In the USSR in the late 1950s. Russian designers have launched work on the formation of the second generation type of submarine, intended for high-volume production. These ships were designed to solve different puzzles fighting in the midst of whom was the task to fight enemy aircraft carriers, and other large vessels.
After reviewing several proposals KB design specifications and relatively cheap conventional nuclear submarine project 670 (code «Scat») that has been optimized to deal with surface targets, issued in May 1960 Gorky SKB-112 (in 1974 renamed the CDB » Lapis «). This young team of designers formed at the factory «Red Sormovo» in 1953, previously engaged in work on diesel-electric submarines of Project 613 (namely, SKB-112 preparing documentation, which was broadcast to China), because for the first nuclear-powered SKB creation has become a serious test. VP Vorobyov was appointed principal designer of the project, and Mastushkin BR — Mainly observed from the Navy.
The main difference of the new vessel from SSGN 1st generation (projects 659 and 675) was the submarine equipment antiship missile complex «Amethyst», which has the possibility of underwater launch (developer — OKB-52). April 1, 1959, the government issued a decree under which created this complex.
One of the most challenging problems during project development of modern nuclear submarine with cruise missiles, mass construction of which should have been cooperated in the heart of — in Gorky, a thousand miles away from the coming of the sea, was to keep the size and tonnage of the ship within the boundaries that allow transport by inland aqua submarine routes.
As a result, the designers were required to take, as «punching» in some non-traditional customer for the Russian fleet those. decisions that contradicted the «Rules of the design of submarines.» Namely, we decided to switch to single-shaft scheme and donate software overwater buoyancy in case of flooding at least some watertight compartment. All this gave the opportunity to stay within the conceptual design to the normal displacement of 2.4 tons (in general, during the upcoming design this parameter increased over 3 million tonnes).
Compared with other second-generation submarines, which were designed by the most powerful, but quite heavy and bulky sonar «Ruby» on 670th project, it was decided to use a more compact sonar system «Kerch».
OKB-52 in 1959 developed a conceptual design rocket complex «Amethyst». Unlike «chelomeevskih» anti-ship missiles of the first generation P-6 and -35, which was used turbojet engine, rocket having underwater start, decided to use a solid rocket engine. This has seriously affected the highest range of fire. But while other solutions simply did not exist, as in the technological level of the end of 1950 did not seem likely to create a system startup jet engine during the flight after the rocket launch. In 1961 he began tests anti-ship missiles «Amethyst».
Adoption of those. newest nuclear submarine project was held in July 1963. Nuclear submarine with cruise missiles 670-year project had a twin-spindle architecture and the contours of the outer hull. Nasal part of the body has an elliptical cross-section, which was conditioned by placing missile.
The introduction of large quenched and zeal to provide these systems in feed sectors is very probable viewing angles become a prerequisite «blunting» nasal contours. In connection with this part of the device was located in the upper part of the nasal tip of the outer hull. Horizontal front wheels (the first time for the Russian submarine shipbuilding) moved to the middle part of the submarine.
For the production of strong steel housing used an AK-29. At over 21 meters in the bow had strong body form a «triple eights,» which created a relatively small diameter cylinders. This form necessitates the placement of missile containers in lightweight package. Housing submarine was divided into seven watertight compartments:
First compartment (composed of three cylinders) — battery, residential and torpedo;
2nd section — residential;
Third section — the battery, the control room;
Fourth section — electromechanical;
Fifth compartment — reactor;
2nd section — Turbine;
Seventh section — electromechanical.
End bow bulkhead and 6 mezhotsechnyh bulkheads — flat with a pressure of 15 kg/cm2.
For the production of the outer hull, strong cuttings and ballast tanks was applied Low magnetic steel and AMG. For superstructure and deckhouse enclosure sliding devices duralumin alloy was used. Hydroacoustic antenna radomes permeable portion aft and stern tail made with the introduction of titanium alloys. Application of dissimilar materials forming in some cases, all kinds of galvanic couples, required special measures for protection from corrosion (gaskets, zinc anodes, and the similar).
