Specific geographical situation of the Caspian Sea makes it possible geopolitical conflict zone. There are a number of international treaties aimed at, first, is a settlement on the use of natural resources. But due to some circumstances, there is reason to hesitate is that these agreements can be a real safeguard against any conflict. Because the media disk imaging, statements by politicians and professionals, as in «kitchen» debate often rises theme possible military action in the Caspian Sea. Try to understand what forces a country whose shores are washed by a sea.
Ships in the band: Rocket ship «Tatarstan» Project 11661K — flagship, Rocket ship «Dagestan» Project 11661K, PSKR «Astrahanets» project 1265E (last base minesweeper), IAC «Astrakhan» project 21630, MAK «Volgodonsk» Project 21630 missile boat P-32 project 12421 POPPY «Gomel» Project 12411 (last missile boat)
Stronger force in the region is the Caspian Flotilla Navy Russia. It is composed of ships and boats of various projects, the total amount of which — almost three 10-ka. Biggest, massive and armed ships of the Caspian Flotilla are two patrol boat project 11661 «Cheetah». Ships «Tatarstan» and «Dagestan» have artillery, torpedo and missile weapons: one 76-mm gun mounts AK-176 anti-aircraft two AK-630M, two torpedo tubes 533 mm and two quad launchers for anti-ship missiles family «Movement» . In addition, the disposal of the crew has one Sticky bomb launcher RBU-6000 to fight submarines and 20 anti-aircraft missiles complex «Osa-MA» for the defense. Patrol «Tatarstan» is the flagship of the Caspian Flotilla. Also as part of patrol fleet are ships and other classes. This small artillery ships projects 21630 «Desperado» and 12411. Project «Hatchet» is presented ships «Astrakhan» and «Volgodonsk.» Any of these bears their 100-millimeter artillery unit A-190 and 40-receiver MRLS A-215. In addition, for defense against air attack ships «Desperado» have anti-aircraft machine guns and AK-306 missile launchers model 3M47 «flexible.» In addition, as part of the Caspian Flotilla has one small artillery ship MAK-160 belonging to finalize the draft 12411. Its armament is generally identical to the previous ships weapons, but he can not be held launchers for anti-aircraft missiles. Major caliber MAK-160 — 76-mm gun mount AK-176. Driving properties ships of projects 11661, 21630 and 12411 allow them to move for the most part of the Caspian Sea without replenishing supplies of fuel. Such acts may be added to the radius of the firing range anti-ship missiles (in the case of «Cheetah»). In practice, under the supervision of patrol alone and small missile ships is at least half of the Caspian Sea.
Despite the presence in the Caspian Flotilla fairly large ships with a relatively huge displacement, constitute the bulk of the art boats of different classes and projects. With all this bulk of combat boats used in the Caspian Sea is not the first ten years. So, the newest project of the gunboats in 1204 was admitted to the system in 1972. Approximately the same situation with missile boats, but even most of them old (P-50 «Karachay-Cherkessia») began serving later gunboats in 1204, in 1978. At the same time, on the Caspian Sea there and more than a new boat. AK-326 (Project 1400M) was accepted into service in 1990, and the P-32 Project 12421 — in 2010. Due to such a huge spread in the time of construction and operational decision-armament artillery rocket ships is quite diverse. Artillery units represented in the main AK-176 and AK-630 Missiles — complexes with anti-P-15 «Termite» and P-270 «Mosquito». List of the Caspian flotilla of warships of the Russian Navy’s short six landing craft projects 11770, 1176 and 21820, and 5 trawlers projects in 1258, 12650 and 10750.
The main objectives of the Caspian flotilla, according to official statements, is the protection of coastal waters, anti-poaching and protection of state interests in the oil producing regions. Practically speaking, these objectives are declared and other countries bordering the Caspian Sea. But the quantity and high quality with respect to their fleet is palpable behind the Russian.
Stronger in the midst of foreign countries in the Caspian sea grouping has Iran. The Caspian Sea Islamic Republic has three naval bases, one of which is used for training purposes. Relevant feature of the Iranian flotilla is the lack of large ships. Iranian military power base in the Caspian fleet consists of missile launches projects Houdong Chinese production, Kaman German Sina and its development. Main armament of these boats — Chinese anti-ship missiles YJ-82. In addition, on the Caspian Iran bases are several 10-s light boats and motor boats filled with the least decent weaponry from machine guns to medium-caliber recoilless guns. In the near future more frequent discussions about strengthening the Iranian presence in the Caspian Sea. Admirals from Tehran times promise to translate into more severe Caspian ships or patrol frigates. But until the entire Caspian flotilla Iran consists of different classes of boats.
