Out of habit we call "hemorrhoids" suddenly fallen down on us trouble: the arrival of Tiffany's, computer failure or repair of the apartment. The true meaning of the word is necessary to remember, when there are serious health problems.
The word "hemorrhoid" in Greek means "bleeding", which is directly connected with the main symptom of the disease — the release of blood from the anus. It is believed that the manifestations of hemorrhoids in one form or another in their lifetime encounters, 8 out of 10, so few of us are immune to this scourge.
According to medical statistics, hemorrhoids most common in men aged 30 to 50 years. 10% of the world population is drawn to the doctors about the disease, while in developed countries, hemorrhoids are at 60% of the citizens.
It would seem, for such advanced disease should be aware of all more or less educated people, and at the first symptoms to see a doctor urgently. Unfortunately, in life, things are different, and the reason is that for a long time hemorrhoids strengthened glory obscene disease. Ashamed to talk about it, and see a specialist accidents are sent only when no more force terpet.Vazhneyshee rule of military science says: "The enemy must know in person." Shamefully silent about the problem of hemorrhoids, we are only hurting themselves. But the disease is not much worse than gastritis, of course, if it does not run.
So, the first thing that a person can feel, in whom the disease has fallen, discomfort. Discomfort, itching and a feeling of moisture and fullness in the rectum. Usually these symptoms are directly related to the lavatory. There can cover any panic: what's happening to me? And no one with whom to consult, will not discuss the issue with the same friends and colleagues, and to go to the doctor because you do not want.
After a few months, and sometimes years, the symptoms become more severe. Discomfort and pain begin to worry when walking, prolonged sitting in one place, and going to the bathroom turns into a torture. In addition to all the known trouble, people are horrified to discover the selection of red blood (it is clear from). It would seem that now something urgent need to run to the doctor. But it gets only a small fraction of patients with hemorrhoids. And the rest of the disease continues to progress.
Approximately five years later the next stage of the disease. From the anus when a person makes an effort, vybuhayut hemorrhoids. First, they reduce a self, then you can do it personally, but in the later stages of hemorrhoids reduction is impossible. A logical continuation of neglected diseases. That's where accidents and finally decided to seek medical help, nothing to lose, will not be worse. Will. In hemorrhoids are more complications. Can be opened to bleed heavily, and then patients develop anemia, and with it, weakness, lethargy, dizziness, etc.
In Larger hemorrhoids may form thrombi, which often leads to tissue death, accompanied by acute episodes of pain, rise in temperature, the impossibility of defecation. Purulent inflammation, sepsis, fecal incontinence. And this is an incomplete list of hazards that threaten launched hemorrhoids.
Modern scholars have given a definition of hemorrhoids: "Hemorrhoids — hemorrhoids varicose veins of the rectum, accompanied by bleeding, and sometimes thrombosis and inflammation, itching and other symptoms." To understand the mechanism of the disease, no need to go into anatomical jungle. Rectum, as well as all our organs, should be well supplied with blood. For this purpose, its walls arranged vessels: arteries, veins, capillaries. Unfortunately for some strange reason, nature has given us specific veins in the rectum, which are scientifically called — hemorrhoids. According to the structure they resemble the veins of the penis that is able to strong stretch when filled with blood.
When violations of blood flow, namely in increased blood flow to the pelvic organs, including the intestines, and the deterioration of the outflow is a situation reminiscent of a school task about the pool. From one pipe water poured in, poured out through the other. Broke through the first and the second is clogged. What happens in the pool? That's right, a flood.
Hemorrhoidal veins of the intestine are in the role of hapless pools, only they know how to stretch. Continuous load leads to their irreversible expansion, thinning the walls of veins, arterial blood stagnates, resulting in what are called hemorrhoids. Modified and filled to overflowing with blood veins begin to put pressure on the tissues covering the intestine from the inside. Those, in turn, is also stretched, they appear breaks and cracks. Hold hemorrhoids in the wall of the rectum it is becoming harder and harder. Wounded by systematically moving the bowels stool, further injuring him, causing bleeding and inflammation. In the later stages of the disease nodes vybuhayut of the walls of the rectum, and muscle tension can crawl down the intestines and even act out.
There is another way of looking at the causes of hemorrhoids. It is known that the hemorrhoidal vein retained in the wall of the rectum special "framed" from the fibers of the connective and muscular tissue, as would sit in the cell. With age, or for some other reason, these fibers can be thinner, and supporting cell becomes fragile. Hemorrhoidal veins are able to freely expand, and then protrude from the wall of the rectum.
Sadly, the man — the only member of the animal world with a tendency to hemorrhoids. It is not even in the special structure of the veins, not just a man walks in four and two-legged. