Value of the German aircraft industry in jet aircraft niskolechko not diminish the role of other states, including before the second world war in the «reactive» race. And any of them brought it mite in this arduous process. A.M. Cradle started designing a turbojet engine (THD) in the midst of the 30-ies of the last century, and not start a war must be ended it earlier.
In England, a retired military pilot Frank Whittle, who founded in 1936 the company «Power Jets,» for three years worked on the creation of the first turbojet engine. By mid-1939, he built a centrifugal compressor W.1 «betrayed» the shield thrust 270 kgf.
Whittle became interested in the works of British Air Office, which offered the company «Gloucester» build experimental aircraft turbojet specification E.28/39. «Pioneer» — so dubbed this car — really became the firstborn jet aircraft England, once the global aviation power.
Formal agreement to build the machines gave the company in February 1940 Designed by John Carter single-motor plane built for the year with a small 2-in copies. And this despite the novelty of the design and a huge number of technical problems! April 7, 1941 the first car with factory code W4041 / G appeared at the airport office «Gloucester» in Hakklekote. Bukovkoy «G» in the code meant that it was «a miracle of technology» should be under constant armed guard.
W4041 / G
After the delivery of the machine at the airport’s chief pilot’s office Harry Sayer began taxiing and jogging, and on May 15 took the first flight, which lasted 17 minutes.
Flying «Pioneer» completely confirmed the promise of the idea of creation of reactive machines, despite the low traction motor and its reliability. Both experimental standard until 1944 served as a flying laboratory, which worked out new and better engines. In April 1946, the aircraft was transferred to English Science and Technology Museum, where he is to this day.
«Pioneer» opened the way for the use of turbojet airplanes, but, unfortunately, due to the small thrust engines and W.1 W.1A anything except himself, in the air could not raise. Because of the British engine manufacturers have concentrated on designing more massive engines and airplane people led by Carter — on a heavy fighter Double Motor specification G.9/40. Work in this direction were made in August 1940 with
Task to develop the combat vehicle Carter received in November. War Department issued an order to build immediately. 12 prototypes. However, later it was reduced to 6 cars, but then incremented to eight.
In December, he graduated from the design team general assembly of the aircraft, the designation G.41. It was a single monoplane with a nose landing gear and stabilizer handed down to the middle of the keel. Both engines were placed «in the wing.» Of all the configurations considered by this arrangement provides the best approaches to the motors in their maintenance and repair, that there were important because of the low reliability of the first turbojet engine.
Armament new fighter at the request of the customer was to consist of 6 20 mm guns with ammunition, 120 rounds of ammunition. In the design process it became clear that the placement of a pair of guns under the cockpit is very awkward and dangerous. Carter was able to convince the Ministry of Aviation of the need to reduce the number of stems up to four. However, the remaining ammunition guns increment up to 150 rounds.
W4041 / G At Kemble Air Day 2007
Looked very promising flowsheet airframe division into several large sites that could be collected in parallel on different plants. Bow section included a pressurized cockpit pilot (created together with the company «Westland»); weapons bay and the front landing gear. However, pressurized cabin «Meteor» appeared somewhat later in the modification F.8.
The middle part of the fuselage, which housed in the fuel tank and ammunition boxes, connected with the center and the engine nacelles engines. Last fastened only to a front spar and a rear spar shelf made cutout for installation of the nozzle. In the center section is also the main landing gear.
Third large section became part of the tail with feathers.
Assembling the machine was quite progressive for jet machines as long as technological breakdown glider — even more so. In the global aviation practice, such an assembly not once been played in various aerostructures.
First 1941 «Gloucester» received the final «good» for the construction of an experimental batch with the construction of the first aircraft by February next year. To prepare technical documentation and tooling factory serial lured companies and professionals «Armstrong Uitvert.»
Apparently, the idea of re fighter jet engines so captured the British aircraft industry officials that, even without waiting for the production of the first prototype of the standard, the company was given the contract to build three hundred serial fighters. An obvious underestimation of the whole creation of such difficulties, truly revolutionary aviation complex. And the claimed date built prototypes appeared only normal now its title — «Meteor».