To reduce hydrodynamic noise when moving at tremendous speeds, and to improve the hydrodynamic features for the first time on Russian submarines closing mechanisms used ventilation and scupper holes.
The main power plant (capacity 15 thousand hp) was to a large extent unified with more than twice as strong GEM High-nuclear submarine of Project 671 — single-reactor steam supply system consisted of OK-350 pressurized water reactor BM-4 (capacity 89 , 2 mW). Turbine GTZA-631 was rotated five-blade propeller. There were also two auxiliary jet Power (270 kW), which enables movement speeds of up to 5 knots.
On the boat, a 670-year project, as well as on other submarines of the second generation in the system and generate electricity rassredotachivaniya was used three-phase AC, 50 Hz, 380 V
The ship is equipped with 2 autonomous turbogenerator TMVV-2 (power 2000 kW), 500-kilowatt diesel alternator with automatic remote control system and 2 groups of batteries (any from 112 parts).
To reduce the acoustic field SSGN applied soundproofing suspension devices and their foundations also facing decked decking and bulkheads vibrodempfiruyuschimi coatings. Rubber coated protivogidrolokatsionnym were covered all external surfaces of the outer hull, superstructure and deckhouse enclosure. The outer surface of a strong body covered similar material. Thanks to these measures, and also odnoturbinnoy single-shaft assembly SSGN 670-year project was very small, for as long as the level of the acoustic signature (Russian nuclear submarines in the midst of the second generation of this submarine was listed very low noise). Its noise at full speed in the ultrasonic frequency spectrum was least 80, in the infrasonic — 100, in the sound — 110 decibels. With all this great part of the acoustic spectrum and the natural sounds of the sea coincided. The submarine had demagnetizing device intended to reduce the visibility of the magnetic vessel.
The hydraulic system of the submarine was split into three autonomous subsystems that serve to drive the ship’s devices, rudders, flaps missile containers. Hydraulic fluid in the use of submarines, which was the highest fire risk because of their own subject of constant «headache» for the crews, has been replaced by less flammable.
SSGN 670-year project had electrolysis stationary air recovery system (it gave an opportunity to turn away from another source of fire on the submarine threat — regeneration cartridges). Freon fire surround system provides effective fire fighting.
The submarine was equipped with an inertial navigation system, «Sigma-670», the accuracy of which is superior navigation systems appropriate properties boats first generation 1.5. SSC «Kerch» provides detection range of 25 thousand sq. On board the boat for battle management systems was located CICS (combat information management system) «Brest».
On the ship, a 670-year project in comparison with the first generation vessels sharply increment level of automation. For example, traffic control submarine at the rate and depth, without stabilization of the course and on the go, the process of ascent and immersion, prevention of accidental failures and trims, management training to torpedo and missile firing and the similar.
Somewhat improved habitability and the submarine. All personnel were provided with personal berths. Officers had wardroom. Dining for midshipmen and sailors ended. Interior design improved. On a submarine used fluorescent lamps. Before fencing of cuttings placed shuttle rescue bubble chamber, created to rescue the crew in an emergency situation (ascent from depths up to 400 meters).
Missiles SSGN 670-year project — eight anti-ship missiles «Amethyst» — was placed in the starting container plants SM-97, strong body is placed in the front part of the ship at the board at an angle of 32.5 degrees to the horizontal. Solid-propellant missile P-70 (4K-66, NATO designation — SS-N-7 «Starbright») had a launch mass of 2900 kg, the highest range of 80 km, the speed 1160 km per hour. The rocket was made by conventional aerodynamic configuration, had folding wing, drop after the start gun. Rocket flight took height of 50-60 meters, which hampered its interception means defense of enemy ships. Radar homing system antiship missiles provides automatic selection of the biggest goals in the order (in other words, a goal that has the largest reflective surface). Model submarine ammunition consisted of 2-rockets filled with nuclear warheads (1-kt) and 6 missiles with conventional warheads weighing about 1000 kg. Fire antiship missiles could be carried out at a depth of 30 meters with 2 chetyrehraketnymi volleys at speeds under the boat to 5.5 knots at sea least 5 points. Significant shortcoming missiles P-70 «Amethyst» is a strong smoke trail left by a solid rocket engine, which unmasked the submarine during the launch anti-ship missiles.
