Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.  Hantaviruses.  Photo from www.sciencephoto.com

What is it?

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) Is found in many regions of Russia. The first description of it was made in 1935 in the Far East, then it turned out that it is prevalent in Moscow, Tula, Yaroslavl, Samara, Tver region, the Urals. Disease characterized by the electoral defeat of the blood vessels of the kidneys.

The infection is caused by viruses genus Hantavirus, they are the carriers of forest and field mice. The virus is released into the environment with the saliva and feces of rodents, infection occurs by inhalation of air contaminated with particles of dried excreta of mice, possible route of infection and food — through products.

People are quite susceptible to the disease, but for those around the sick person is not dangerous. Moved infection leaves behind a lasting life-long immunity.

What's going on?

The incubation period is 7-46 days. The causative agent of HFRS affects the blood vessels. As a result of the permeability rises, exits the plasma — the liquid portion of blood — the surrounding tissue. The very same blood thickens, it disrupted the coagulation system. In the most severely affected vessels of kidneys, acute renal failure, kidney break even able to finish. In addition to this characteristic of the general reaction to the invasion of the virus — a high temperature (Fever), intoxication, and others.

Disease usually begins abruptly, with sharp and intense headaches mainly in the supraorbital and temporal areas. At the same time — in a few hours — increases temperature body. She quickly reaches 38-40° C. By the end of the first day, many patients note a decline in visual acuity. It is also noted nausea, reaching to vomit frequently appears hiccup.

The temperature is maintained for 3-5 days, then gradually decreases, but does not improve the condition of patients, and vice versa. At this time, developing kidney a syndrome characterized by pain in the lumbar region and abdomen, decreased urine output, in severe cases, can anuria (absence of urine).

By the end of the second week of illness vomiting stops, fade back pain and abdominal pain, the daily amount of urine may be 5 or more liters. The transition in the recovery period is usually observed for4th week disease.

Diagnostics

In the first period of the disease to recognize HFRS can be difficult. From acute respiratory diseases can be distinguished by the absence of cold, cough and other respiratory symptoms, and from intestinal infections — in the late appearance of abdominal pain and vomiting, which in the course of the disease only intensified.

The main diagnostic feature — a sharp decrease in the amount of urine and the deterioration of the patient after the normalization of body temperature. It is also possible laboratory confirmation of HFRS.

Treatment

Treatment is carried out under conditions of infectious disease ward. Assigned to anti-inflammatory treatment, normalization of urine. Not used drugs that increase renal damage.

Prophylaxis

Comes to measures to protect against rodents while on nature. So, to avoid overgrowth of grass and food supplies should be stored out of reach of mice and ground containers.

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