The most difficult thing, as you might expect, was the debugging engines. The planned to be installed on turbojet fighter Whittle W.2B calculated thrust of about 500 kg, the creation of which, under the designation «Welland» mastered company «Rover engine» damn could not get rid of the destruction of the compressor blades and other «childhood diseases».
First taxiing and run, Harry Sayer made in July 1942, showed, according to the pilot that the power of the engines for takeoff obviously not enough.
Forced to develop turbojet-doubles (H.1 «Halford» office «De Hevil Lend-Aircraft» and F.2 — «Metropolitan Vickers») could not save the program from maturity. In addition, was delayed due to the huge amount at the time of subcontractors (about 10) build the airframe. In October 1942, over applets looming threat of clotting smooth and complete cessation of funding.
Yet by the end of November, engineers have at their disposal flight standards THD. Though not the original «Welland» and H.1 «Halford» with a centrifugal compressor. Since midsection «Halford» was more than the «Welland» nacelle and rear spar altered. Fortunately, that took care of it in advance.
Engine F.2, in contrast to «Welland» and «Halford», had an axial compressor, and hence a complicated structure. Looking ahead, I note that F.2 «Meteor» has not caught on, becoming a prerequisite to the same disaster third prototype standard DG204 / G. It is curious that he was placed in a hinged, rather than regular nacelles.
How it paradoxically, first flew on 5th experienced reference — DG206 / G, March 5, 1943 Michael Daunt, succeeding test jet machines «Gloucester» who died in a plane crash Harry Sayer, tore «Meteor» from the runway in Krenuelle .
A little later, on July 12 made the first flight of the fourth plane with engines W.2B/23, and in less than two weeks saw the sky and the first standard DG202 / G. During the tests, which although were quite successful in the construction of prototypes of machines yet been made configuration.
Six experienced on swatch aircraft engines positioned «Goblin» (development H.1 «Halford»), and these motors were unsuitable for «Meteor». The same larger midsection, well heads, «De Havilland» already planned «Goblin» under its own «Vampire».
DG202 / G
Seventh experienced standard equipped aerodynamic brakes and redesigned tail, and at the last, eighth, already installed engines «Derwent» Company «Rolls-Royce». Practically, it was substantially modified «Welland» that «Rolls Royce» in 1942, has bought at «Rover engine» together with the patent and license to build. Fascinating history of this transaction. «Welland» have acquired «at lunch» in exchange for plant tank engines «Rolls-Royce» in Nottingham.
The first production series «Meteor» became FI, aka G.41A, built in 20 copies. Compared with the samples, F.1 had modified flashlight with improved overview reversed. In the first production batch of engines installed «Welland» IW.2B/23C thrust of 770 kgf. To improve lateral stability wing consoles gave positive V = 5 °.
Since the first of the economy had not read THD, first «Meteor» command of the Royal Air Force considered only as an interceptor with a small duration of the flight. Practically, Issue F.1 became docking score for trial operation.
July 12, 1944 the first two first cars arrived in 616 Squadron, «South Yorkshire», which was stationed at the airfield Kalmhed. It was one of more of the Royal Air Force prepared units that participated in the fighting since 1940.
Highly flight and technical staff quickly (in just a week!) Fundamentally retrained on the latest technology, and from July 27 squadron began to lure a combat patrol the coast «to meet» unmanned V-1.
First success in winding up aircraft missiles «meteors» gained August 4, when the pilots and Roger Dean destroyed one cruise missile. With all this Dean especially distinguished. When the gun jammed his car, he was attached to the target. Equating the speed and altitude interceptor in the position «wing to wing» and prying for wing-ending his car plane «FAA», turned enemy shell on his back. Gyroscopes missiles «lay down» and she, corkscrew, fell to the ground, where it exploded. A total of 616 Squadron killed thirteen V-1.
«V-1» drone doodlebug
Trial operation identified significant shortcomings of the first machines. The plane was too heavy to manage, often jammed gun, and an overview of sideways and backwards was just vile.