Torpedoes Project 670 submarine was located in the bow of the ship and consisted of a 4533-mm torpedo tubes with ammunition of 12 torpedoes SET-65-60M SAET ili53-65K, also 2-400 — millimeter torpedo tubes (four torpedoes MGT -2 or SET-40). Instead torpedo submarine could carry up to 26 min. Also, the submarine torpedo ammunition were wrong target «Anabar.» For torpedo fire control system served CCP «Ladoga-P-670.»
In the West, Project 670 submarines assigned designation «Charlie class». It should be noted that the appearance of the fleet of the USSR new missile greatly complicated life connections aircraft carrier U.S. Navy. Owning lowest noise level, compared with their predecessors, they were less vulnerable to anti-money potential enemy, and the possibility of underwater launch rockets made their introduction «major caliber» more effective. Low range of fire complex «Amethyst» sought to approach the target at a range of 60-70 km. But it had its advantages: small low-altitude transonic flight time of missiles made very problematic company counter strike out of the water with a «dagger» distances.
SSGN 670 5-year project (K-212, -302, -308, -313, -320) in the 1980s were subjected to modernization. Sonar system «Kerch» was replaced by a new SJC «Rubicon.» Also, all submarines before fencing of sliding devices installed cutting hydrodynamic stabilizer is a plane having a negative angle of attack. Stabilizer offset excessive buoyancy «inflated» the nose of the submarine. On some subs this series prior propeller was replaced by the new low-noise four-blade propeller with a diameter of 3.82 and 3.92 m, mounted on the same shaft in tandem.
In 1983, the nuclear submarine with cruise missiles K-43, scheduled for implementation in India, passed overhaul and modernization of the project 06709. As a result, the submarine received sonar «Rubicon». Also in the works installed air conditioning system equipped with Kubrick for new personnel and cabins for officers, they took secret control equipment and communications. After the end of training Indian submarine crews stood up again for repair. By the summer of 1987 she was absolutely ready for transmission. January 5, 1988 K-43 (renamed the CF-550) in Vladivostok lifted Indian flag and left for India.
Later, on the basis of Project 670 developed its improved version — Project 670-M — having a massive rocket «Malachite», which was the firing range of up to 120 km.
The program of construction
In Gorky SHA «Red Sormovo» in the period from 1967 to 1973 was built eleven SSGN 670-year project. After transport to the spec. dock on the Volga, Mary aqua system and the White Sea-Baltic Canal, transferred to the submarine Severodvinsk. There made their completion, testing and commissioning of the customer. It should be noted that the initial step implementation applets considered the option of transferring SSGN 670 project on the Black Sea, but it was rejected, priemuschestvenno, for geopolitical judgments (the problem of the Straits). November 6, 1967 was signed acceptance certificate for K-43 — the lead ship of the series. July 3, 1968 after the tests on the submarine K-43, adopted the Navy took missile «Amethyst» with missiles P-70.
In the years 1973-1980 in the same factory built 6 more modernized submarines of Project 670-M.
Status for 2007
K-43 — headache nuclear submarine with cruise missiles, Project 670 — became part of the Eleventh Division First flotilla of submarines of the Northern Fleet. Later in this compound and other vessels included 670 project. Originally SSGN 670-year project were considered as KrPL. July 25, 1977 they are covered by subclass LTP, but on January 15 next year, again attributed KrPL. April 28, 1992 (single submarine — June 3) — subclass ABPL.
