The success — advanced manufacturing, high-quality personnel, powerful design office
- Uralkriomash: in the space of Nizhny Tagil
Nizhny Tagil, where the parent company — JSC "Scientific and Production Corporation" Uralvagonzavod "- it is the birthplace of the first steam locomotive and the largest provider of freight rolling stock for railways of Russia and the CIS countries, the city-Tankograd, which gave the country and the world a huge number of combat vehicles — some of the best on the planet. However, few know that the beginning of the space age is also largely Tagil was laid on the ground.
Remarkable flight of Yuri Gagarin would not have happened without the JSC "Uralkriomash" — company in the structure of the corporation Uralvagonzavod. Tagilskaya executives took part in all the national space programs. There have been developed mobile refueling facilities for launch vehicles, which provided not only launches the "Vostok-1", but the first satellites, as well as the implementation of programs "Energy-Buran" and "Sea Launch".
In space — liquid oxygen
In 1946, as a result of the development of combat long-range missiles, which began under the leadership of Sergei Korolev, was created by the nuclear-missile shield of the country and open prospects for practical exploration of outer space. For the new technology required a large amount of liquid oxygen — fuel oxidizer, so in the early 50's with the development of space research in the Soviet Union, there was need for a means of transportation by rail of large quantities of liquid oxygen, which was incredibly difficult. The experience of creating rail cars for transportation of cryogenic liquids in the country was absent. The solution to this pressing problem was handled by Uralvagonzavod.
Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers in the State Unitary Enterprise "Uralvagonzavod" Dzerzhinsky October 1, 1954 was established the Special Design Bureau — OKB-250 cryogenic and ground starting equipment, led by chief designer Veremevym Methodius, which later became an independent enterprise — JSC "Uralkriomash." In fact work to create a cryogenic tanks have begun two years earlier. Therefore, in the same year, a team of designers has developed documentation for a new railway tank for transportation of liquid oxygen — product 8G52. Serial production of new products, launched at the same time, marked the birth of a new industry in the country — a cryogenic transport engineering.
The complexity of problems solved was incredibly high. Liquid oxygen reacts with many metals and quickly evaporates. Therefore, the inner vessel was picked up by the tank does not react with the liquid aluminum alloy gas AMtsS. Another advantage it has excellent weldability. The space between the inner vessel of the tank and outer casing jammed insulation material — miporoy.
In 1954, the future Academician Sergei Korolev gave Uralvagonzavod cryogenic technology job creation means filling (8G117) and topping (8G118) liquid oxygen famous space rocket R-7. In 1956, production began on the Uralvagonzavod means filling with liquid oxygen carrier rockets. With their help, in August 1957 at the Baikonur cosmodrome has been tested an intercontinental ballistic missile R-7 — a remarkable achievement domestic rocket, which still displays the earth orbit spacecraft and satellites. Movable refueling equipment (tankers and refueling tankers of liquid oxygen and nitrogen) for the R-7 rocket with powerful cryogenic pumps ensure a successful launch of a number of satellites, space probes and spacecraft "Vostok" with the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on board.
When the first and most difficult problems were solved, laid the foundation for the production of cryogenic technology, factory specialists began work on the reliability of its products. Insulation of cryogenic vessels was imperfect, part of the contents of tanks evaporated during his journey. Sometimes they came to Baikonur thin. Then OKB-250 was mastered vacuum — the best insulator in nature. While no company had no experience in manufacturing high vacuum insulated receptacles.
First Authors Certificate, which won by a group of experts OKB-250, was testimony to the device 8G513 tanks with vacuum powder insulation. It was a prototype for a new generation of modern cryogenic tanks and fundamentally solved the problem of the loss of liquid oxygen and nitrogen in transit from five to 0.2 percent per day.
The next stage of development of cryogenic technology was the creation of inpatient facilities at the launch site for the storage and refueling of spacecraft with liquid oxygen and nitrogen. They were used to launch space rocket system (RCS) "Union" and proved to be much more reliable and efficient means of filling the old mobile.
One of the outstanding achievements of the OKB-250 in the 60s was the creation of rail cars for the transport of liquid hydrogen — the most effective, but extremely explosive propellant. New task complexity is much larger than the previous. A fluid temperature of 20 degrees above absolute zero, super insulation requires a deeper vacuum. Launched in 1966, the project was completed by the creation of the tank ZHVTS-100. It was done perfect isolation principle — screen-powder-vacuum. Tank ZHVTS 100 in 1969-1972 has been successfully used in the space program of lunar exploration, "H1-LZ" and its improved version — in a grand program to launch a space rocket system (RCS) "Energy-Buran".