Because long-term debugging and most of the best features of the engines «Welland» large-scale construction of the question «meteors» delayed. Initially planned to build a batch of 50 vehicles with engines options F.II H.1 «Halford» is not accomplished. Tests have shown that more than the highest thrust of these engines (at 1045 kg) did not lead to an improvement of a fighter. Substantially larger cross-section of the engine nacelles dramatically increased drag and lead to shock.
The first high-volume modification of the «Meteor» was F.III variant with engines W.2B/37 «Derwent» I thrust of 910 kgf. They have built 210 units, but the first fifteen still equipped with «Welland». Deliveries Tsarskoye Force began in December 1944 and ended three years later. This version was equipped with an additional fuel tank, and flip the mobile part of the canopy changed sliding backwards.
Naturally, the new machines entered service all the same 616 Squadron. More on FI its pilots were preparing for battle with the German ME-262, and with the emergence of new F.III squadron was transferred to Belgium, under Brussels. To disguise their airplanes on the ground repainted in white color. Once such a coloring featured «meteors» of ME-262 anti-aircraft gunners for identification purposes. Combat use restrictions imposed because of a huge amount of fear in the drain command disk imaging on the latest technology. Perhaps for this reason contact with the enemy worthy foes did not take place.
By the spring of 1945 at F.III rearmed and 504 Squadron «City of Notin-heme», but its pilots not able to make war with jet «Messerschmitt». Until the end of the war the squadron has missed 2-«meteor» when pilots faced 616 minutes, losing sight of each other in the clouds.
F.III became the first of the «meteor» record for airspeed. To achieve the record serial fighter from the 616 Squadron polished and facilitated by dismantling weapons and sealed notches cannon barrels in the bow. November 7, 1945 Group Captain Hugh Wilson reached the «Meteor» speed 976 km / h, beating the German record set before the war, the Me-209.
«Meteor» III became a testbed for ejection seat, why it finalized for the installation of a second chair for the cockpit. Company engaged in the development of the chair «Martin Bay coeur» — one of the world leaders in this field and now. First dummy bailout from the aircraft on June 14, 1946, and 10 days later catapulted man.
Compared with the «Meteor» I machine became more «torquey», which immediately appreciated pilots. On the other hand, the slope of the heaviness management (in order to avoid overloading the wing) made the implementation of horizontal maneuvers painful. Incidentally, the problem with that «Meteor» I did not encounter the pilots, but only because the concept of «energetic maneuvering» for it was not simple.
Operation F.III also highlighted the problem of stability and maneuverability at speeds when it begins to affect the compressibility of air. So, pilots complained his hesitation yaw at tremendous speeds, which led to a tangible dispersal of the weapon.
«Meteor» III, of course, was a major step forward in comparison with the «Meteor» I, but the potential of design is still far from being exhausted.
Research in wind tunnels have shown that not long nacelle engines cause severe turbulence and at tremendous speeds are a prerequisite buffeting plumage. Only an increase in the length of the nacelle has led to the increase in speed of about 120 km / h, and this with the same engines. In addition, the disposal of designers received new TRD «Derwent» V thrust of 1590 kgf. They were placed on one of the «meteors» III, who became the newest version of the layout — F.IV (G.41F). Specifically, with this modification, denoted steel Arabic numerals.
A brief technical description of the aircraft «Meteor» F.IV
Wing center section and consists of a 2-consoles. The middle part of the wing is connected in one piece with the middle part of the fuselage and engine nacelles.
Dvuhlonzheronnoe wing design. Belts made of spars upressovannyh T-profiles. Rear spar of the wing middle passage in the exhaust pipe of the motor is made of steel. The upper and lower wing surfaces for the rear spar, mounted airbrakes.
The fuselage is divided into technologically front, middle and tail parts. In the front of the cockpit fit, bow landing gear and weapons. In the middle part — the fuel tank. Aft fuselage monocoque construction.
Plumage — odnokilevym, svobodnonesu-present. Spars stabilizer — beam type with belts of upressovannyh corners. Handlebars — all metal. Trimmers are equipped with elevators and additional plates («knives»), deviating on the ground. Rudder horn and has a weight compensation and managed trimmer.
