Russian Navy in 2011 decided to abandon and no longer take the small landing hovercraft «Bison» Ave 12322. Instead of them for the needs of the fleet is planned to build new ships dynamic and non-dynamic type to float, which will be applied at various amphibious ships, including helicopter project «Mistral». For disk imaging «Izvestia», which refers to its sources in the military-industrial complex of the country, the new amphibious ships size will be less available «Bison.» Other technical details promising delivery vehicles landing on the saves are not announced. Meanwhile, on the Russian Navy as before are 2 ships of the project — «Eugene Kocheshkov» and «Mordovia». They are part of the Baltic Fleet and will be supported in fighting condition until such time as absolutely not work out your own resource. 4 more landing «Bison» in the current time in service with the Greek Navy.
Development hovercraft (MDKVP) «Bison» began in the USSR in 1978, and the first serial ship entered the fleet after 10 years in 1988. The ship could take on its own board 10 armored personnel carriers to the total weight of 131 tons and 140 paratroopers or 8 infantry fighting vehicles weighing up to 115 tons or 3 main battle tanks weighing up to 150 tons. Instead of military equipment to «Bison» could fit 366 more paratroopers. For always producing MDKVP «Bison» was released 14 such vessels. Of their armed Russian fleet is only 2 ships. For disk imaging Shipyard «Yantar», both Russian «Bison» need to be fully repaired.
With all this money for modernization and repair of ships carrying at the present time no, because all funding is spent on maintaining a landing craft in fighting condition. According to representatives of disk imaging factory «Amber» on each of MDKVP «Bison» is set to 5 gas turbine engines, each of which resource is 4000 hours. Acquire new power plants can only be at «Zorya-Mashproekt» cost about 1 million dollars per unit.
Middle of 2011 enthusiasm data ships began to show China. For disk imaging «Rosoboronexport», China acquired from Ukraine 4 ship project 12322. At the same rights were violated mental supplies RF active ship. Except the «Bison» China has become the owner of virtually all technical documentation that will allow China to organize their own creation amphibious hovercraft on its own shipyards.
Currently, «Bison» — this is a huge hovercraft in the world. This ship is capable of with the speed of the car to overcome the 300 nautical miles. This is quite enough, to cross the Dark Sea, cover firing volley coastal fortifications of the enemy and put on saves Marines with all weapons and armor. Not a lot of people now know, but first «Bison» was developed as a shock boat, which was adopted must receive massive cruise missiles. Also worked and another project that can be called breathtaking. «Bison» could be the basis for a mobile unit with strategic nuclear weapons on board. But in the mind-boggling ability goner result of this kind of vessels are equally and move through the water, and land forced the military to change their plans. Ship began landing
Small landing hovercraft project (MDKVP) 12322 «Bison» is designed to take on board with unequipped or equipped shore marine units with combat equipment, also transport them by sea and landing on the coast of a potential adversary. With all of this ship could produce fire support desantiruemye troops, the transportation staging anti-ship mines and minefields. Hovercraft «Bison» are the biggest in the world. They are able to enter the store, to overcome the trenches, ditches, move on marshland, landed troops in the rear of the enemy. MDKVP for «Bison» for landing troops available for about 70% of the entire length of the coastline of seas and oceans of the Earth.
Contours small amphibious ship «Bison» peculiar to vessels holding a small ratio of length to width. Its hull and superstructure welded and made of light alloys. Cargo hold of a ship has a bow and a stern ramp and runs the length of the hull. Superstructure located in the midst of the housing. Special facilities on board except the cargo hold is not provided because the ship has very little cruising — just 5 hours.
Bearing part of the ship hull, which provides its unsinkable and strength is a pontoon in the shape of a rectangle. It being on special superstructure longitudinal bulkheads divided into 3 parts. The middle part with the tank tracks and ramps used to organize art landing and side parts are used to organize the main and auxiliary power units of the ship, crew accommodation, landing, as protection systems from weapons of mass destruction and their livelihoods. In the premises to accommodate the landing, the crew also on duty provided ventilation, heating and air conditioning, used teplozvukoizoliruyuschie coating and construction of vibrodempfiruyuschego material. With all of this crew is provided with all the necessary criteria for a comfortable dining and relaxing.