This reusable PKC launched November 15, 1988. After the orbital flight of unmanned spacecraft "Buran" made an automatic landing at an airport with an accuracy of a few centimeters. Uralkriomashevtsy to this triumph prepared about ten years. Built on the power supply system Uralvagonzavod "Buran" is a type of energy systems of the future interplanetary spacecraft. When you run was also used developed and manufactured tagilchanami assurance system RKS "Energy-Buran" nitrogen.
Another interesting page annals of space cryogenic production — "Sea Launch". Experts Tagil Uralkriomash designed and built storage and fueling the rocket "Zenit". Participation in this international program was the best proof of the demand for the unique design and technological experience now.
Prospects of development
JSC "Uralkriomash" today — a diversified, steadily growing company, one of the leading manufacturers of specialized railway cryogenic technology in the "1520". The company operates in all directions and with different customers: manufactures products for the needs of rail carriers and oil and gas companies, Roscosmos and the domestic defense industry. JSC "Uralkriomash" provides clients with a full range of services: from idea generation, development of concepts and design documentation, manufacturing with mandatory quality control at every stage of the work and finishing installation supervision, warranty, post-warranty and service.
- Uralkriomash: in the space of Nizhny Tagil
The presence of such an enterprise as part of the corporation, of course, Uralvagonzavod
provides a number of competitive advantages over other serial enterprises — manufacturers of rolling stock.
In 2011, OAO "Uralkriomash" together with JSC "Scientific and Production Corporation" Uralvagonzavod "was a strategy for development for 2012-2015. The company at that time set itself ambitious plans to expand the line of products: as cryogenic and means for transporting a variety of liquid products. Also, the company plans a gradual, without prejudice to the production, but a significant upgrading of existing facilities and construction of new facilities.
One of the priority objectives of the new marketing strategy — access to new markets. This is important for both of "Uralkriomash", as well as for research and manufacturing company Uralvagonzavod in general. Historically, cryogenic plant has been focused on the domestic consumer and the former Soviet Union. But now is actively working to expand the geography of supplies.
Thus, it is predicted that the presence in the corporate structure of "Uralkriomash" Uralvagonzavod will reach new and innovative knowledge-intensive high-tech markets, including foreign countries. This is a cryogenic gas equipment markets of the CIS countries, the emerging markets of liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas CIS countries, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and markets single specialized cryogenic equipment.
In the nearly 60 years of activity in JSC "Uralkriomash" has accumulated vast experience in the design and manufacture of specialized tank wagons for the carriage of gases in cryogenic liquid state. The company has a monopoly in Russia and the CIS in the industry because the main activity has been, is and remains the development and production of vehicles and stationary tanks — production of cryogenic engineering.
In the cryogenic tank wagons and tank-containers made of "Uralkriomash" may carry a variety of cryogenic liquid oxygen, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, ethylene. The production of tank-containers approved by the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping, which allows them to carry liquids and gases by road, rail and water transport, including in international circulation. Volume range of boilers manufactured tank cars and tank containers — from 10 to 52 cubic meters. Work is underway to expand the number of nomenclature as railroad tank cars and tank containers.
In addition to rail and cryogenic tanks of "Uralkriomash" produces capacitive equipment for cryogenic storage of products with a geometric volume of the vessel up to 250 cubic meters, cold gasifiers, cryogenic piping. In general, of "Uralkriomash" manufactures products, providing the transportation process, draining / filling, storage and gasification of cryogenic liquids.
One of the largest projects in this direction is the construction of the spaceport East. Naturally, the joint-stock company as a manufacturer of cryogenic storage equipment does not stay away from this project. Uralkriomash will produce fuel delivery system components for the carrier rocket "Soyuz-2", in the future, after 2015 — for booster "Angara". The volume of large orders.
In 2013-2015, for the Russian Space Agency to develop and make the filling system, including 16 stationary tanks, valves. Also as part of this project over the years it is planned to produce 30 units of specialized cryogenic tank cars model 15-558C-04. In addition, received an order to manufacture and supply a given period of 47 similar tanks for the Ministry of Defence.
Tank car 15-558C-04 — is an improved version of the model of the new generation of 15-558C-03, designed for the carriage of liquid oxygen. The first two prototypes were made in 2012. Its feature as compared to the previous model — 15-558C-01 is that it was designed to the specific requirements of the customer — the Russian Federal Space Agency. The main condition for the creation of products was an increase in the volume of cargo. It was necessary to keep rail dimensions and apply the basic platform production Uralvagonzavod — railway platform with a tandem axle unit 18-100. With all the challenges designers Uralkriomash successfully managed.
In turn, the tank-wagon 15-558C-04 is planned to increase the storage time of the product from 30 to 60 days through the use of super insulation, and the use of a stainless steel outer shell instead of the budget version of black metal.