It should be noted, second place in the power of their own naval forces in the Caspian Sea with Iran could divide Kazakhstan. Last significantly behind in the total amount of equipment, but has a few more severe ships. The flagship of the fleet is the only Kazakh missile boat «Kazakhstan» project 20971. It was designed by Russian IKBB «Diamond» and built a factory in Kazakh «Zenit» in the town of Uralsk. Base weapons ship — eight anti-ship missiles Kh-35. Not counting their ship has artillery, air defense weapons also. In the coming years, Kazakhstan will get three missile boats type Yoon Young-ha, ordered in South Korea. Another three boats Korean production, but only with artillery weapons were produced in the midst of the two thousandth. This «Shapshal» («Quick»), «Batyr» («Brave») and «Izet» («Fearless»), belonging to the project Sea Dolphin. Astana slightly earlier bought from Turkey one patrol boat project Turk. It should be noted, large boats are not a priority in the development of the Kazakh navy. The most widespread class technology in Kazakhstan are Navy patrol boats, of which there are more than fifty. Noteworthy that most of the patrol boats entered the system after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan was built with or without the help of others, or with the help of Russia. Abroad was purchased only about 2-10’s boats. Armament patrol boats quite heterogeneous: from machine guns, including mnogokalibernyh to 76 mm caliber artillery.
Comparable to a huge fleet of Azerbaijan. This country has one patrol boat project 159A and 5 missile boats 205P project built in the Russian time. In addition, in the battle of the Azerbaijani Navy patrol boats have 5 different projects, including purchased from Turkey. Fascinating fact that the most massive type of technology in Azerbaijan are Navy amphibious ships and boats. On naval bases is about 10 ka ships 770 projects, 771 and 106. Reasons for such a unique structure of the Caspian flotilla Azerbaijan, apparently, are based features of the Soviet Navy in the Caspian Sea, as the economic ability of the new independent states.
But dozens of ships and boats with harsh weapons and 10 landing craft are not anti-record of the Caspian Sea. Turkmenistan was «inherited» from the Soviet Union after its collapse acquired even the smallest amount of equipment. Currently, the country has only with 2 missile boats of the project 12418 «Molniya», 10 patrol boats Russian, Ukrainian and Turkish origin. In addition, the Turkmen sailors are on the same landing craft LCM-1, one ambulance and a tow boat. With all this it is necessary to make a point: boat project «Lightning» became part of the Turkmen Navy exclusively in 2011.
As we see, the composition of the naval forces of the Caspian is quite heterogeneous both in quantity and in high nuance. Who can be called favorites Russian and Iranian Caspian Flotilla. With all this harsh perceptible differences in the approach to the formation of these operational units. So, Our homeland in recent years trying to equip the Caspian flotilla missile and artillery ships. Iran, in turn, prefers to create the so-called mosquito fleet. Prerequisites such differences are obvious: Caspian Flotilla Navy USSR and Russia has always had a slightly smallest value than other fleets. Because not so long ago began retooling was the reason and means for increasing the capacity of the Caspian meaningful connections and updating its technology. In the case of Iran prerequisite specific equip naval forces is the need to organize the bulk of the ships in the Persian Gulf. In addition, given the current political situation in the region, we can come to a conclusion about the direction of the expected impacts Tehran. Judging by the mosquito fleet in the Caspian Sea, the Islamic Republic does not consider Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan or potential adversaries, from which urgently need to «retreating» massive fleet.
With regard to the hypothetical nature of the military conflict between states of the Caspian region, then there are some things are clear already at this point. It is easy to guess that the same Turkmenistan with their Minorities ships and boats can hardly compete with Iran or Azerbaijan. Much more unpredictable states will clash with great fleets — Our homeland, Iran, Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan. In the case of these states marine final battles will be more dependent on the interaction of divisions and management. In addition, a conflict will certainly turn on other kinds of troops that, in the end, more difficult to predict stronger. Regardless of the current balance of forces or the ability of the military conflict occurrence, all countries in the region should continue to develop and strengthen its armed forces. In the coming years the Caspian flotilla RF replenished with 2 ships of project 21631 «Buyan-M» and several boats for various purposes. Construction of this technology are to update the fleet, for the preservation of its combat potential. In light of the constant statements about strengthening the fleets of the Caspian flotilla update our looks logical and useful. Maybe in the future will be able to gain the Caspian flotilla even prevent conflict — «hotheads» from adjacent countries will not start war actions, risking encounter battle «Brawler», «cheetah» and other Russian ships.