Chassis — tricycle with oil-pneumatic shock absorption and wheel suspension arm.
Nosewheel — a guide.
Engines mounted on the wing in power gondolas.
Fuel is located in the 2-fuselage tanks with total capacity of 1480 l .. In addition, the probable suspension ventral drop tank capacity of 800 liters.
Armament consists of four guns «Hispano-Suiza» 20 mm caliber, installed along the edges pressurized cabin. Boxes of cartridges, one for each gun, placed behind the pilot’s seat. Management of shooting — electronic.
Tests of the new version of the aircraft began in July 1945 In a strong powerplant strengthened airframe and sealed cabin. September 7, 1946 » on F.IV in «record performance» have gained speed 992 km / m, and two months later — 996 km / h (pilot Donaldson).
But the record does not merit a new aircraft inspired military department officials on another retooling. The postwar euphoria still prevailed in their minds, and mass production began only in 1947 During this period of time in the design brought some changes. Facilitate the management of the slope, the ailerons become more «soft» and rudder trimmer equipped he excluded yaw.
Machine is equipped with underwing fuel tanks. From the ninth instance (modification G.41G) wingspan reduced by 1.74 m (from 13.11 m to 11.33 m, respectively, and Square — 34.75 m2 to 32.52 m2). This decision was taken after the accident because of one of the cars appeared unnecessary stress in the planes.
Shortened wing increased maneuverability and reduced the load on the structure, but at the same time exacerbated runways properties and rate of climb.
New «Meteor» was the subject of exports, after in 1947 made a commercial tour. Weave aircraft purchased in Argentina, 48 — Belgium 38 — The Netherlands, 20 — and 12 Denmark — Egypt.
Somewhat later, Holland made up its air force by acquiring an additional 27 cars from the the Royal Air Force. France has also purchased a pair of «meteors» to practice their own TRD «Athar».
Longer version of this exploited Argentina. During the political crisis machine extensively used for counter-insurgency and, at least, two of them were lost. Others were in service right up to the early 1970s.
Create F.4 lasted until April 1950 Total built 583 cars in this version. «Meteor» IV became the basis for the creation of the first jet Scouting FR.V and Sparky T.VII. In addition, based on F.IV was being developed aircraft with thrust vectoring engines. It is a little known fact biographies «Meteor» because it dwell.
In 1954, tested experimental aircraft with engines «Nin» of «Rolls-Royce». At the bottom of the motor output channel set deflector deflecting the jet of gas down. Basic design «Meteor» in connection with such innovations have significantly changed. Nacelle pushed forward shortened wing was changed to the original, with «Meteor» III, and a tail portion borrowed from later F.VIII.
Due to differences between the thrust vector designers want to make a better landing properties, and of the test results came out promising, but the scheme was viewed as very complex. Managed to embody this idea even later, and already in the other aircraft.
On F.IV tested and new engines with axial compressors — «Metro Vic» F.2 / 4 «Beryl» and «Rolls Royce» RA.2 and RA.3 «Avon» as options «Derwent» V and VII to afterburners. In addition, this modification adapted for research in-flight refueling.
A huge part of «meteors» IV later the company «Flight Refyualing» reshaped in towing targets, and for a long time these machines were used in England and Australia Air Force for pilot training. Reconnaissance version «Meteor» FR.V crashed in the first flight July 13, 1949 New aircraft experienced instances decided not to build a few F.IV finalized by analogy with FR.V, instead of setting the nose cannon camera that could take pictures through one of three windows in the bow. Trainer version based on «Meteor» IV, by contrast, has become very popular. Lack doubles during the first 5 years of operation of a jet fighter, generally speaking, maloobyasnimo. Only the high professionalism of the British pilots to master this has permitted a fundamentally new aircraft without Chertovskih consequences. But when the aircraft were exported to other countries, where the training of pilots was worse, the question of what is called, «got an edge.»
