10 best fighters of the twentieth century by the Military Channel
10 best fighters of the twentieth century by the Military Channel. More evaluation is a crucial aspect of combat experience. All exposed fighters, not counting the 10 places (in other words, but a good reason), participated in the fighting. In-2, without exception, whatever their own machines obvious advantage, most have outstanding performance characteristics.
10th place — F-22 «Raptor»
The world’s only 5th generation fighter, built under the concept of «first saw the first shot, first hit the target.» Supersonic «stealth car» curb the latest technology, has become the object of heated debate about its cost, capabilities and relevance. According to the words of the American Shows: «Why spend 66 billion dollars on the program from the F-22, if a profound modernization of the F-15 and F-16 can give a comparable effect? Since technology must evolve, progress can not be stopped … «
The lack of real combat experience bad for assessing «Raptor.» The most modern fighter occupies only 10th place.
9th place — Messerschmitt Me.262 «Schwalbe»
First in the world jet combat aircraft. 900 km / h It was a breakthrough. Was used as a fighter-interceptor, blitz-bomber and scout.
The onboard instruments includes 4 30 mm cannon with 100 rounds on the barrel and 24 rockets, which made it possible riddle four-engine bomber from the 1st call.
Received the trophy «Swallows», the Allies were impressed by their technical perfection and manufacturability. That only cost unblemished crystal radio.
Until the end of the war the Germans have released 1900 «Swallows» of which only three were able to weave up into the sky.
8th place — MiG-25
Russian supersonic high-altitude interceptor, established 29 global high scores. In this role MiG-25 had no rivals, but his fighting ability remained unclaimed. The only victory was achieved on January 17, 1991., When Iraqi MiG shot down a U.S. Navy carrier-based fighter F/A-18S Hornet.
More productive was his service as a scout. During military service in the area of the Arab-Israeli conflict, the MiG-25R revealed the whole system of fortifications band Bar-Lev. Flights took place at the highest speed and altitude of 17-23 km, which was the only way to protect unarmed scout. In this mode, the engines devour every minute half a ton of fuel, the plane became easier and uniformly accelerated to 2.8 M. trim MiG glowed to 300 ° C. According to the pilots, even basked canopy so that it was impossible for him to touch. Unlike titanium SR-71 «Black Bird», thermal barrier became problem for the MiG-25. Permitted flight time at a speed of more than 2.5 M was limited to 8 minute that, in general, was enough to cross the area of Israel.
Another amazing feature of the MiG-25R was its possible ability to «capture» in flight 2 tons of bombs. This is particularly tickled nerves Israeli military: nesbivaemy Scout — still bearable, but it nesbivaemy bomber really creepy.
7th place — British Aerospace Sea Harrier
First vertical takeoff and landing (land version Hawker Siddeley Harrier appeared in the far 1967). Passing a string of upgrades so far remains armed U.S. Marine Corps under the name McDonnell Douglas AV-8 Harrier II. Awkward to look very photogenic plane in flight — kind hung in one place fighting vehicle not ostavlet flegmantichnym anyone.
The main secret of British designers was the method of creation of the lifting links. Unlike their colleagues in the Russian Yakovlev Design Bureau, used a scheme with three jet engines are independent, «Harrier» uses one unit Rolls-Royce Pegasus thrust vectoring. This will increase the combat load the aircraft up to 5000 pounds (about 2.3 tons).
During the Falklands War «Harriers» the Royal Navy operated at a distance of 12,000 miles from home and have gained good results: shot down 23 Argentine aircraft without a single loss in air battles. Very good for subsonic aircraft. Just participated in the fighting 20 «Harrier», 6 of which were shot down during the attack ground targets.
According to the views of all professionals, without the support of carrier-based aircraft, Imperial Navy was unable to defend the Falklands.
6th place — Mitsubishi A6M
Famous Deck Zero-Sen. Aircraft engineers from Mitsubishi mystery, in which mixed incongruous. Excellent maneuverability, massive arms and record range — 2600 km (!) When equipped with a mass of 2.5 tons.
«Zero» was the embodiment of the samurai spirit, all own design show contempt for death. Japanese fighter was completely devoid of armor and self-sealing fuel tanks, the entire payload allowance was spent on fuel and ammunition.