Project 670 submarine started in 1972 to combat service. Submarines of this project produced tracking the aircraft carrier USS intensely attracted to different exercises and maneuvers, the largest — «Ocean-75», «77 North» and «The run-81.» In 1977, the group carried out the first firing anti-ship missiles «Amethyst» consisting of 2 SSGN 670-year project and the 1st small missile ship.
One of the main areas of combat service ships, Project 670 was the Mediterranean Sea. In this region in 1970-80-ies. closely intertwined interests of the U.S. and the USSR. The main goal of Russian submarines — South American warships Sixth Fleet. It must be admitted that the Mediterranean conditions did submarine Project 670 in this theater the strictest gun. Their presence caused legitimate concern in the South American command, which did not have in their own possession reliable means to counter this the hazard. Spectacular demonstration of the capabilities of submarines were armed with Soviet Navy began firing at the target missile carried by boat K-313 in May 1972 in the Mediterranean Sea.
Uniformly geography hiking North Sea submarines of Project 670-expanding. In January-May 1974 K-201 nuclear submarine, along with K-314 Project 671 made a unique 107-day transition from the Northern Fleet Pacific Fleet through the Indian Ocean on the southern route. 10-25 March submarine entered the Somali port of Berbera, where crews got a short stay. After that voyage continued, first in May culminating in Kamchatka.
K-429 in April 1977 made the transition from the Northern Fleet to the Pacific Fleet by the Northern Sea, where SSGN April 30, 1977 became a member of the Tenth Division 2nd submarine flotilla, based in Kamchatka. A similar transition in August-September 1979, which lasted 20 days, made the submarine K-302. In coming to the Pacific Ocean through the NSR profit K-43 (1980), K-121 (up to 1977), K-143 (1983), K-308 (1985), K-313 (1986).
K-83 (January 1978 renamed K-212) and K-325 in the period from August 22 to September 6, 1978 did the first group in the world ice transarctic crossing the Pacific Ocean. Originally planned that the first submarine, passing from the Barents to the Chukchi Sea under the ice, give a signal of the ascent, then the second ship in the way go. But offered a more reliable and efficient method of transition — transition as part of Task Force. This reduced the risk of ice sailing boats one-reactor (in case one of SSGN reactor damaged another boat would be able to assist in finding the polynya). In addition, the boats in the group were able to maintain a connection between the telephone mode using UZPS that allowed submarines to conduct interaction together. In addition the group transition questions cheapens the freeboard («nadlednogo») software. Commanders of the ships and the commander of the Eleventh Division submarines for his role in the operation were awarded the title Hero of the Russian Union.
All Pacific ships 670-year project were included in the Tenth Division 2nd submarine flotilla. The main task was to monitor submarines (when the respective order — settlement) U.S. Navy aircraft carriers. Namely, in December 1980 the submarine K-201 was carried out for a long tracking carrier battle group led by the aircraft carrier «Coral Sea» (for it honored its gratitude Commander of the Navy). Due to lack of the Pacific Fleet ASW submarine SSGN 670-year project teasers to solve problems for the detection of American submarines in the area of combat patrol Russian SSBNs.
Fate of the K-429 was formed more dramatic. June 24, 1983 as a result of crew errors submarine sank to a depth of 39 meters in the bay barn (near the coast of Kamchatka) on the range of combat training. As a result of the incident 16 people were killed. Submarine August 9, 1983 was raised (during lifting operations incident occurred, «further» four compartments flooded, which greatly complicated the work). Regenerative repair, which cost the treasury 300 million rubles, was completed in September 1985, but on September 13, after a number of days after completion of the work, as a result of violations of the requirements of survivability, the submarine sank again in Bolshennom Stone walls in SRH. In 1987, never entered into operation submarine was expelled from the Navy and was converted into a station, a training TCB-130, which is based on the Kamchatka Peninsula and used sow day.
Directly behind the submarine K-429, which left in 1987 combat system, first the 1990s and blamed other submarines of Project 670.
