BSSR against polygamy and abortion

"The premise of dismissal precinct Pleshchenitsy RA Ministry of Internal Affairs with the filing Farafonava check investigative bodies in the midst of the Minsk region in 1948 became a wedding in the spring of 1947 with Burak LS, which in 1931 was sent with his parents in the Sverdlovsk region, also Cohabitation with Stag C ., whose husband during the German occupation of the mechanics worked MTS voluntarily went to Germany and came back to the area Pleshchenitsy repatriation …
Security Minister BSSR L.Tsanava devoted his attention Secretary Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of MI Gusarova that I.Vetrav prosecutor BSSR discredited that had 2-wives, as was widely understood. Reported that the first spouse through L.Tsanavu tried to influence the spouse. He did not accept it, and said the situation the second secretary of the CC CP (b) B K. Kiselyov. Stsvyarzhdalasya that nyavstoylivasts I. Vetrova a Communist confirmed that he fled from Minsk in the first days of the war and threw documents and paperwork prosecutors BSSR, who after the war were found in one of the buildings in Berlin. On moral and domestic expansion I. Winds had been warned the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in 1943 …
Particular sectors of the documents of the Central Committee of the PBC. State Archive of the Republic of Belarus.

Vyacheslav Rakytskyy: "With the cited documents looks that bureaucrats were under the watchful eye of the country or the party organs. Indeed if there was complete control over the citizens of the BSSR, or it concerned only certain categories of officials?"

Ira Commandant: "The authorities had to intervene profitably privacy of their own people. Seven unit of society as it was easier to keep under control, because the government made various measures in order to strengthen it and make it impracticable for the ordinary citizen to live outside the norm. Particularly closely watching biographies of responsible persons with whom they had close business or married. "
Rakytskyy: "In those documents, with whom I met during training transfer, I was especially struck by a statement of facts polygamy. Vserasprostranennym How was it? And what is the reason?"
Commandant: "Nobody kept statistics, because extramarital affairs are not paid much attention. Usually exposed bigamist who were in positions of responsibility, because they had to set an example in society. Responsibility for dvayazhenstva spouses and care usually was conditional and did not help restoration of families. precinct district police district Begoml Glazko who was legally married and had 1st baby, used his position and took second marriage to a citizen Vasyukevich, filling out his registration, while the first was not canceled . He was given a disciplinary penalty of 10 days for immoral behavior and assignment of confiscated moonshine.
Rakytskyy: "What is the reason polygamy?"

On the development of polygamy has made a huge impact war

Commandant: "The development of polygamy has made a huge impact war. Evacuation caused additional problems — attachment of those who went to the evacuated enterprises. Also, those who remained in isolation from the family, make new family. Midst of other circumstances — the inability to live in one community Fri, because that needed a residence permit for transfer to another job, to unite with the family or to make a better living conditions. it provoked guys care from a family with or without divorce. Ladies burdened the children usually could not remarry. A responsible for leaving the kids without proper support was rare. alimony defaulters who could not escape the boundaries of the republic, for example, in connection with the labor mobilization, appropriate departments do not even tried to find. "
Rakytskyy: "The government sought to influence family life. Why and how?"
Commandant: "The role of the Russian authorities in family dilemmas was aimed at intervention to ideological control (search was conducted" enemies of the people "and their assistants) and accounting for population growth. Government forbade abortion, bachelors and small families start to tax."
Rakytskyy: "The government considers the family as one of their own institutions. Whether to accept such people own status — member state of the cell?"
Commandant: "Family prepyadstviya were, on the one hand, the personal sphere, but, on the other hand, are often those who complained to the merits of a guaranteed result, appealed to the definition of the family as the fundamental institution of the country. Usually, asked for help from the country ladies who could not find other means of influencing the runaway husbands and want at least collect support. At the same time beating their wives and kids, frequent in families almost complained, although exceptions occurred. So, detective Lepel district Bogdanov for systematic family quarrels and beating wife was "delivered with an" and the administrative band he was executed six days in jail. were complaints to the party and from the guys. For example, the director of the Institute of Theoretical Medicine, Academy of BSSR Baranovichsky who seduced his wife Stepanenko, her husband complained to the party bureau BSSR . "
Rakytskyy: "If the government took control of the family, deprived people privacy (home) life, of course, the government compensated the restriction of freedom of people in a real method? At least, helped families survive?"
Commandant: "Assistance provided to low-income, but its size was very small, because it was more important for the government to restore funds for the restoration industry, the performance of other zvyshplyanav. Personal needs malehankih man considered last. Wage most were small — 250-300 rubles , helped to survive low utilities and food prices. main concern for maintenance and preservation of the family with huge losses of the male population would lie on the shoulders of women. At the same time the ladies are usually offered to low-skilled and low-paid jobs, and the children were taken from malehankih without hunting. skills shortage by providing the country contributed to the election of persons behavioral strategies outside aimed at implementing rules adopted by the State, with the introduction of self, including illegal, ways of existence. This exhibit more relevant cases of crimes from police reports — samagonavarenne, spekulyatsyya theft provoked postwar poverty. "
Rakytskyy: "And the kids? Russian authorities have always declared their value. Existed motto:" All the best — to children. "In what role they played in the ideological model of the family?"
Commandant: "While the kids were strategically necessary for the construction of light coming of communism, there was a lack of adequate child care on the part of the country, especially in the towns. Shmatdetnastsi In promoting the quantity of goods on the cards for the kids was not enough to grow them awake. All kids were basically bad dressed and had their own shoes because their standards for supply was not foreseen obtain industrial products. Worked enough gardens — in 1945 to 24 thousand babies, and in 1953, not much more — by 36.1 thousand kids. In 1950 he only worked on the BSSR 641 pediatrician. created municipal system assistance to needy children was inadequate aimed first at preventing crime. "
Rakytskyy: "How to solve the contradiction that the government was interested in restoring the population, and parents had nothing to feed the kids? Could Russian family without help plan the number of kids?"
Commandant: "To encourage people to own it necessary actions, the government often used as a facto
r in the impact of risk reprisals. In this case, such a ban abortions 1936 to 1955, which greatly assist in improving post-war population of BSSR. Government initiative coincided with the usual ( especially rural) negative attitude to this operation, because they believed that it corrupts the first guys. Artificial suppression of pregnancy authorities allowed only in exceptional cases — for medical evidence, to get permission from other circumstances, it was nearly impossible. At the same time a lot of bureaucrats directed attention to the fact that such restrictions have led the family to poverty and a significant deterioration in relations. difficult post-war situation — an acute housing problem, languid work, unbalanced family, the lack of the need to push the ladies to conduct criminal abortions, which are threatened with imprisonment midwives. "
Rakytskyy: "Women judged or fined for illegal abortions?"