Ways of learning English when the machine was shot hinged part of the canopy and the instructor sitting on the fuselage, giving explanations to the roar of the engines during jogging for foreigners did not fit. «Gloucester» in an active manner developed Double «Meteor» T.VII, which under the civilian designation G-AKRK flew for the first time in March 1948
Tests showed that the machine even better maneuverability in combat and is perfect for pilot training. Structurally different from F.IV Spark only 0.76m long by the bow, double cabin and coaxial control.
Canopy pilots consisted of a huge number of bindings for the pilots immediately named Sparky «greenhouse» (it turns out, aviation humor — is international).
In October 1948 training machines began to be mass-produced. Besides the Royal Air Force, they got hold of Belgium, France, Egypt, Israel and Brazil. In total, up to mid-1954 produced more than 640 cars (according to other sources — 650).
Developer zeal to maintain the «Meteor» to date has resulted in perhaps a more perfect model F.VIII (G.41K), committed the first flight in October 1948
Fuselage substantially altered and recomposed. Lengthened nose section as well as on T.VII, which improved the longitudinal stability and increment internal volumes. In the middle of the fuselage installed another fuel tank capacity of 432 liters.
Ammunition boxes, displaced per booth, and have allowed an additional tank removed from the bow of the 450 kg ballast, which is equipped with all previous models.
However, tests have shown an aircraft that after generation of the fuel tank and fuel
cartridges machine becomes unbalanced and tends to fall into a tailspin that a couple of times and failed. To solve this puzzles designers changed the tail section of tail setting developed by the procedure in the active fighter G.42. Since the design of its own machines «Gloucester» rigidly adhered to the modular principle, docked with the latest tail went quite smoothly. Thanks to the brand new tail this modification has become easily recognizable.
F.VIII equipped with new engines «Derwent» VIII thrust of 1590 kgf (according to other sources — to 1633 kgs), right wing strengthening. Nosing also improved engines.
Changed and the cabin: flashlight with improved visibility, and most importantly — ejection seat. Armament now consisted not only of the guns, and 2-bombs caliber 1,000 pounds or 16 NAR (rockets). F.VIII became the mass modification of the «Meteor». From December 1949 to April 1954 was released in 1183 (according to other sources — 1079) fighter. He became one of more of favorite in countries where jet aircraft still held infancy.
«Eight» bought Australia (93 cars), Brazil (60), Belgium (23), Netherlands (5), Israel (11) and Syria (7). Dutch company «Fokker» built a licensed 300 F.VIII, a Belgian «Avions Fairey» gathered from the British and Dutch sets of 67 copies. ,
In addition, the «Fokker» produced, saying the current language, «upgrade» F.IV under standard F.VIII, using British parts. F.VIII became the first of the «meteor», whose share fell tests fighting. In the air war which broke out first 1950 over the Korean Peninsula, involved 77 Squadron of the Royal Australian Air Force under the command of Dick Cresswell. Since June 1950 she was involved in the performance of combat tasks fighters P-51 «Mustang». Due to the obvious advantages of the North Korean side, the unit in a critical manner rearmed on «Meteor», and in May 1951 it has embarked on their use in combat.
Aircraft of the Air Force of England further manned radar altimeter and radio compass «Bendix» AN/ARN-6 on the model of the U.S. Air Force and handed Australians.
Before entering into battle test pilots had dogfights with South American F-86 «Sabre». The results were disappointing. «Sabre» had obvious advantages in speed and maneuverability. True, the earth «Meteor» had the best rate of climb, but it was a weak consolation Australians.
By the end of June 1951 «meteors» moved to Kimpo airfield. First contact with the enemy with the MiG-15 came on August 29 when eight F.VIII stormed «instants». On the day one car knocked Australians, and two others — very damaged. «Korean» aircraft losses had not. A week later, six «meteors» again stormed «instants». And although this time there were no losses, the command group made sure that the functions fighter «Meteora» too tough. True, some pilots of 77 Squadron, this view was not shared by seeing their own failures prerequisites not obsolete «Meteor», and in lack of experience and training to conduct air combat. But so as not to tempt fate, squadron redirected to escort bombers B-29. Even despite the only victory over a MiG-15 that occurred December 1, 1951 (the pilot Bruce Gorgerli) as fighter escort «meteors» are not accustomed. Then they repurpose in stormtroopers, armed with eight missiles. In this capacity, the aircraft proved more worthy.
