contraindicated (eg chloramphenicol). Great care should be taken when using in infancy of drugs such as Imodium and other supportive care — certainly consult with your doctor.

How to protect your child from intestinal infections?

  • The first thing to pay attention to the dishes from which you feed your baby. It should be dry. Some moms long boil bottles, but then left them in the moisture. Moisture promotes the growth of bacteria.
  • Secondly, do not often pour food from one dish to another — the less you do, the better. That is why to modern breast pump attaches directly feeding bottle.
  • Finally, do not lick pacifiers, spoons, and other children's dishes. The microbes contained in the cavity of your mouth is not always safe for the child (for example, the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which causes peptic ulcer disease or germs that cause tooth decay). Pathogenic bacteria are transmitted primarily from person to person, therefore fallen to the floor pacifier better to just rinse with water (at the very least did not wash at all) than a lick.

Violation of the digestion of lactose (lactose intolerance, lactase deficiency)

If the child frequent watery stools frothy with a sour smell, it can be suspected lactose intolerance. Lactose — A milk sugar, constituting about 99% of all milk carbohydrates, including women. Lactose is responsible for the breakdown of a special enzyme — lactase. Ifsome reasons, the enzyme activity is reduced (so-called lactase deficiency), undigested lactose excess leads to diarrhea.

The most simple and accessible study for suspected lactose intolerance is to determine the amount of carbohydrates in the stool.

For proper treatment is necessary to clarify the cause of intolerance, be sure to consulting with children (!) Gastroenterologist and possibly an allergist. If child received breast milk, it does not deprive this useful product. It is generally recommended decant about 1 /4-1/ 3 of one feeding and expressed milk to add lactase preparation (enzyme, splitting lactose). At the beginning of feeding the child should be given expressed breast milk with lactase, and then supplementary feeding from the breast. The dosage of the enzyme is chosen by the doctor individually.

If a child is on an artificial or mixed feeding, the adapted milk formula is replaced by low-lactose or lactose free (on the selection of therapeutic compounds are also best to consult with your doctor.)

As they get older, the majority of children increases the activity of the enzyme lactase and lactose intolerance symptoms completely disappear.

Lactase deficiency against allergic inflammation in the gut

In those cases where baby too early to start getting a foreign protein (most often proteins in cow's milk or soy contained in mixtures for artificial feeding) in the gut often develop allergic inflammation. This is disruptive to production of lactase.

Allergic inflammation in the gut is not always accompanied by changes in the skin, and apparently the child may not have any signs of allergies. Besides lactose digestion disorders, such children disturbed absorption of many other substances in the gut. Therefore, the child is bottle-fed during prolonged diarrhea is recommended to perform allergy tests.

Lack of different enzymes — sucrase, isomaltase, etc.

Each enzyme is responsible for cleavage of the "" food component (sucrose, fructose, etc.) and is required for normal digestion. Symptoms of deficiency of enzymes occur in the use of certain products, and similar to lactase deficiency. However, this kind of disorder are much less frequent.

The first symptoms of intolerance to sucrose appear when a child nutrition include table sugar (many dishes are trying to sweeten foods), fructose intolerance — when included in the diet of the child honey and juices, etc. Before the visit to the doctor try to remember if there was no diarrhea after the introduction of a child's diet of new products or if you are breast-feeding only after any changes in your diet.

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