BSF will soon finish existence as strategic formation
Navy can not live without bases. For two and a redundant century after the creation of our past the Black Sea Fleet, his only real base of Sevastopol was and all other Black Sea ports play a supporting role.
Let me remind you how right after the fall of Sevastopol in July 1942, the situation changed dramatically on this maritime theater. Germans began to dominate here, although had only landing barges, small vessels armed universal adapted for military transport and anti-submarine warfare, submarines and small boats of various classes.
But now the main base of the Black Sea Fleet — Sevastopol have to read in the past tense. «But why?» — Many readers will ask the creator of «MIC». Indeed, in 2010, April 21 Russian and Ukrainian Presidents signed in Kharkov agreement that the lease term Fri Black Sea Fleet in Crimea after 2017 increased by a quarter century with the possibility of extension for another 5 years. A Municipal Duma and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine ratified the contract.
Reversible, but attention to the subsequent: in official documents contained euphemism «basing points» instead of «base». What is a naval base in the foreign land of another country? Immediately come to mind, «Guantanamo» — the South American base in Cuba, «Gibraltar» — a British base in Spain. And there, and there — it’s small areas protected by the armed forces of the United States and England, owning data HMB.
In the Russian Federation the same no such basis in the Bolshennom Sevastopol any other point of the Crimea.
On the ground, subordinate Sevastopol City Council and called Huge Sevastopol since 1995 has only 10 s totality of objects belonging to Russian Federation: Piers, different warehouses, office buildings, lighthouses, etc. The distance between them — from a few 10’s meters up to several kilometers. But these meters or kilometers beyond the control of our Black Sea Fleet, Ukrainian authorities possess them, though that may under any pretext immobilize the work of virtually all institutions BSF (street repair, a ban on travel of armed officers and sailors on the territory of Ukraine, as was done under Yushchenko).
Output from the bay is quite narrow, it simply block a couple of tugs. And at the entrance to the quarantine bay, which is based in the depths of Russian missile boats, parking is a large yacht and they will block their way at any moment.
After the division of Russian Black Sea Fleet Our homeland in Crimea lost all coastal batteries, stationary and mobile missile systems. The only exception is canned 30th Coastal Battery tower (going to make it out of the museum, but later have forgotten about this plan). So Makar, coastal defense Crimea we existent.
Previously strong air defense system of the Crimean peninsula in the Black Sea Fleet available by early 2012, there was one 1096th aircraft missile regiment (SoG), which is deployed there is already 66 years old. Part has 18 SAM launchers «Wasp» (9K33). Since 2009 SoG is located at Cape Fiolent. At the end of today’s summer it was decided to disband the regiment, and in the second half of September, decided to throw it in the service, but in a slightly abbreviated form. By the way, «Osu» have adopted in 1971. And so, according to the creator, not the part you need to cut and re-equip.
In December 2005, Kiev announced the need for an inventory of all the objects used by the Black Sea Fleet. These actions coincided with the conflict between Russia and Ukraine related to determining the price of Russian gas supplied. Occurred sample capture beacons belonging Russia.
In the end, at any moment in Sevastopol may seem ultra thousand of Lviv and other Western cities and villages, and block the movement of objects between the BSF. Note that the bus raids «zapadentsev» had occurred during the presidency of Viktor Yanukovych. Since August 21, 2011, members of the youth organization «Student Brotherhood» started «civil action» to return Ukraine Crimean lighthouses. Most active boys leaked countryside lighthouse «Buzzard» cut stitching wire and posted signs «The object of the Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine.»
Ukrainian authorities as not currently support such actions, and not hinder their implementation.
According to some agreements Our homeland has no right to replace the old Black Sea Fleet ships to new or even upgrade existing, including equip with more modern weapons systems. Why the creator used the word «some»? Yes, because these should agreements if they really have hidden. In any of the contracts placed no similar articles
Since 1991, in other words more than 20 years, PF does not get new weapons. Only on the missile boat P-60 set the standard experienced artillery rocket system near self «Broadsword» (3R89) and after passing ship trials in December 2007, took him into trial operation. However, as they say the media have been tested only 30mm ARC machines and missiles was not simple.
In June 1985, a large missile boat P-44 project 206MR (May 2, 2008, decommissioned and put on metal) instead of the regular ASM «Termite» equipped with 2 packets CT-184 for four container RCC «Uranus» 3M24 . In 1990-1995, during repair BOD «Smetliviy» he was cleared two RBU-1000 and mounted packages CT-184, which had previously carried a P-44. What a shame it did not sound until the date of publication of this article missiles «Uranus» on board «sharpness» is not loaded. They are, in general, in the list of weapons and BSF are not registered, in other words, «A clever» for 17 years scares foe empty containers.
