The main symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are, impulsivity, and increased mobility of the child. According to studies, it is found in 4-9% of preschool children and school children. This means that in a class where the average person learns to 25-27, there is one, or even two hyperactive children.
On the manifestations hyperactivity parents may face from the very first days of life. Children bad, restless sleep, cry a lot, during wakefulness are very mobile, excited, sensitive to all external stimuli — light or noise. It is hyperactive children often "jump" from the wheelchair to the front of his mother, break out the bars of cribs, upset over a kettle with boiling water. In 4-5 years baby not able to focus on one lesson, it attention scattered, for example, he did not have the patience to listen to the end story or play a "quiet" games that require concentration. The child can not sit still for a minute in his chair, fidgeting, noise.
Parents do not accidentally say to their children "like a little motor attached," and they are ready to run and jump for days. But to believe that this is just a consequence of the large energy reserve in the child properly. This discharge, which requires the child due to the nature of his body. In addition, hyperactivity is often accompanied by restless movements, motor pretentiousness and excessive temper child.
The situation is exacerbated in kindergarten and later in school. Classes require perseverance, and the child turns-turning, noisy, distracting the other children. With a high level of intellectual development, he learns from the "troika" and the lessons he's bored. Because of his impulsive child often gets into various alterations, acts without thinking, resulting in a diary full of observations of teachers, and relationships with their classmates do not add up.
Of course, hyperactivity with attention violation does not occur in a vacuum. His beginnings appear before a baby into the world. The reasons could be any problems during pregnancy and childbirth, which are accompanied by fetal hypoxia (lack of oxygen). We are talking about the threat of miscarriage, birth asphyxia, used during childbirth aids (such as forceps), rapid or, conversely, long traumatic birth, smoking during time pregnancy. Infection and intoxication in the first years of baby's life, too, may turn into hyperactivity. There is also a genetic predisposition.
At the heart of hyperactivity is minimal brain dysfunction (MMD). It is because of her children have difficulties in learning. Currently, neuropsychology, neurophysiology, biologists conducting research MMD and hyperactivity. They tend to identify violations of structural and functional organization of the left hemisphere, the immaturity of the fronto-hippocampal system of the brain (it is responsible for the regulation of the level of attention), low mental tone, increased fatigability. It is because of these violations child is not mobile, is impulsive, but inattentive. It is noted that by adolescence increased motor activity disappears, but the inattention and impulsivity, in contrast, can progress. In addition, studies have shown that hyperactive children often have difficulty with writing and speaking, pronouncing difficult words of tongue twisters.
Parents often have difficulties when dealing with hyperactive children. Some seek disciplinary methods beat disobedient son or daughter — to increase the load, strictly punished for infractions. Other elected path of permissiveness and provide the child with a free hand. In determining the best course of conduct with a child's parents are often lost. Of course, different situations require different solutions. But first, parents need to understand that their child is not as significant to spite them, and not because he did not want to behave. Baby does so unintentionally, so parental emotional outbursts — assault, abuse and threats — can only do harm. A number of general recommendations provide psychologists.
For the hyperactive child is very important specific formulation of objectives. If you want a kid to do some request that the wording should be as clear and concise, consisting of about ten words. Should not be given more tasks at once, such as "Go to your room, pick up toys, then wash your hands and come to dinner." The child is unlikely to accept such a tirade, and his attention just "switch" to something else. Consistently perform better ask each indication.
The job should be limited to a specific time frame. Change of activity should be reported to your child in advance — for 10-15 minutes, and about the expiration of the job let it notifies an alarm clock or timer.
Barring a child anything better to avoid the word "no" and "not." In any situation, you should talk quietly, not in a raised voice.
Verbal instructions should reinforce visually. This may be a plan, a calendar or a colorful diary, where you and the child will write time meals, doing homework, walking and sleeping.
Timely access to specialists — psychologists, neurologists, speech pathologists need, it helps to fully cope with the hyperactive child.