More impressive results also achieved Squadron March 16, 1953, defeating the convoy of 150 vehicles. Stopping column liquidation first and last car, «meteors» «ironed» her guns and bunks until all cars were lit.
In total, during the Korean War, «meteors» made 15,000 sorties, killed in 1500 mc, 16 bridges, buildings and fortifications 3700, 20 locomotives and 65 cars, also shot down, according to Western historians, four MiG-15 and three other types of aircraft . The squadron lost 32 pilot.
Of the initial composition of divisions (93 and 6 F.VII T.VII) by the end of the war was 41 combat aircraft and three doubles, which at the end of the conflict transported to Australia aboard the aircraft carrier «Vindzhins.» With these machines in their main graduated in 1958, when they changed the «Sabres». The Korean War has demonstrated, as «Meteor» obsolete as a fighter. Implementing it as a strike aircraft was limited to small combat load.
To remedy this shortcoming, «Gloucester» in the active order built a G-71 bomber «Rapper» with reinforced construction and presumably additional armor, took off in September 1950.
Combat load was 24 NAR or four bombs caliber 1000 lbs. Aircraft on display at Farnborough in 1950 and 1951, but enthusiasm for it showed neither Royal Air Force nor zabugornye buyers. At the same time perfectly spent, reliable and driven to the «Meteor», despite the «veteran» appearance, could find application in modern conditions. Solution in sight already long. In 1-x, the British hitherto had no modern scouts. In-2, which began «cold war» that claimed to improve the system of air defense and adopting specialized all-weather interceptor equipped with radar detection capabilities.
In 1949 on the basis of F.VIII built frontline scout FR.IX (G.41L). The plane made the first flight in March 1950 FR.IX (built 126 cars) was equipped with a camera F.24 for promising shooting. The camera was mounted in the forward fuselage. Cannons remained without changes, and it took a very different armed conflicts of the 1950s.
FR.IX from the 208 Squadron of the Royal Air Force atkivno used in Yemen in 1954 at «restoring constitutional order» in English protectorate, where they were used for armed reconnaissance bases insurgents.
Put Israel in the midst of the 1950s scouts participated in the Arab-Israeli conflict, and September 1, 1955 th FR.IX knocked a couple of Egyptian «vampires.»
More perfect embodiment of high-altitude spy became far PR.X (G.41M), the first time taking off as FR.IX in March 1950.
It was a real hybrid: the wing of an old standard from F.3, front and center fuselage sections from F.VIII with the nose of FR.IX, but without guns. Tail borrowed from F.IV.
Razvedoborudovanie consisted of a 2-camera in the bow and a pair — in the tail.
First cars entered service 541 Squadron in February 1951 (built 59 copies). Noteworthy that this modification is not exported.
PR.X used by the British in Kenya, the oppression of the uprising Mau Mau tribe in 1954 — 1955’s, where a pair of spies photographed the area occupied by the guerrillas. In the fight against insurgents in Malaysia used PR.X from the 81 Squadron of the Royal Air Force.
Development interceptors conducted along with other variations of «Meteor» since 1947, when the Air Ministry issued a specification for a double F.44/46 jet all-weather fighter-interceptor designed to change the outdated «Mosquito». «Gloucester» option offered T.VII with long by 1.5 meters to the bow of the radar installation.
Proposal was accepted, but it turned out that the capacity offices do not allow serial production of another modification. Joined the project «Armstrong — Whitworth,» as well as «Gloucester», part of the concern «Hawker Siddeley».
This company has built since 1949 serial «Meteor», and work on the latest modification are not delayed.
First layout interceptor NF.XI, converted from serial T.VII, took to the skies in October 1949. From May 31 next year began flight tests this NF.XI, equipped with radar AI.10 (SCR 720). It differed from the layout elongated wings, arranged in any cannons.