Whole year this aircraft ruled the skies over the Pacific Ocean, providing victorious coming Pravitelskogo fleet. By the end of the second World «Zero» played a dark role, becoming one of the main means of Kamikaze pilots.
5th place — F-16 «Fighting Falcon»
Overview F-16 is written in the form of a comparison with the MiG-29, I hope it will help readers to answer many questions.
Rule fighter says: who first sees his own enemy, who has the advantage. Because the optical survey in a dogfight is of paramount importance. Here «American» takes precedence. Frontal projection of the F-16 almost matches the MiG-21, which South American pilots were that at a distance of 3 km is practically impossible to see visually. View from the cockpit of F-16 is also better, thanks besperepletny lantern. For the MiG-29 would be unprofitable event that the engine RD-33 on certain flight conditions makes a dense plume of smoke.
In dogfights, thanks to the integrated assembly and the presence of 2 engines, MiG has outstanding flying characteristics. F-16 is somewhat lagging behind. Rate of turn achieves MIG-29, according to data Russian, 22,8 ° / c, whereas in F-16 — 21,5 ° / c. MiG gaining altitude at a speed of 334 m / s, climb the F-16 — 294 m / s. The difference is not so great and excellent pilots can neutralize it.
Armament Tactical Fighter category should include both guns «air-to-air» and «air-to-ground.» F-16 is available to the largest collection of weapons, capable of using guided and unguided bombs and anti-radar missiles. Electronics, headquartered in additional container, makes it likely that the use of point tools. MiG-29, on the contrary, shall be limited to unguided bombs and Nursi. Payloads untainted loss: from the MiG-29, the figure is 2200 kg, the F-16 — up to 7.5 tons.
So tremendous difference explained simply: reserve payload MiG-29 «ate» the second engine. According to the views of many professionals, from MiG in many respects incorrect assembly, 2 motors for tactical fighter — it’s overkill. It is best said on this occasion General Designer of the MiG Rostislav Belyakov at Farnborough 88: «If we had such a reliable and high-torque engine, as Pratt & Whitney, we would not hesitate to have designed a single-engine airplane.» From such vicissitudes suffered and range : from the MiG-29 it does not exceed 2,000 km with drop tanks. In the F-16 range with PTB and February 2000-pound bombs can reach 3000-3500 km.
Both fighters are equally armed intermediate-range missiles «air-to-air.» For example, the Russian R-77 is an impressive statement of TTX, whereas South American AIM-120 repeatedly confirmed its fairly moderate properties in battle. Soilless parity. But the MiG-29 has a huge range of your aerogun and larger caliber. Six-barreled «Volcano» F-16 has a greater contrast ammunition (511 rounds compared to 150 at the flashing).
An important element is Avionics. Radars are difficult to assess, unnecessarily manufacturers hide clear properties. But according to some statements made by pilots, you find that the MiG-29 radar has the largest viewing angle — 140 degrees. APG-66 radar of the F-16A and, accordingly, APG-F-68 at 16C have a viewing angle of less than 120 degrees. A significant advantage of the MiG-29 is available at the Pilot helmet with an eye to «slit-ZOOM», which gives an advantage to a decisive close air combat. But the F-16 is the same again their principal advantage — Flight Management System (Fly-by-Wire) and engine management system HOTAS (Hands on Throttle and Stick), which makes the plane only comfortable to operate. After pressing a single switch Falcon ready for battle. In contrast, the MiG-29 is manually configured that requests more time to join the fight.
KB MiG and General Dynamics showed completely different approaches to solving the same puzzles. In both planes implemented notable design decisions and overall verdict is: F-16 fighter functional, while the MiG — untainted air fighter, aimed first at the near maneuver battle. Here he has no equal.
Why beat Falcon, and the MiG-29 does not ranked among the «top 10»? Again, the answer will be the results of combat introduction of these machines. F-16 waged war in the skies of Palestine, was the Balkans, Iraq and Afghanistan. Separate page stories Falcon’a became raid on Iraqi nuclear center «Osirak» in 1981. Breaking 2,800 km, F-16 Israeli Air Force secretly leaked into the air space of Iraq, killed the reactor complex and without losses back to the airbase «Etzion». The total number of air victories F-16 pilots running from NATO, Israel, Pakistan and Venezuela is about 50 aircraft. Information about the defeat of the F-16 in a dogfight absent, although one plane was shot down on this type of fire SAMs in Yugoslavia.