In tanks for liquid oxygen can be transported and other liquid gases: argon, nitrogen. In addition to the space industry they are in demand in the steel industry, as well as private companies selling air separation products. In addition, matters related to the construction of tanks model 15-558S01 replacement for old time rolling stock operation of civil enterprises.
Another major niche in the cryogenic industry — the creation of stationary storage facilities for air separation units. Today, a paradoxical situation where the enterprises of the Urals built oxygen-nitrogen plants, and storage for them is supposed to drive from China. Uralkriomash plans to occupy this niche and deliver fixed equipment Ural factories.
Thus, for the period 2013-2015 the production capacity of "Uralkriomash" in the cryogenic direction will be fully loaded.
Further prospects for JSC "Uralkriomash" could be the production of products for the transportation and storage of liquefied natural gas. Today, the world is actively developing the production of tank containers for liquefied natural gas. For example, in the United States, where mining is actively developing shale gas deposits are mostly small and pull the pipe is simply unprofitable. The optimal mode of transportation — the use of containers.
A similar situation exists in Russia, where there are remote villages, which is economically inexpedient to lead pipes. Therefore, to deliver natural gas there should either compressed or liquefied in the present, but advantageous in the latter.
Since LNG is a cryogenic liquid with a temperature close to the temperature of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen Uralkriomash has great potential in the field of equipment for the transportation, storage, filling and gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG).
To do this, of "Uralkriomash" developed cryogenic tank container KCM-40 / 0,8 and for the first time in Russia — the railway tank car for transportation of liquefied ethane, ethylene and natural gas model 15-712. In addition to tank containers for liquefied natural gas joint stock company "Uralkriomash" has developed technical documentation for the tank, the options means the storage of liquefied natural gas, gasification of liquefied natural gas.
In 90 years, funding for space research has decreased dramatically. This forced the team to look Tagil cryogenic orders for the design and manufacture of non-core products before, including for agriculture, fuel and energy complex. Predict the production of mini-brewery plants for freezing food pairs of liquid nitrogen plant for freeze drying of fruits and vegetables by vacuuming, wood drying. At the same time, were created for fire fighting installation, designed and manufactured tanks for transportation of refined petroleum products, liquefied carbon dioxide, railroad tank cars for light oil. Production of tanks and tank-containers for petroleum company engaged in today.
Development and production of non-cryogenic production actively continues. One of the main tasks for JSC "Uralkriomash" is expanding into new market of railway rolling stock for liquefied petroleum gas.
Within this framework, in 2012 the Ural Design Bureau of car building — structural unit of the corporation — has de
veloped a new tank model 15-588-01. Its manufacture and certification took over Uralkriomash. The tank is also mounted on a railway platform with a tandem axle unit 18-100, which produces UralVagonZavod.
Demand for this model is very high and every year is around 15,000 units. This demand is due to two factors. First, the domestic fleet of LNG tanks are obsolete: a write-off fit about 30-40 percent of the park. Second, in Russia and the CIS increased production of oil, gas and refined products, and therefore, a growing need for their transportation. Major oil refiners have repeatedly made requests of "Uralkriomash" about such tanks.
Due to the increased volume of the pile, high-capacity and other parameters tank 15-588-01 has the best performance among the competitors. It is planned that production models of tanks 15-588-01 be ambitious.
Currently transferred to Uralkriomash with the parent company corporation manufacture chemical tanks model 15-157-02. Cryogenic enterprise chemical tank has become a new type of product. Despite the novelty and deadlines, production and successfully launched products are made. New tanks meet all the necessary conditions. Since the medium of sodium hydroxide is very aggressive, specific requirements for the quality of the welds and structural strength. But according to experts the company, for the development of these chemical tanks did not become the most important task, since the development and manufacture of cryogenic equipment is more complex and higher class. And thanks to the high scientific and technical potential and flexible manufacturing process of "Uralkriomash" is capable mobile readjust to new products.
In 2010 JSC «Uralkriomash" together with "Smith" and JSC "VNIIZhT" entered the Guinness Book of Records, has developed and produced a tender vessel for the locomotive GT-1. This is a new kind of traction rolling stock, which is an engine uses a gas turbine, and as a fuel — CNG. Its operation, as emphasized by economists, is four times cheaper than using diesel. This project is implemented within the framework of the program of innovation development of JSC "Russian Railways" to transfer locomotives to alternative energy sources. The work on this project continues.
JSC "Uralkriomash" — an unusual company. Due to the large pilot production can not be attributed to a research institute or KB. But it can not be called the plant, because it is part of the powerful design bureau. Such a successful symbiosis makes of "Uralkriomash" unique enterprise with the highest potential and great prospects.
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