Corps amphibious hovercraft welded and made of durable aluminum-magnesium alloy, corrosion resistant. Two-tier flexible fencing (suspension elements and flexible receiver) are used to keep the air cushion under the hull amphibious assault ship, also provide the necessary lift «Bison» above the supporting surface (clearance).
The main power plant
The main power plant consists of five high-GTE — gas turbine engines of the M-70, with a total capacity of 50 000 hp 5 of these engines: 2 worked on fan drives with 4 injection units type HO-10, and 3 were placed in the GTE external pods and set in motion a four-3 reverse screw having a diameter of 5.5 meters and placed in special ring nozzles . Besides «Bison» had 2 power plant, each of which consisted of 2 gas turbine having a capacity of 100 kW and main switchboards.
Ship control was centralized, automatic, remote and could be carried out from the head KP also central control station and a number of remote consoles. Navigation project 12322 ships were equipped with 2 radars, magnetic and gyro compass dreyfolagom, satellite navigation equipment, also priemoindikatornom system «Decca» central gyroscopic system finder vizier day and night vision.
Existing complex of connected devices to provide a reliable telegraph and telephone communications in VHF, HF, UHF spectra are also welcome, documentation and printing meteorological, navigation and other data.
Armament and payload
Most ship capacity reached 150 tons and provides transportation at least some military equipment and personnel within this limitation. To organize personnel landing on the ship was foreseen to 4 rooms with 140 seats. If necessary space for military equipment could be converted to transport personnel of troops in full gear, it allows you to position the ship for an additional 360 people. Instead of landing ship could take on its own board 78 anti-ship mines.
«Eugene Kocheshkov» Baltic Fleet of the Russian Navy, 2008-2009,
Fire support for landing forces at the time of planting, as in self-defense on the ship was set in the range of weapons consisting of 2 units for firing unguided rockets caliber 140 mm MS-227 «Fire» (132 ammunition projectile), and 2 — uh 30mm six-barreled guns AK-630 (supplied with 3000 rounds) with a system of fire control and 1 x 2 PU MTU-2 SAMs «Igla-1M» (8 to 32 SAM). For the realization of electronic warfare on «Bison» was used complex «slabbing», and for making minefields — portable kit allows you to install from 20 to 78 minutes, depending on their type.
Amphibious hovercraft «Bison» has become one of the more rapid ships in the world. Realistic limits its speed does not even know the designers themselves. During sea trials, the ship managed to disperse up to 70 knots and then thought that this is not the limit. But with all this at tremendous speeds the ship celebrated virtually unstudied effect — vile flexible enclosure pillows. In case of appearance of such a situation designers have provided the lock mode in critical modes of movement by turning radius and speed.
It should be noted that the outstanding achievement hovercraft type «Bison» This combination of sufficient capacity, the highest speed and unique amphibian. According to the some military professionals, ships of the project 12322 «Bison» for many years ahead of their time.
Technical properties MDKVP «Bison»:
Displacement — 555 tons;
Length — 57.3 m;
Width — 25.6 m;
Height — 21.9 m (large on the EP)
Draught — 1.5 m;
Powerplant — 5 GTE M-71, with a capacity of 10 000 hp each
Highest Speed - 60 knots (111.12 km / h);
Cruising range at a speed of 55 knots — 300 miles, at the same speed without load — 1000 miles;
Crew: 31 people (team composition — 4 members — 27);
Armament: 140 mm rocket launcher — MS-227 «Fire» — 2; artillery system 6×30-mm AK-630M — 2 pcs., anti-missile system 1 x 2 PU MTU-2 SAMs «Igla-1M;
1) to 3 MBT total weight of 150 tons, 80 Marines;
2) to 10 BTR weight to 131 tons or 8 infantry fighting vehicles and 140 marines;
3) Instead of military equipment can take on board additional 366 marines (about 500 paratroopers).