Missile cruiser (RRC) «Moscow» Project 1164 «Atlas» created RCC launches «Volcano» only twice — in 2002 and 2006 in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Well, then the shortest range. Well, the full or even the Black Sea Fleet flagship average their main weapon was shooting in general. Note that the Ukrainian authorities in 2002 forbade Black Sea Fleet ships in the Black Sea any firing anti-aircraft missiles and anti-ship missiles.
The second largest in the Black Sea Fleet is a large anti-submarine ship «Kerch» Project 1134B, built in Nikolayev in 1971-1974. Some media say that the BOD at the moment is in wonderful condition and in full combat readiness. But according to the Sevastopol naval professionals, the «Kerch» 35-day readiness to exit. Far hike unaccompanied other ships it is not recommended, allowed to reach speeds less than 25 knots. Currently serve on the ship instead of 30-40 people 380-425. 35 days to form a real crew is very problematic.
Fungible with «Kerch» BOD «Ochakov» in 1991 was sent to Sevastopol Marine Plant repair ended through … 17 years. Thereafter, August 20, 2008 brought the first ship with SMZ and predict sediment from Trinity Bay. August 20, 2011 on «Ochakovo» St. Andrew’s flag was lowered. Currently, BOD preparing themselves for scrap. Information on how much money from 1991 to 2008 earmarked to renovate the ship and where they went, of course, are the secret of municipal special significance.
By August of 2012 in Sevastopol based 247th separate division of submarines. He has a commander, have headquarters, not only submarines. More precisely, they both would have, as it were, and no. So, in the lists of division listed submarine B-871 «Alrosa» project 877V built in 1990. In the 2006-2010-m on it there were a number of breakdowns. In May-June 2011, she, along with support vessels involved in international rescue forces exercise «Bold Monarch», which took place off the coast of Spain. Then in July, made the transition to the Baltic Sea, where stood for scheduled maintenance in Kronstadt. In September of 2012 returned to Sevastopol. So what about the results of combat training is too early to read.
Second submarine — B-380 Project 641B «Holy Prince George» (in the past, «Gorky Komsomolets»). Since 1991 — to repair. About the money allocated for it in 21 years, say nothing. The boat is in the floating dock PD-16. Floating dock — a trophy, a German — have rotted, and bring out the submarine conventional method does not seem likely. Within 2 years the bosses head breaks as extract it. Does anyone own unique idea: to introduce the TD-16 in conjunction with the «George» in the dock bigger — PD-30, PD-16, there is disassembled and the boat, if possible, and bring to reincarnate, a training station.
Meanwhile Sebastopol firms to organize excursions to the South Bay, where the submarine exhibit floating charging station CCD 50, which until 1995 was indeed a submarine S-49 project 633RV. CCD-50 looks good, especially the two bow torpedo tubes 650 mm caliber, of which she shot during Russian raketotorpedami «Wind.» Most of the tourists from the CCD 50 in ecstasy and only a few understood that before 1991 the Black Sea Fleet, there were more than 40 submarines. Now BSF one submarine, but the number of Turkish submarine rose to 16.
Were not required
During the second half of the twentieth century to the Soviet Navy has sharply increased the role of auxiliary vessels. In fact, besides the naval base at Cam Ranh Bay (Vietnam), Fri based in Tartous (Syria), bases in Cuba, our country did not infrastructure in the oceans.
Now the situation is even worse. The remaining item based in Tartus has two berths, one of which poluzatoplen. The small summer 2012 Russian staff was put on Fri floating workshop PM-38, which stands to this day in the port and wait for further instructions wisest.
Here is an example illustrating perfectly how significant auxiliary ships of the Navy.
In the 60s in the Mediterranean Russian destroyer command requested to fill in store oil. Refueling was carried out in calm wakefield method at a rate of four to five stroke units and lasted about 5 hours. The next day the ships of the 6th Fleet of the U.S. Navy have shown how to do it in their. Fast refueling tanker made South American destroyer at a speed of 18 knots traverznym by the distance of 25-35 meters. Work completed less than half an hour.
But in the 70-80’s an advantage for U.S. and NATO supply vessels was eliminated. Our Navy added upscale counterparts.
Namely, the Black Sea Fleet supply ship «Berezina» project in 1833 could provide two or three search-and-percussion group of ships at least some point in the oceans. What? All without exception. On board were 5615 tons of dry cargo and watery — vehicular and aviation fuel and ammunition, ASM, SAM, even a nuclear weapon. Transmit all this «Berezina» was capable of speeds of 12-18 knots with waves up to 5 points. In addition, the premises were provided personnel for a complete change of the crew of a large submarine in the ocean.
