A year earlier, on May 25, he left the life dramatically. Vladimir — one of the founders of the Belarusian Wikipedia, created websites www.pravapis.org, www.martyralog.org.
Vladimir was one of the more recognizable Belarusian Internet users. This year, two months back, when summing up the portal TUT.BY sixth yearly contest Belarusian content projects for the first time was given a special award named after Vladimir Katkovskaya "For Belarus", founded by his parents.
Ira and Leonid classmates, in 1974 graduated from the Physics Department of the Belarusian State University.
Emperor Leonid — Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Senior Researcher, Institute of Applied Physics problems.
Ira — Chief Accountant of one of the capital companies, as well as a private businessman is assessing mental facilities.
The youngest daughter, sister settle Daria — a lawyer by training, has polutoragodovalogo offspring Olesya spreads on public principles newspaper "Nasha Niva", maintains his own diary in the "Learn".
Ira and Leonid booked svabodavtsam cook transmission on the topic "Can the Web become a means of uniting civilization?"
Web raznyavolvae people assigns them courage
Is the Web a place where a person feels free, can read and think, not looking for anything?
Question of the degree of freedom that can experience modern Belarusian nick web, we addressed Gardinas journalist Nikolai Markevich.
Markevitch: "I believe that the Web is not the only place where people can feel at ease immediately. But this is one of those places where there are suitable conditions for this. Certainly, if you look at the Belarusian reality, the reality, the Internet freedom is to a large extent limited by the country’s role in the regulation of the Web. "
Markevich is Radio The radio, which broadcasts from Poland. What does he think about the Polish web?
Markevitch: "If associate Polish and Belarusian web, the degree of freedom, of course, higher in Polish. And if talk about the prices, the prices are just promote this freedom in Poland, because they are a couple of times cheaper than in Belarus. And like would just pay attention to what amazed me personally, it’s — the active role of Poles in forums, discussion of articles that raise public difficulties. Poles in this sense is more relaxed, spontaneous, more than I would have even said, categorical and constructive from time time in their own utterances. So usually behaves person who thinks that in his opinion, his words will not throw him in jail. "
What are the prospects of the Belarusian the web?
Markevitch: "Just now the situation is such that came to power people who have decided to control everyone and everything … What have decided to introduce some medieval laws and take advantage of them and practically put people on their knees."
Yet, Nikolai Markevich configured quite optimistic for the future, although he has recently suffered: people in the civilian left without computers online edition of "The Chase".
Markevitch: "As an example, the way the government has treated the website pahonia.org, which zvlyaetstsa heir newspapers" Ride "and" day. "People came, took on a fictional base technique. And what is it? This is not counting that ordinary banditry, I so qualify, it is also referred to as an attempt to regulate internetskay freedom. "
Online edition made obstacles, but they were overcome.
Markevitch: "At the very time when our computers were confiscated, which makes using the Web site, almost fifteen to twenty minutes on the web site" Chase "has information that is held in the wording of the search that seized vehicles. This is not only an example of blatant interference power in journalism, it is also an example of what this government efforts to destroy the freedom of the Internet space, in principle, in vain. With current technical means all this can be overcome. "
Andrei Pochobut works for "Gazeta Wyborcza", formerly Polish-edited magazine.
Poczobutt: "I think that really web and comments that arise from time to time on the web, they are more relaxed than when a person speaks individually. Since web makes some anonymity. There are people who never on sensitive political topics or public not expressed, say, in front of reporters, but hiding behind the anonymity they willingly different prepyadstviya discussions are on the Web. Why is this happening? It seems to me that it makes the possibility of anonymity, you never know — who is on the other end who you said who writes, who commented on the Web.
And if you associate with the Polish Belarusian web?
Poczobutt: "I think this is also the case of Poland. Only difference: all are still there anyone had not come to hunt down the web, to keep under control. Quite a lot of companies out there that provide Internet services. And we still have all holds a monopoly in their hands. Unfortunately, there are such things as blocking access to objectionable web pages authorities political, when the country was something going on. Well, as hacker attacks that occur at times, quite powerful not so long ago was website, "Freedom."
Last question: Andrei Pochobut trusts the web, namely the mail?
Poczobutt: "Unfortunately, I do not trust online abslyutno-mail, do not hope that it can be sent by the secret information. This is the same as talking on a cell phone, which is quite simply tapped. Some time ago I tried to find out about me operative-search measures, and they apparently were held, as I beheld surveillance. But the answer was such that it was "municipal hiddenness."
Ira commented Katkovskaya:
Not so long ago Aleksandar Kozulin said something like this: he feels much freer than many of those who really are on the loose. And we can be proud of this courageous and brave man, wish all the same state of mind and a strong character. But to that inner freedom to be added exterior, which has an impact on the state of the whole society and relations between people — such freedom guaranteed by the laws of a democratic society.
