Are increasingly found on business cards psychologists word "Gestalt therapy." And, if a therapy is clear, then the mysterious "gestalt" while few know.
Gestalt therapy — the direction of psychotherapy that formed in the middle of the last century. Its founding father is German psychologist Frederick Perls.
In essence, the theory of Gestalt therapy has become a pot of cooked healthy dish of many ingredients: cereals traditional psychoanalysis, a few spoonfuls of Gestalt psychology, psychodrama and a fair portion of chopped body-oriented therapy. All this seasoned pomace has a dozen of psychological concepts and trends.
Gestalt (gestalt) German translates as "image", "figure", "form". If you do not go into the jungle of theoretical psychology, we can say that the gestalt — a complete image of any situation. Of course, it's free statement. Close to the academic definition of gestalt, translated from the scientific to the Russian goes something like this: "Gestalt — a holistic framework on the environment and human interaction, which covers the gap between the occurrence and satisfaction of."
The Gestalt approach does not consider a spherical horse in a vacuum, that is the person in isolation from the environment. His position is that people are whole beings sotsiobiopsihologicheskimi, the separation of body and mind — it is artificial, man, and all that surrounds it — a single structure, called the "field of organism / environment."
There is a contact?
Basic concepts of Gestalt therapy — and the boundary of the contact.
Contact — the interaction of our needs with the possibilities of the medium. All basic needs can be met only in contact with the environment to quench your thirst needs water, hunger — food security needs — security with the help of someone or something, the need to communicate can not be met without the other creatures.
The place where the body meets the environment, in Gestalt therapy is called the boundary of contact. A person usually perceives it as the boundary between what is inside our bodies, and that is it. Naturally, the more valuable to us is what's inside. But the boundaries of these unsteady and fuzzy. Water is part of the environment, but how to evaluate drunk water?
On the borders there are two phenomena: the identity and alienation.
From the first division due to "his" — "foreign" when "their" closer, dearer and more understandable. If someone has offended a member of our family, the identification of causes hurt us. Love, friendship, partnership and other positive relationships usually exist within internal borders. Behind them is strange, is torn away.
When disturbed borders, the interaction with the environment becomes abnormal, and at a level where it happened (bodily, emotional, intellectual), there are unresolved issues.
When there is a gestalt?
Morning cup of coffee, a casual conversation with a fellow traveler, relationships with parents, love, quarrel in the store, weeding zucchini — all this gestalt. Our entire life is made of them, large and small.
Gestalt is formed when a person has a need that is currently the strongest demands satisfaction, and there is a contact in the outside world.
In gestalt is the beginning and the end: it arises against our will in time of need or desire, and ends with the satisfaction. Alas, the needs are unlimited and resources are limited and not all desires are fulfilled.
Ideally, the gestalt cycle looks like this:
- The emergence of needs (thirsty).
- Search for opportunities to meet it, evaluate the feasibility of this option (look for water).
- Satisfaction (drink).
- The output of the contact (thirst is quenched — we put the empty glass on the table.)
As a result of such a cycle is completed gestalt (destroyed). The origins and the completion of a gestalt can take seconds, minutes, hours, years or a lifetime. But the external or internal events may interfere with this process. The cycle will stop at some stage, there will be a break of the contact boundary and there will be an incomplete situation.
Completed Gestalt sent for disposal, storage or shelf consciousness but remains unfinished with us. While there is no satisfaction or domestic adoption can not get what you want, gestalt, along with many of their own kind, puts pressure on the mind, parasitic on other events.
Unfinished gestalt can be multi-ton stone of Sisyphus feelings of guilt deceased relative or cardboard Daddy promises unrestrained on the little things. The bottom line remains the same — the past prevents truly implemented.
Our fears, dependencies, conflicts, crises and stress can be expressed in the form of a box filled with unfinished gestalts. If the box is not packed top to bottom with a heavy object, then it is easy to move around. But the heavier the load, the more needed psychological help.
The fact that unfinished gestalt can cause malfunction of the mechanisms that protect our mind from overloading.
What can go wrong?
1.Projection — A tendency to shift the environmental responsibility that originates in man. Resorts to it when faced with rejection of a number of their needs and feelings, which are easier to attribute to the outside world. Normal projection helps to establish contacts and understand other people, abnormal constantly has not been in place and in some cases supplant reality.
2. Retroflection — The desire to do myself that I would like to receive from others or make other. In pathological manifestations occur retroflections psychosomatic illness, the desire to hurt yourself, the highest form of retroflexion is suicide.
3. Introjection — Inclusion of the inner world of human assessments, motives and attitudes of other people without a critical attitude toward them. For a child interjection is an essential tool of identifying oneself as a member of society and to further knowledge of the world. Pathological same interjection occurs when the ideas, habits and principles are perceived as a whole, without checking for incompatibility with the existing experience.
4. Konfluentsiya (Merge) — Lack of contact boundary condition when a person loses self-awareness. Normally, there is a temporary fusion of the mother and the baby, I love. A healthy mind in a time when it returns to normal and is self-identified. When pathological konfluentsiya impossible normal contacts with other people, because there is a constant desire to control their behavior beyond necessity.
Gestalt must be completed!
Methods of Gestalt therapy
Gestalt therapy absorbed and generated a large number of verbal and non-verbal techniques work. Among the most popular are: an empty chair, work with metaphors and dreams, increased bodily reactions, the release of internal energy, playing roles and situations, monodrama, art therapy, polarity, awareness.
And this tool is far from complete. Usually each Gestalt therapist has his favorite and most vehicles subject to him.
Gestalt therapy considers the accumulation of unclosed gestalt one of the main reasons for the formation of neuroses. Among other things, she has been "repairing" the mechanisms of contact and eliminating obstacles to them neurotic. In the process of Gestalt therapy, we re-experience the gestalt interrupted and get an opportunity to finish it, t is to get rid of the causes of neurosis.
My first experience in Gestalt group remained the brightest. Probably, it echoes the overwhelming feeling of "It works!".
Identify the problem (unexplained nausea physiologically) after the story I invented stories, I he
ard the first bell — the reluctance to go to work and try to hide it from me worried for her grandmother. Then there was the "empty chair" — I conducted an imaginary dialogue with his grandmother. It all started with an external 'I can not get up early "and ended with accusations of bad attitude grandmother to my mother. To express all this in fact an elderly sick person I could not, but here reprimand.
It took a few sessions, it was decided to change jobs, nausea no longer come. If prior to participating in the group, someone said that poor health is associated with suppression of negativity towards my grandmother, I would have sent him not even a psychologist and a psychiatrist immediately.
Particularly valuable was the fact that a competent Gestalt therapist in the process does not provide any tips and nowhere is pushing. Its role is to provocation, calling reactions and loss situations "here and now", allows a different look at themselves, their feelings and experiences. Gestalt is completed, long live the gestalt!