Abortion without the permission takeaway public reprimand, and at repeated violation of the law — a fine of up to 300 rubles

Commandant: "Responsibility themselves pregnant women was easier: for abortion without permission takeaway public reprimand, and at repeated violation of the law — a fine of up to 300 rubles. In order to protect grandmas-midwives, the victim usually insisted that they had abortions. The result — a certain amount of give mutilated, some even died during the operation. Cases of abortion conducted occasionally quite large quantities in general cases. conditional statistics MIA on abortion can be seen from the data Tolochinsky rayzdravu: only during the second half of 1947 — the first half of 1948 at clinics received 138 ladies with options abortions made outside medical facilities. Neither 1st case was opened. Neither the investigating authorities, health care professionals were not aimed at identifying the facts of criminal abortions unless there is a necessity of the plan in the near future disclosure Affairs . "
Rakytskyy: "What happened to the family man who fell into the lists of the authorities as" hostile element "?"
Commandant: "Practically, it is appropriated family status" exiled "in society. Even kids become hostages of the situation. Search for truth through the direction of petitions, complaints dragged on for years, and the presumption of innocence was not. Family members could choose different ways to survive. Renounces communication with the enemy people — divorced, separated property. Someone fingering their relatives in other villages, some fled to the town, where they made new documents, dooming themselves to life in the mask. Exposing such persons other than officials of the Interior took over the newspaper, individuals who often pursuing their own personal goals, for example, to free space in a communal or office. As one of the methods remove the stigma of government advocated the rejection of the past, but that did not stop the coming of these persons do not take to work or to study in universities. "
Rakytskyy: "Why do most of the number of those whose youth was passed in the first postwar decade, currently idealize this difficult period?"
Commandant: "It’s a matter of psychology faster. In 1-x, the ancestors of the Stalinist couple boys to free them from possible problems, trying not to report their concerns to the correctness of Russian politics and particularly adverse impact on her family. Youth, which brought the Communist propaganda machine did not know the truth, and from time to time and did not want to believe in the other, to accept the reality distorted through the prism of Russian standards that are promoted at all steps of formation of the person and move up the career ladder. In-2, a significant portion of time to erase negative memoirs these people, replacing them including artificial positive imposed by Russian media. It is clear that youth is remembered for a lifetime, usually as the happiest time, which may not be the most appropriate period. "
Rakytskyy: "And what would happen if in Belarus after the war, the guys did not become significantly smaller and the Belarusian society has not come to his own recovery to a greater extent on women’s shoulders?"
Commandant: "It can be argued that the huge loss of men in the war, which led to a significant gender imbalance in the Belarusian society, significantly changed the role of ladies and men in Belarus. Dame took over the role of breadwinner, protector and guardian of the family and for all that the man was grateful only for the fact that he was there. This led to the fact that at the moment and often the primary responsibility to promote and protect the family rests largely on the shoulders of women who need to work at home and at work. A men allow themselves to a certain irresponsibility by ignoring the problems of their own kids, corruption and the abuse of alcohol. Maybe if there was a different story in this issue, we would have another, the best political situation. "

Tags: family, Commandant

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