At one point in the interview, talking about the web, Vlad said that "… Web — a means of communication that can bind and may razdyalyats. As he connects, it is clear to everyone who visited the internet. As separates and divides? Firstly, it kibervoyny and Hacking. In-2, recall skills flame. In the real world it just is not feasible! Third, think of the family quarrels, when one of the partners "padsazhvaetstsa" on the ‘Net … "
I am very worried about DOS attacks on websites are independent, as well as the repeated calls of some officials to regulate the Web and introduce censorship in it, proves that the ‘Net — a mass of information. Maybe some websites and can be considered for the media, but it is a very special media.
From time to time you can hear from Internet users that the network is not just free environment that fundamentally impossible to close, restrict, regulate, etc. But since the internet — this is a technical means, it can be used in different ways (there are already examples of China and North Korea).
As said one of the Russian leaders, as Web technology can be used for services and freedom, and for the sake vstatalyavannya totalitarianism — this hard to disagree.
Subculture Network helps a person to open
According to the UN, "Information Economy Report", the number of Internet users in Belarus at the beginning of 2006 was 3.39 million people. "Beltelecom", in turn, said that the daily audience of users of the web in 2007 has grown by almost 30% of the level of 2006, and a total of three and a half million.
Information for comparison: the number of all users in the world at the moment exceed one billion people. In the midst of the CIS, Belarus ranked third in terms of the use of Internet setkay. Ahead Our homeland — 39.6 million p
eople, and Ukraine — 4.5 million people. Well, the world ranking of countries led by the information society, and specifically the United States and Japan, as China.
Does such a mass in the compartment with the practice nick neym (special nicknames), other abilities anonymous online presence to allow freer nature and content of the Web?
If you want to come to participate in a talk show on television, you need to at least perfectly dressed to make a pleasant memory. If you call on the radio for you to be loaf, as you have a nice voice. If you hunt to speak on the pages of cardboard edition, for you need to have a word. Web removes all these restrictions. For you can not specify your face and do not call my name.
Project Manager "Akavita" Fedor Karalenka enjoys web browsing since 1997. During this period, he had a steady outlook: a global web, hiding under the nickname, the man is revealed even more.
Karalenka: "Any completely killed the man who in real life does not contact with anyone who can seriously talk to people on the Web does not feel any pressure. It is revealed completely and writes things that would never have said . It can and to call someone, it may be contrary joyful and anything. "
From time to time, the question of their safety really becomes crucial for network users, particularly in the Belarusian political realities. Not everyone dares to write under their naming in the LJ community, on an online forum or in guest books websites where criticize government officials and heads of the country.
Absolute anonymity of the web to keep the Belarusian difficult or even impossible. According to Fyodor Korolenko, there are many techniques to calculate a person, even if he uses of so-called proxies. These are websites through which you can download the address right web site or offline, then the guest will be distorted aypishniku not Belarus, and, for example, the South American. Authorship seditious posting in the Guest book, or on the forum will be virtually impossible to find. In general, not every forum or chat let you in if you try to go there through proxies. Fyodor Korolenko continues:
Karalenka: "Strongly many aspects nespetsyyalisty and still make mistakes and somehow zasvetsyatstsa. Because it has no special meaning. Either way people leave traces on the Web — not here, so elsewhere. Given an order, that you can- then calculate ".
Popular personality in the Belarusian web, Pierre Bezuher, looks at the problem of anonymity on the other — neither of whom he is not hiding, just a network dictates the rules of the game:
Pierre Bezuher: "Naturally, I do not subscribe to their real naming not like I’m afraid to put it there, but all the same web — is a certain subculture, so if you come back, are obliged to accept the rules of the subculture. Inetovskie If my friends know me nicks, nicks meet me and I am too — it’s a different, completely different social circle. Though some of them know me in real life, and there is not anything per se. "
Psychologist Marina Litoshko believes that coming to the web person wishes to identify certain characteristics of the self, which he considers suitable to detect. Global network — is another reality, and it would be weird, if the web became a full copy of life.
Litoshko: "In life, people also use a nickname -" cat "," rabbit "," fish. "It’s not quite alien to man — to invent some nicks. Maybe they are even more talkative than real names. For we do not litsezreem rights and not show his face. "
Ira commented Katkovskaya:
At one point, I read on the forum that "anonymity — the main factor of freedom of speech."
But still it seems that the failure in part because of fear of expressing their eyes open — a sign of the lack of freedom in society. You can feel free when you know that you are protected by law, to which all are equal.
And of course, the introduction nick neym — is only apparent vault.
