In the 70s, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) in Russian Union acquired the license for the main T-72 tanks. Seeing the pace of development of modern armored vehicles, the Yugoslav military at the end of the same decade, initiated the work on the creation of the latest modification of the tank. Due to some circumstances, political and legal disposition of Yugoslavia had the right to independently carry out modernization being built under license Russian technology development. Other Eastern European nations for this had to go to the USSR.
In 1982 he completed the main work of creating the project, and the Yugoslav defense industry jointly built a mock-up of the tank, the title of M-84. In developing the project of modernization Russian T-72 was attended by several companies, and was the head developer Belgrade Military Technical Institute. The main objective of the project M-84 was a significant increase in the combat vehicle features by upgrading individual systems and components. In this regard, the design of the T-72, taken as a base configuration endured small but significantly changed internal equipment.
As Russian T-72, M-84 was welded body, consisting of sheets and stamped parts. According to reports, the thickness of the armor plates and design combined prepyadstvy not changed. Frontal projection of armored and tower blocks were covered dynamic protection system «Contact». In some sources it is mentioned that the Yugoslav industry was obliged to use steel armor types, utilized it in production. But in general, the design of the armored hull and turret M-84 similar to that of the base units of the T-72. All differences were the smallest and necessitates the installation of new equipment, etc.
Engine, transmission and chassis tank M-84 did not differ from those used by Russian tank. Because of this way and economical properties Yugoslav war machine development remained on the ancient level. Similarly, without any configuration at T-72 tanks were taken all gun: 125mm smoothbore gun 2A46-launcher, machine gun and NCW.
The main objective of the project was to increase the modernization armored combat abilities. Especially for the M-84 tank Yugoslav spetsy developed fire control system (FCS) SUV M-84. With her were associated electro-optical viewing devices DNKS-2 and PPV-2, also sight with laser rangefinder. All electrical equipment of Yugoslavia was created on the basis of Russian developments and their own experience. In addition, the M-84 tank was the latest radio and anti-nuclear defense system DRHT.
Mass production of the main tank M-84, which is insignificant modernization Russian T-72 began in 1983. As is the case with the construction of armored vehicles under license in the manufacture M-84 tanks were involved in several companies scattered throughout the countryside of Yugoslavia. Final assembly was done to plant them. Djuro Jackovich in the town of Slavonski Brod. In the forthcoming work on similar rassredotachivanie companies negatively affect the ability of the defense industry.
Soon after the start of series production tank M-84 Yugoslavian spetsy began his improvement. In the process of modernization under the name M-84A planned to update not only the avionics, and a number of other systems. Newcomer modification was to eclipse T-72 for most traits.
In nekordinalno modified armored corps tank M-84 diesel engine installed refreshed. Russian V-46 engine received two turbochargers, by which its capacity increased to 1,000 hp In the process of modernization of the power plant and the tank corps combat weight increased to 44 tons. Despite this, the power density armored M-84A was a little higher than that of the ordinary M-84 or the Russian T-72. The highest speed of the tank after the upgrade has grown to 68-70 km / h
Weapon tank M-84A, as in the case of M-84 was absolutely taken from a T-72. To combat the growth traits upgraded M-84A was the fire control system FCS-H4 (FCS Omega-84) from the gunner’s sight SCS-84. As part of the latest MSA had a ballistic computer and laser radiation detection system. All new electrical equipment has been created by the Yugoslav enterprises and represented the future development of the equipment utilized in the M-84 tank.
According to reports, in the late 80s several Yugoslav tanks M-84 and M-84A was delivered to the Russian Alliance, where they were examined and checked. Russian tank builders recognized the outstanding work of the Yugoslav professionals. In addition, it was noted that a number of applied systems is not inferior or superior to even the equipment used on the Russian T-72 tanks since then.
Mass production of tanks M-84 and M-84A lasted until the early 90-ies. During this period, was built more than 700 machines both modifications. In the late 80’s, a first export version of the Yugoslav tank. Especially for shipments to Kuwait was created by modification of the tank under the title M-84AB, differed from the M-84A next component sighting system. Before the war with Iraq Kuwait managed to get only four tanks. Already during the fighting Yugoslavia through Saudi Arabia was able to smuggle a customer for about 80 military vehicles. According to some sources, in the process of fighting the Kuwaiti military did not lose any of the 1st tank: Only two cars were damaged but were recovered and returned to duty. Agreement with Kuwait originally supposed to supply 170 armored variant M-84AB and 15 command tanks M-84ABK.
After the dissolution of the SFRY
In 1991, its independence from Yugoslavia, Croatia declared. In independent state remains the leading enterprise for the production of tanks SFRY — Plant. Djuro Jackovich. This led to a sharp drop in the rate of production Yugoslav armor. In addition, by the war put an end to most plans. Yet, even in such small enterprises criteria Balkan countries were able to spend a few upgrades M-84 tank and make new modifications.
ARV M-84ABI based on the tank M-84
The middle 90s Kuwait expressed a desire to get armored recovery vehicles based on the M-84AB. Because of the loss of production capacity of Yugoslavia tried to make ARV M-84AI with Polish staff, but, as we know, the project braked at the testing stage layout. The only built machine was not transferred to Kuwait. A couple of years they used the armed forces of Yugoslavia and then Serbia.
In 2004, the Serbian defense industry introduced last remodeling project now own M-84 tank. New Tank M-84AS (aka M-84B1 or M-2001) was a diesel engine 1200 hp and a number of new electrical devices. It has been argued that the new sights, refreshed MSA and several other systems significantly increasing armored combat abilities. Unfortunately Serb tank builders, for the time elapsed since the first demonstration of tank M-84AS, nobody has signed an agreement for its delivery. It was assumed that a certain number of such machines will be able to acquire Kuwait, but the military of this country have shown no enthusiasm for the development of the modern Serbian.