4th place — MiG-15
Single jet fighter, whose name became a household word in the West for all Russian fighters. Entered the Air Force Russian Union in 1949. Plane, prevent a third world war.
According to the words Military Channel: «In Western society has developed the view that Russian technology — it’s something bulky, heavy and outdated. Nothing like this in the MiG-15. Frisky and agile fighter with unsullied lines and stylish shape … «His appearance in the skies of Korea has created a furore in the Western press and migraine for the U.S. Air Force. Collapsed all plans for nuclear strike on the Soviet Union area, from this point on strategic bombers B-29 did not have any chance to break through the barrier jet MiGs.
And another important point — the MiG-15 became the most numerous jet aircraft in history. Was in the Air Force 40 states.
3rd place — Messerschmitt Bf.109
Beloved Luftwaffe fighter aces. Four eminent modifications: E («Emil») — the hero of the Battle of Britain, F («Friedrich») — specifically those fighters «broke the silence at dawn» June 22, 1941, G («Gustav») — the hero of the Eastern Front, the most successful modification, K («Elector») — pereforsirovanny fighter, an attempt to squeeze out of the car all the remaining reserves.
104 German pilot, who fought on the Messerschmitt were able to bring their own expense and more than 100 downed machines.
Naizloveschy, playful and powerful aircraft. Real Fighter.
2nd place — MiG-21 vs F-4 «Phantom II»
Two different kind of sight on the 2nd generation fighter jet. 8-ton light frontline fighter and a 20-ton-purpose fighter-bomber, which became the basis Fighter park Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps.
Two irreconcilable enemy. Hot battle in the skies of Vietnam, Palestine, Iraq, India and Pakistan. Weave downed machines on both sides. Colorful combat history. Until now, the cost of the Air Forces of many countries.
Russian designers have relied on maneuverability. Americans — by missiles and avionics. Both were incorrect sight: after the first air combat, it became clear that the «Phantom» in vain abandoned guns. A MiG creators realized that two missiles «air-air» — not much unacceptable.
1st place — F-15 «Eagle»
Killer. 104 confirmed aerial victories without a single loss. Such a measure can not boast none of modern aircraft. F-15 was specially designed as an aircraft gains advantages in air and 10 years before the Su-27, was out of the competition in general.
The first time the F-15 went to fight June 27, 1979, when the Israeli «Needles» shot in dogfights 5 Syrian MiG-21. For more than 30 years of military service, the F-15 trophies become the MiG-21, MiG-23, Mirage F1, Su-22 and MiG-29 (4 in Yugoslavia, Iraq 5). More impressive were the merits of «a needle» in Asia, for example, during exercise «Team Spirit-82» 24 F-15 fighter, based on about. Okinawa for 9 days did 418 «combat» departures from their 233 — within 3 days. With all this the alert status of all aircraft in continuous almost was 100%.
Highest flying characteristics the F-15, its ability to act autonomously in the criteria for the introduction of enemy electronic warfare, funny day and NIGHT MODE, under normal and adverse weather conditions, huge and small heights given the opportunity to do on the basis of its design attack aircraft F-15E «Stike Eagle» ( produced 340 cars). By 2015, the troops will go «stealth» version of the fighter-bomber based on the F-15 — F-15SE «Silent Eagle».
Combat use of the F-15 is a prerequisite for many disputes. In particular, questioned the fact that none of «Eagle» was lost in combat. According to statements by Syrian and Yugoslavian pilots, at least 10 F-15s were shot down over Lebanon, Serbia and Syria. But to confirm their word does not seem likely, since No one, neither side was able to show the pieces. Certainly one, the role of the F-15 in combat in almost all determine the course of many military operations (eg war in Lebanon in 1982).
F-15 «Eagle» is the most severe and effective fighting machine because deservedly ranked 1.
Unfortunately, many of the most prominent structures remained outside the rating of «top 10». Hero of all airshows the Su-27 — the best plane peacetime flying characteristics which allow you to do complex aerobatics in rating missed. Not in the rating and Supermarine Spitfire — just decent throughout the plane. Much has been created successful designs and it was very hard to choose the best of them.
Oleg created Kaptsov