Good website should constantly amaze visitors
The growing number of users of the Web in Belarus turns it into a fundamental means of mass communication and disk imaging. Greater enthusiasm until the cause ByNet news websites. But quickly grows enthusiasm and analytical, social and political projects. Including and Belarusian — "Nasha Niva", "Freedom", "Chase", the website Milinkevich and others.
At the website of the Belarusian Society for Historic Preservation and Cultural www.radzima.org 70% of the guests — Poles. Anton Astapovich bitterly states that Poles over our fascinating history and culture than the Belarusians. And the network — at the very top prepyadstviya. While the Belarusian language will not be dominant in society, while the Belarusians themselves do not realize that the Belarusian — it’s cool, it does not work, I am convinced Anton Astapovich:
"There is no ground on which to inculcate democratic values. European values ripe for national and cultural grounds. And while we have not matured national cultural soil, normal, Belarus, anything decent will not. And this requires preliminary work with people need more people to get involved in the process of specifically cultural. This education is propaganda of the state cultural heritage. We need to tell everyone that the Belarusian — it’s cool, our heritage, our culture — it’s cool. that we have no extremity of Europe, that we really majestic country. While there is no such promise, not posodeystvuyut any websites or publications. "
Vladik Davydovskaya — creator of the website "Lofty Principality." Website he presents as the Belarusian cultural on-line magazine. The address on the network — www.3force.info. Web site includes sections on "Reading", "Literature", "art", "Music", "Lofty Principality", "The Facts", "Historical research" other.
Vladik Davydovskaya proud that last month the website had more than 3 thousand guests. Vladik — esthete Education painter, musician, one of the founders of the group "Mroya" running radio journalists. I am convinced that on clothes meet:
"Because the first requirement of the website — it should be pretty on the outside, not alienate. This is fundamentally in particular for the female audience. Web site should not be similar to others, people constantly need something to amaze. Naturally , this work asks Prof. knowledge and knowledge of all the information technology used in the contemporary press. This is usually a large inventory techniques, and often is the secret prof. But exactly what should be done by a professional journalist. other words, the website should serve the people and not for samamilavannya and not for their own PR.
In my opinion, the most important thing — this thing is to live with, to live every day. And then the publication will be alive. "
Unity through the web — excellent. But it is better to contact specifically …
Guests of the Web in Belarus is 41 per 100 inhabitants. Raznaystaynyya sociological studies have shown that among the urban web browsing uses 38% of respondents in the middle of the rural population — 15. In most cases, leave minchane Web (62%), as the inhabitants of Minsk (37%), Grodno (33%) and Gomel (31%) regions. Most of the guests are young people up to 30 old. As for the impact of political beliefs number of visits, the supporters of the democratic camp to use it as more and more trust acquired out of disk imaging than their opponents. For what ordinary enter the web? What first seek out in it? Here are results of a survey on the streets of Mogilev:
Man: "Every day, I use a lot. Usually it is an electric-mail, browsing the special dedicated websites. I have long existing in the space of Live Journal. According to the latest to join the elite as he not only can he really is one of the means of communication among groups Belarusian elite. "
Woman: "In the near future is not so often. Ac
cording to studies in the main."
Reporter: "Can be a means of unity web Belarusians as a civilization?"
Woman: "No. That would be very ordinary and simple to connect people through the web. Though the sample there is, I think, is true."
Man: "For me, the web — a means of communication with the world. For Belarus — a godsend. As is independent press, as I know, destroyed almost a hundred percent. Certainly, the web can be a means of unity of civilization. Especially youth. Neither 1st There is no place in the center, computer clubs. For young people — this is unity. "
Lady: "In the near future often, almost every day. In the main I corresponded with your friends, as I myself do not belong here, from Russia. More announcements watch, curious to know what is happening in the world."
Reporter: "Web can become a means of unity Nation?"
Lady: "Something there is. But better to talk on the ability to specifically."
Man: "I’m just looking for information that interests me. On any technique that going to get in the last time."
Reporter: "Web could become a means of unity of Belarusians as a civilization?"
Man: "For the future of web browsing — it’s understandable. Soon all only through the web and will talk. Vary Web and e-mail, and any other means of communication. Because it will be him."
Man: "I use it every day Web, as it is my job, this is my training. All that is possible, I was there looking for — training materials, materials in order to whom I taught."
Reporter: "Can the Web become a means of unity Belarusian civilization?"
Man: "Of course not. This interactively. People do not behold the each other. People can not convey emotions. They can not pass on their memories with pinpoint accuracy."
Man: "Every day use. I am looking for announcements. I have relatives living abroad, through the web just talk. In 1-x inexpensive, almost nothing, and communication was canceled. "
Reporter: "Web can become a means of unity Nation?"
Man: "It’s not bad to communicate over long distances. We can go out on the street to talk. Generally, it is useful and comfortable thing."