Naikrupneyshim tankostroitelny Plant former Yugoslavia after the collapse of the country remained to be independent Croatia. This same country has deployed more active work on the creation of new combat vehicles based on the tank M-84. The first option was the modernization of tank M-84A4 Sniper, which seemed the middle 90s. This tank was a future development of M-84A with new sights and ballistic computer. Almost M-84A4 was a M-84A electrical equipment M-84AB. According to some reports, the tanks «Sniper» got 1100 hp engines German production. From 1996 to 2003 the Croatian industry has built 40 tanks Model M-84A4.
Back in the 80s Plant. Djuro Jackovich began developing a new M-91 project Vihor. Planned use of existing generation, make the main tank with up to date features zabugornyh samples. Project M-91 reached the trial stage layout, but the war prevented the complete finishing and start building production cars. In the upcoming Croatian experts at the project lured an Israeli company Elbit. As a result, such an international cooperation project M-91 was converted to M-95 Degman. This kind of unified fighting machine armed with existing M-84 tanks of all models, but for all that is equipped with new electrical equipment. Tank M-95 was the 1200 hp diesel engine and additional modules booking significantly increase the level of protection. Complex communications and fire control was created by Israeli spices. According to reports, all applicable items of equipment are consistent with the standards of NATO, which, as expected, could give the tank a huge export prospects. Armament of the tank M-95 corresponds to the previous line of machines M-84, but instead of anti-aircraft machine gun NSV was installed remotely controlled weapon station Samson. In addition, it was alleged that on request 125-mm gun 2A46 can be replaced with a 120mm gun, befitting the standards of NATO. To this day, was built only two models of tank M-95. According to some reports, both layout M-95 are further elaborated standards opytneyshemi tank M-91. Croatian armed forces want to acquire more than 30 such tanks. Third countries do not show enthusiasm for M-95 Degman.
Immediately with the project M-95 tank builders worked on the Croatian tank M-84D. It was assumed that both combat vehicles will be very uniform. With all of this M-84D is a direct development projects of old M-84 family. Tank M-84D is meant to equip the huge number of modules in the system dynamic security protection and engine capacity of up to 1,200 hp, the new MSA and sighting equipment. The main objective of the project M-84D was not simply the creation of the tank with features that go beyond the ability of existing machines, but to develop a set of tools that allows fast and inexpensive to upgrade the existing fleet of vehicles. Due to this current time the contract is made to update the 70 redundant M-84 tanks of all modifications. By 2015, in armor Croatia should only remain in the machine model M-84D. Probably, they will serve, together with the ordered M-95. Few years ago Croatia has been negotiating with Kuwait. It was assumed that all remaining Kuwaiti military M-84AB will be upgraded to the most recent version. The parties were unable to agree, which is why in 2007, all consultations concerning the likely contract ended.
Despite the small number of comparable, tanks M-84 family had to take part in several armed conflicts. First entered the fight Kuwaiti M-84AB. It happened during the Gulf War. Noteworthy that due to the external similarities with the Iraqi T-72 tanks M-84AB used is limited and only fought with Russian armored vehicles past production models (T-55 and T-62). In the process of fighting two Kuwaiti tank received severe damage, but were repaired and returned to duty.
M-84AB Army Kuwait
In June 1991, the ten-day war began. Yugoslav troops tried to regain control of trying to separate Slovenia. Since the Slovenian Territorial Defence did not have the heavy armor, Yugoslav M-84 tanks were used to support columns and the destruction of the barricades. In the process of fighting the Slovenian armed forces were able to kill about 2-10-s Yugoslav tanks.
Summer and autumn of the same year the Yugoslav tank troops again suffered heavy losses. During the Battle of Vukovar infantry could not render vsepolnotsennuyu support tanks, causing the Croatian military managed to kill and destroy the enemy a huge amount of armor. Total during the Croatian-Yugoslav military clashes Croatia were able to capture and bring back about fifty tanks M-84.
A certain number of tanks M-84 several modifications involved in the war in Bosnia. Precise data on the number fought, warped, lost and captured tanks available.
For several decades, the defense industry of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was able to make a number of modifications of Russian T-72 tank. For nearly 10 years, until the collapse of the country, was an active construction of tanks, then the rate of production fell significantly and can not recover until this time. In total, less than a thousand were produced tanks of all models of the family M-84, some of which are used in several armed conflicts.
Relevant feature of all armored family made in Yugoslavia, Croatia and Serbia, is a method of updating machines. In most cases, Balkan experts at developing new electrical appliances, updated powerplant, but all this did not make severe adjustments in the design of hull and turret. It shows a relatively small capacity of the Yugoslav and now Serbian Croatian and industry. In addition, such a feature of M-84 tanks can be considered a confirmation of a huge modernization potential of Russian T-72 tank.
In the current time in the armed forces of Kuwait and countries formerly part of Yugoslavia, is several hundred tanks M-84 family. On the prospects of this technique difficult to read. Obsolescence as it may be re-held or modernization being replaced to date. With all of this to keep in mind that newer and more sophisticated machines family (M-84D in Croatian troops) are M-84 and M-84A, past repairs and upgrades. So Makar, in the coming years in the family tanks M-84 will be running out of resources, including extended. In this case, useful to find a substitute. Maybe it will be a new model, which is another Balkan modernization of T-72.