The officer leaned over the mortally wounded Nelson, and at that moment from the lips of the dying admiral flew weak moan «Kiss me» (kiss me). Vice Admiral Hardy was taken aback and twice kissed Nelson. Historians argue to this day about the significance of this episode, one of the versions of the dying Nelson likely Pronunciation «Kismet» (Providence, rock).
Combat survivability of ships rather difficult and controversial topic. Maritime history is full of examples of the impending death of class ships previously seemingly unsinkable, and, at once, just as indescribable cases salvation in desperate situations. At first glance, the lack of any precise or laws determining the survivability of ships, suggests the idea that each final exit to the sea depends on the random confluence of events.
Icebergs and Bengal tigers
Unsinkable ship during its own first flight ran into an iceberg and turned into a legend. Maybe this explains the fact that during the descent of «Titanic» have forgotten to break a bottle of water — as you know, have not tried the wines ship will want blood.
Sistership «Titanic» — «Olympic» was launched by all the rules: the bottle broke on his board and liner 25 years labored honestly on transatlantic routes, received the nickname «Old Reliable.» April 24, 1918 «Olympic» saw the German submarine U-103, and, without hesitation, rammed. Liner full displacement 50,000 tons broke in half-ton 800 sumbarinu. Just like an iceberg …
Quite fierce, paranormal history occurred November 11, 1942 near the Cocos Islands. A small convoy of Dutch tanker «Ondine» and British trawler «Bengal» was intercepted with 2 Japanese auxiliary cruiser. Displacement different enemies 50 times. Sixteen 140 mm guns and eight torpedo tubes «Hokoku Maru» and «Aikoku Maru» against a single 76 mm guns and minesweepers 1st tanker 102 mm guns with ammunition projectile 32. Speed tanker «Ondine» — 12 knots, the front speed minesweeper «Bengal» — 15 knots. Japanese raiders speed — 21 knots.
One of the Japanese auxiliary cruisers were destroyed, the second damaged, with all this, no member of the team «Bengal» is not got no scratches. The convoy arrived in the destination without delay. Both ships had survived the Second World War: the tanker «Ondine» was decommissioned in 1959, the minesweeper «Bengal» served until 1960.
Nobody can accuse the Japanese sailors incompetence or cowardice. Such a fate, providence, irresistible rock. By the way, I had a feeling of deja vu … Exactly! Brig «Mercury» and two Turkish battleships.
If the reader had the feeling of hopelessness and swing in their abilities to change anything, it does nothing. Subtotal each naval battle is a combination of numerous causes and characteristics. The invisible hand of providence only determines the order in which mixed vulnerabilities ship and flight line movement of enemy projectiles (and here unbroken bottle of champagne and the number «13» is probably crucial … though maybe the whole thing in the preparation of the enemy gunners?). And yet, considering each component separately (reservation type GEMs, stability), we conclude that the better the value of each of them, the higher the possibility that the ship leaves the battlefield victorious.
Indeed, despite the tremendous impact of chance, there are certain rules completely. For example, if the ship is cut well, then it is likely to prove reliable and resilient. There are a whole series of successful designs, for example, destroyers of the «Novik».
In 1942 in the Barents Sea waves tore off an eight stern destroyer «Shattering» (7 destroyers project as their grandparent — Italian destroyer «Maestrale» differed unimportant body strength). On emergency aid ship immediately went destroyers «Kuibyshev» and «Uritzky ‘(former destroyers like» Novik «-» Bully «and» Captain Kern «). Notwithstanding own decent age, «Novik» great to keep on a wave and have them in a 11-point storm nowhere nothing fell off.
More reliable body was American destroyers like «Fletcher», collected from 18 mm iron sheets — kamikaze planes destroyers often punched through, but the body «Fletcher», despite the vast destruction of the power set, kept the longitudinal strength of.
Another beautiful example — Russian destroyers project 56. On these ships over 30 years of active operation did not work any great tragedy with human victims — taking into account the realities of our Fatherland, just an extraordinary result.
Long understood that at least some gun — just a pile of metal without prepared personnel. Human factor is crucial in at least some situations. For example, in 1944 the submarine USS Archer-Fish with 4 torpedoes sank the «Shinano» — the largest aircraft carrier, the second World War, complete displacement of 70,000 tons. It took only 17 hours after he was released in its own first combat sortie! Surprising is the fact that after the torpedo attack «Shinano» kept running, the damage was insignificant, but later … 7:00 superavianosets rolled over and sank. But what you want from the crew, who was not familiar with the plan of the interior of the tremendous ship? Team «Shinano» was formed for a day or two before going out to sea — sailors were not just how and what sections need to flood to equalize the slope. Situation worsened what waterproofed bulkheads were unsealed because «Shinano» was unfinished!