Full establishment of settled in a matter of months, and in November soared first serial device. Just released 307 NF.XI, some of which predict export. Denmark bought 11 cars, France — 41, Australia — 1. Belgium received 24 aircraft of the Royal Air Force of the composition. On the basis of NF.XI specifically for use in tropical climates criteria did modification NF.XIII. In contrast to the basic model, it set a direction finder, air conditioning.
There were other improvements, improve operation of the machine in the tropics. Vozduhopoglotitelya diameter increment, resulting in increased traction engines at 45 kgs. The plane took off for the first time in December 1952
NF.XIII, built in 40 copies, operated with 2 squadrons of the Royal Air Force in the Middle East and used in conflicts with FR.IX. Several aircraft sold to Israel. NF.XII became forthcoming development of the interceptor. Its equipped with a massive THD «Derwent» IX thrust 1725 kg, also American radar «Westinghouse» APS 21. Since the new radar had enormous than the previous station, the dimensions, the nose of the lengthened by 430 mm. To compensate for another extension of the fuselage had higher part keel increment. First flight of a new interceptor made in April 1953. Total built 100 aircraft of this version, two of them for testing purposes put France and 6 have acquired Egypt, Syria and Israel.
Latest in a series of interceptors, yes, perhaps, all commercially produced «meteor» was the embodiment NF.XIV, rising into the sky March 18, 1954. More perceptible difference between this machine from previous models has become a modern lamp with electric windows, replacing the «greenhouse.» Under even more elongated nose cone hiding newcomer APS-51 radar. A series of 100 cars, the latest of which was released May 26, 1955, graduated more than a decade of mass production «Meteor». But their service lasted more durable.
Some aircraft were converted into buknye targets that were intensively used for testing anti-aircraft missiles. Many aircraft operated as a flying laboratory, which worked out various design solutions.
If delineate all that was tested using the «Meteor», will need more, very little in terms of the same article.
History of «Meteor» is so multifaceted that magazine format simply does not allow to tell a lot about everything that is connected with its creation, testing and operation. Creator tried the brakes on the most basic pages of history «Meteor», although here as to find that thing, and that — no … In any case, the «Meteor» has become a legend of the global aviation industry and worthy as its creators, long memory.
2nd familiarity with Russian professionals «Meteor» (not counting the war in Korea) was held in late July 1954. For a few days earlier near g.Gardelegen (GDR) made the forced landing stray British Interceptor «Meteor» XI. To a place of tragedy urgently flew very impressive delegation of Russian aviation specialists. In its composition, namely included — V.N.Bugaysky (Deputy Ilyushin) L.L.Selyakov — leading special DB-23 and designer of aircraft engines N.G.Metshvarishvili.
Airplane, released in 1952, was quite new. Its armament consisted of four guns «Spanish» MKV caliber 20 mm belt-fed, placed in a detachable wing parts (the outer sides of the engines). For shooting from their sight was used MK-IVE, perfectly recognizable and studied in our KB, with manual input range without regard to the radar.
Housed in the fuselage fuel (1480 liters), ventral (800 l) and 2-hung under the wing tanks (450 liters).
Dvuhlonzheronnoe wing «Meteor», equipped with shields and Schrenk latticed air brakes, and consisted of a center-2-consoles. Propulsion engines included «Derwent» VIII thrust of 1640 kg and is the development of turbojet «Derwent» V, did not present enthusiasm for Russian industry.
The equipment consisted of machine surveillance radar type American SCR-720A, altimeter small and great heights (from 0 to 305 m and from 305 to 3030 m, respectively). Surprised our professionals caused no autopilot on board the interceptor and automatic radio compass. Fully maybe that’s the reason he lost his way in the German sky.
By plane defendant had «a — a stranger» SCR-695, previously studied Russian spices when playing a B-29 bomber of «Boeing» and became a mock Russian SRO. Russian equipment as radar identification, held municipal tests in 1954, surpassed the equipment «Meteor» XI.
The report on the results of the survey «Meteor» our spetsy noted, namely: «In general, (…)» Gloucester «» Meteor »XI (…) is obsolete prototype jet aircraft and is not enthusiastic to raise the level of Russian aircraft . «