Transport had the means of self-defense: two 57-mm gun mount AK-725, four 30-mm AK-630M, SAM «Osa-M» and anti-complex RBU-1000. «Berezina» was commissioned December 1, 1977-th. In 1979-1982 years visited in the Mediterranean, Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Last trip to the Mediterranean in February 1991. On «Berezina» predict joke in Sevastopol and used as plavsklad, and in March 2002, sold for scrapping in China.
In 80 years in the Navy of the USSR included four huge hospital ship «Yenisei», «Ob», «Svir» and «Irtysh» — one for the Baltic, Northern, Pacific and Black Sea fleets. Each vessel located hospital with 100 beds, a dispensary for crew rest 200 seats, a hospital, a sauna, and a helipad, three operating rooms, intensive care rooms, X-ray, ultrasound, and a concert hall and a swimming pool.
«Yenisei» Polish-built Project 320 had served in 3 oceans. Exclusively in the Mediterranean on board was made of 200 abdominal operations. In 1992, during the Georgian-Abkhaz war, less than a month taken out of the battle area above 7 thousand refugees.
«Ob», «Svir» and «Irtysh» were not necessary for our Navy. Survived only «Yenisei», standing motionless in the South Bay of Sevastopol. As historians say Sebastopol, equipment has long been pilfered and the ship informally used as a hotel.
There are plans to implement the «Yenisei» unknown businessman with the fact that he gave the ship after conversion as plavgostinitsy the Sochi Olympics.
Incidentally in Sevastopol those interested in Fleet, know all lurking guns and Black Sea Fleet ships and naval forces of Ukraine (VMSU) except only 3 things — the funds allocated for the repair of ships neremontiruyuschihsya, amounts which are sold for auxiliary vessels BSF the names of the buyers.
Spur of the moment
The most reliable protection facilities in Sevastopol Russian — is the Russian (pro-Russian) population.
Sevastopol until 1992 the city was subordinate to the Union, in other words specifically ruled by Moscow and did not have any work to the Crimean Autonomous Republic, nor the USSR. So, for example, a government minister USSR was much easier to go on vacation in Paris, if in Balaclava area of Sevastopol.
It’s a shame to hear now: «And what do you have cheated?». I shamefully, but no answer. Only the population of Sevastopol BSF can protect both the bus assault «zapadentsev» and brutal measures of the Kiev authorities. Appropriate example: in May 2008 the Ukrainian authorities tried to install on Count’s Quay huge commemorative plaque in honor of the creation of the fleet Ukrainian National Republic (UNR) in 1918. Outraged Sevastopolians not only disrupted the installation of the monument, and selected board the shuttle boat drove into the middle of the Sevastopol bay and drowned. They could not prevent nor countless police, or even 200 Marines VMSU.
Kremlin’s time to realize that at least some change in power in Kiev as before will last ukrainization Huge Sevastopol and at some point again revive plans its division into four town with simultaneous extrusion of the Black Sea Fleet, and no new ships and weapons already in BSF the coming months will be the operetta.
Until this happened, a rhetorical question, what if from Novorossiysk to Sevastopol comes the same missile boat «Mirage», but not with the outdated «malachite» and new SCRC «Onyx», is not a cause for bad jokes. This applies to the latest SSK «Novorossiysk» Project 636. VMSU not allow them entrance to Sevastopol bay?
I recall President Yushchenko in 2008 tried to ban return to Sevastopol Black Sea Fleet ships involved in the conflict with Georgia. And towards our «Mirage» from the bay came Ukrainian missile boat «Kakhovka» project 206MR. Would ye believe, want not — commander «Kakhovka» had no indication what to do next: spit under the stem «Mirage» or shook his fist. Commander helped VMSU own diesels. They are «sour.» Signal was hoisted over the boat: «I stand without stroke. I can not be controlled. » «Kakhovka» suffered at the breakwater. By the beauty and pride came VMSU tug «Krasnoperecopsk» and handed the rope that broke, and on their own «Kakhovka» was not there.
Need to aggressively increase the level of readiness of the Black Sea Fleet. Have long to go, no one asking to resume as before 2002, starts the CD and SAM in the Black Sea. A Kiev, as foreseen by international law of the sea, to prevent through Madrid. Result in new ships in Sevastopol and only later, well, in the case of very loud protests shake down after the fact all the «flaws» diplomatic method, using economic and other levers.