Universal vaccine is created through the development of Russian scientists

A breakthrough in the creation of a vaccine directed against many infections carried by an international team of researchers. The article about this appeared in the prestigious American journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. One of the most important parts of the work carried out at the Institute of Organic Chemistry. ND Zelinsky under RAS Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Nicholas Nifant'eva.

Nicholas Nifantiev

"We hope that the developed vaccine will protect against the many, and genetically very different pathogens, which can not even manage a very strong antibiotics, — says Nikolay Nifantiev. — By itself, this is a rare event in the development of both vaccines and drugs. " Currently under pre-clinical trials of synthetic vaccines in animals, and these tests showed good protective effect of the drug. 

It is known that on the surface of cells of staphylococci (eg, Staphylococcus aureus, which is notorious antibiotic-resistant strains), and some more dangerous bacteria has a small number of the same polysaccharide, PNAG. This polysaccharide is chemically similar to chitin (the most abundant polysaccharide in nature of it, for example, the outer cover consists of insects), but has a number of key differences. Earlier Scientists from the Institute of Organic Chemistry RAS developed a synthetic oligosaccharide, structurally related PNAG. Its connections with some protein molecules (especially tetanus toxoid) were able to induce strong immune responses, and such that can provide protection against infection (not characterized by any immune response). It pointed to the possibility of their use as synthetic vaccine.

In a paper published in PNAS, researchers from the Harvard Medical School, Institute of Organic Chemistry RAS, and a number of other major research centers in the world spoke about the successful continuation of their studies. Introducing a synthetic vaccine laboratory animals, researchers have antiserum (i.e. a substance containing antibodies) with which PNAG was now found on the surface of a much larger number of microorganisms. Their common feature is the ability to form colonies in the form of biofilms that these are the most difficult to treat with antibiotics group of pathogens. In addition to staphylococci, it is the TB germs, Malaria,
candidiasis, aspergillosis, meningitis, peritonitis, helikobakterioza, gonorrhea, otitnyh and other infections. Notably, many of them have not yet been found genes that are known that they encode PNAG, although the PNAG or a structural analogue of them are now detected with the antisera. That is, a list of bacteria sensitive to the vaccine may be even wider than hitherto, since PNAG on the surface contains the above Pathogens,
in which case its presence is not suspected.

Sources of information:

Colette Cywes-Bentley et al., Antibody to a conserved antigenic target is protective against diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Of 2013. v. 110.

Marina L. Gening et al., Synthetic? — (1> 6)-Linked N-Acetylated and Nonacetylated Oligoglucosamines Used to Produce Conjugate Vaccines for Bacterial Pathogens. Infection and Immunity, 2010, v. 78, pp. 764-772.

Okhapkin Ivan

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