Negotiable example is the shock death carrier «Yorktown», which has lost the combat capability after hitting 2-torpedoes and 250 kg bombs. But the carrier is not going to breathe — Emergency Party put out fires, warned the seawater intake and tried to reduce the slope. The next day, walking in tow «Yorktown» once again came under attack — it was hit by two torpedoes from a Japanese submarine. USS stood afloat another day.
«Yorktown» as «Shinano» ruined four torpedoes. What’s the difference you ask. «Yorktown» was 3 times less than the Japanese superavianostsa!
Obviously, great importance is the technical condition of the vehicle — no hesitation that sailed to sea on a ship that stood 20 years on conservation or propping up the quay wall, with limited funding, likely different surprises in the form of an unexpected flooding of the compartments or loss of progress at the Ocean Center . Send such a ship in battle — is to betray the crew (which again proved the untrained «Shinano»).
Sinking of «Yamato». About the way it was.
Yet there is one specific factor — if your opponent has a deck-based aircraft, it is guaranteed to win at least some sea battle. Superlinkor «Yamato» turned into ridicule: despite the 180 barrels and half-meter flak armor battleship, fragile and awkward torpedo «Avenger» drowned in 2 hours along with all his escort of cruisers and destroyers 6. 3600 Japanese sailors died. Yankees loss amounted to 10 aircraft and 12 pilots.
Sistership «Yamato» — superlinkor «Musashi» was much luckier. he resisted already 4:00 and he was able to knock down as many as 18 U.S. carrier-based aircraft. The loss of the Japanese in this time amounted to 1023 navigator.
The reader must be curious to find out how hard to sink a modern aircraft carrier. For comparison, we choose the type of nuclear strike aircraft carrier «Nimitz». We will not open a discussion questions probability breakthrough defense and antisubmarine aircraft carrier strike groups, in the absence of any reliable facts and figures on the subject. Because immediately imagine that torpedoes and anti-ship missiles dug into the side of an aircraft carrier. That will still be on?
Obviously, the aircraft carrier survivability is very high, which is ensured, first, colossal size of the ship. Length «Nimitz» — 332 meters, it does not fit on the Red Square.
«Nimitz» is going to section 161 of the finished weight of 100 to 865 tons. Body floating airfield split 7 watertight bulkheads and decks for more than 200 compartments. Flight, hangar and third deck made of steel armor width 150-200 mm.
There is a wrong perception that floating airfield is possible to fire hazard filled «eyeballs» aviation kerosene and ammunition. The delusion is based on the fact that supplies of fuel are considered irrespective of the size of the ship. Indeed, in store jet fuel on board is enormous — 8500 tons. But … it’s only 8% of the total tonnage of an aircraft carrier! For comparison, the data can lead to other types of ships:
1. Large ASW ship, etc. 1134-A («Kronstadt»). Full displacement — 7500 tons, the ship’s stores: 1952 tons of fuel oil F-5; 45 tons of diesel fuel DS; 13000 l. aviation fuel for the helicopter. Supplies of fuel was 27% of the total tonnage of the ship.
Maybe someone will mark the difference between kerosene and fuel oil, but recognizable focus on extinguishing the torch in a bucket of oil fractions languid not quite correct. In battle tank does not ignite the torch on it beating Glow The bar at supersonic speed, with all the ensuing consequences.
2. Large ASW ship, etc. 1155 («Delete»). Full displacement — 7500 tons, the usual in store kerosene for gas turbines — 1500 tonnes, 20% of the total tonnage of the ship.
Moreover, the aircraft carrier taken unprecedented measures for storage of jet fuel — are on the lower decks are covered with armor and tanks surrounded by cofferdams tight (narrow uninhabited compartments), in which the inert gas is injected. Fuel as they are consumed, replaced seawater.
As for the amount of ammunition aboard the aircraft carrier of the «Nimitz» many sources refer to figure 1 954 tonnes, ie least 2% of the tonnage huge ship — quite impressive. For security purposes, cellars ammunition carrier placed below the waterline — when a bomb threat they can flood emergency. Most modern ships lack such capacity — ships of NATO equipped OHR Mark-41, in which munitions are above / at the waterline. On most ships Russian situation is similar — a large part of arms generally put to the upper deck.
The main power plant type aircraft carrier «Nimitz» Layered and located in four watertight compartments. Nasal compartments each tier are reserved for nuclear steam supply system and feed — a major trubozubchatye aggregates. From the bottom of the carrier protected armored decking flooding and onboard torpedo protection covers the areas of reactor compartments, ammunition cellars, storage of aviation fuel and achieves the height of the third deck.
Taking into account all of the above, it can be concluded that the guaranteed destruction of an aircraft carrier can only be in the case of the introduction of a large nuclear weapons capacity. That, in turn, is virtually impossible in the process of local conflicts.