One of the ships 670-year project — K-43 — became the first nuclear submarine of the Indian Navy. This country first 1970s. implementation of state programs from the beginning of creation of nuclear submarines, but seven years and four million dollars spent on the implementation of programs from the expected results have not led: task was much harder than it seemed at first. Ultimately decided to rent one of the USSR submarine. India sailors choice fell on «Charlie» (ships in the Pacific theater of this type well-proven).
In 1983, in Vladivostok at the training center of the Navy, and later aboard the submarine K-43, scheduled for transmission Indian Navy began training 2-crews. By this time the submarine has passed overhaul and modernization of the project 06709. Boat, after graduation Indian crew back on its repair. By the summer of 1987 it is one hundred percent prepared for transmission. K-43 (which received the designation CF-550) January 5, 1988 in Vladivostok, raised the flag of India and after a number of days left for India with the Russian crew.
For a new, powerful warship Indian Navy, received tactical № S-71 and the title of «Chakra», were made very suitable conditions based: special. pier, filled 60-ton crane, a covered dock boathouse, radiation safety services, workshops. On the side of the boat while parked fed water, compressed air and electricity. In India «Chakra» operated for three years, with all this about a year she spent in autonomous navigation. All carried out shooting exercises culminated with direct hits on target. January 5, 1991 the submarine lease term has expired. India aggressively tried to extend the lease or even buy another similar submarine. But these proposals Moscow disagreed on political judgments.
For Indian submariners «Chakra» was a real institution. Many of the officers who served on her, now in the naval forces of the country occupy major posts (rather say that the nuclear submarine with cruise missiles gave India 8 admirals). The experience gained during the operation of nuclear-powered submarine, gave the opportunity to continue his work on the creation of the Indian nuclear submarine «S-2.»
April 28, 1992 «Chakra», newly enrolled in the Russian Navy, arrived under its own power to Kamchatka, where she graduated from their service. Out of service its fleet expelled July 3, 1992.
The main tactical and technical characteristics PLAKR Project 670 «Scat»:
Surface displacement — 3574 tons;
Submerged displacement — 4980 tons;
Great length — 95.5 m;
Large width — 9.9 m;
Draft waterline — 7.5 m;
The main power plant:
— steam supply system OK-350; VVR VM-4-1 — 89.2 mW;
— GTZA-631 steam turbine, 18,800 hp (13820 kW);
— 2 turbogenerator TMVV-2 — 2×2000 kW;
— Diesel Generator — 500 kW;
— auxiliary ED — 270 hp;
— five-blade fixed-pitch propeller or 2 on a «tandem»;
— 2 auxiliary jet;
Surfaced speed — 12 knots;
Underwater speed — 26 knots;
Operating depth — 250 m;
Maximum diving depth — 300 m;
Run time 60 days;
Crew — 86 people (including 23 officers);
— launchers SM-97 anti-ship missile system S-70 «Amethyst» — 8 pcs.;
-antiship missiles P-70 (4K66) «Amethyst» (SS-N-7 «Starbright») — 8 pcs.;
— 533-mm torpedo tubes — 4 (nasal);
— 533-mm torpedo 53-65K, SAET-60M, SET-65 — 12;
— 400-mm torpedo tubes — 2 (nasal);
-400-mm torpedoes SET-40, MGT-2 — 4;
— can carry up to 26 minutes instead of the torpedoes;
Combat Information Management System — «Brest»
Generic detection radar system — RLC-101 «Albatross» / MRC-50 «Cascade»;
— sonar system «Kerch» or MGK-400 «Rubicon» (Shark Fin);
— MCI-21A «Bay-P»;
— «Paddle-P» finder;
— VAN-M IMC (Stop Light, Brick Group, Park Lamp);
— GPA «Anabara» (instead of the torpedo);
Navigation system — «Sigma 670»;
— «Paravan» buoy antenna;
— «Spark», «anise», «Topol» IMC.