Man: "Internet for me, at first, I need the help of information. Music stuff, do not be on learning. "
Reporter: "You could have become a means of unity web Belarusian civilization?"
Man: "Of course, he could. I think he’s still with us is not so developed as in the West. If he would find fairly widespread, it will be a reliable tool for bringing people together."
Woman: "This is a method of communicating with my friends. I moved a lot. Communicate at the moment with the people who live in Russia and in other countries. For me the web — most a cheap method of communication with them. I try to look any informational Web sites. economic interests mainly because learning to be an economist. Various analytical websites. Later you will need. "
Commented Leonid Katkovsky:
What intrigued cause ordinary network? What do I need for this? Focus guests on news and politics? Or in this case, it is necessary only to people of intellectual labor?
I think not only. After all, more will be done via the web and has already made a lot of things, things that everyone wants. The first is the different background, different booking and ticketing services, online shopping, interactive TV, multimedia, media, etc.
Because, my friends, and buy computers padluchaytesya network!
"Internet addiction is no worse than, say, depending on the book"
The rapid growth of interest in the web of originated the concept of Internet addiction. He appeared in 1994. Such dependence is officially defined as stalking desire to enter into the web and the inability to get out of it. International news agencies report to, for example, that young men of military age in Finland do not take the army, if they are extremely addicted to the web. In the U.S., to help Internet addicts medicine comes and the public. And there is the problem of Internet addiction in Belarus and how it can be solved?
Svetlana Zayko states that get into Internet addiction can be very simple. Few years ago she almost became a victim of the web:
"If it was just beginning, I showed the website, as explained to go to register. Came, zaregat. And start dating: had read about politics, culture, everything. Was very curious, but immediately and creepy. It is not about to serve computer has two hours — you will not leave. "
Doctor of the National Clinical Psychiatric clinics in News, who did not want to call his name, says that this problem really exists. But the target of direct healing read, so far, is not necessary:
"In this regard, of course, in the future will have something to think. But until such magnitude of the task, that the republican hospital opened special offices or bed. And doctors should own prof level in this direction to increase because first there must be experts at work . should be staffing, facilities, preventive work. In the future it will be, of course. "
Director of the 1st of Minsk internet clubs Vladimir Golovach holds own gaze at the problem:
"The theme of the prestigious, but the truth is that I as a specialist in this area, I do not see how it differs from many other addictions in people who have. And why we have not opened centers for people who depend on the books, from theaters from movie? Let’s open from television — yes they are overcrowded customers who can not break away from the television and from the movie. "
Chief Psychiatrist, Ministry of Health said that Belarus is not systematyzuetstsa information about the number of Internet-dependent people and their healing. But such examples are. What think about Internet addiction potential nick WAN? Interested young people on the streets of Minsk:
Reporter: "Are not you afraid of Internet addiction?"
Woman: "No. I am not afraid for myself, but for others I can not read."
Woman: "In my life there were times when it was impossible to live and a day or so as not to go to the web. But it does not need to fear, it’s just necessary to survive. And then realize that life is and web browsing, with a much more exciting. "
Guy: "I’m afraid, depending on disk imaging, from my hobbies: fishing, video editing."
Guy: "No, I’m not afraid of dependence. Naturally, this is an exciting experience. But if at the end of the month the phone bill comes, you realize that you must sit in the web is less than."
The department psyhasamatyki 10th medical clinic in Minsk during the last 2 years two patients healed on Internet addiction. As it is unsafe compared with diseases such as tobacco, alcohol and drug addiction, says Dr. Olga Osmolovo this department:
"If a person is completely immersed in the Web and remains there for hours, if he does not eat, does not drink and does not sleep, no one speaks and almost never works, it’s quite hard case. But it still has a few problems, and a namely personality traits. And when a man keeps his social activism, and all this can be quite often visit web, it’s not a terrible option, does not ask for special treatment. Is that the man himself did not like the fact that he visits the Web. "
Commented Leonid Katkovsky:
Internet addiction is measured — the appropriate test program posted online. And settle at one point using them. To the question "The amount of time per day spent in the net," said: "More than 12 hours." And to the question "Do you think that the heat and light of the computer more comfortable to you than a friend?" He replied: "Yes." Then he felt something terrible for himself, because he had Internet addiction by 65 percent …
But let us distinguish. If a person spends time on the web for games, for example, is one thing. And when
he works in practice there, thanks vebu makes a lot of useful things, there is nothing particularly terrible, I can not see.
… To summarize the transmission in general, I note one thing: if the improvement of our lives do not work other levers, then eventually it will certainly work on the Web. "
Public editor next week will Tatiana Protko that on days are concluded with the ability to manage yourself the Belarusian Helsinki Committee. Journalists ‘Freedom’ she ordered the transfer cook on "The role of special services in the Belarusian society."
Tags: Web, Katkovsky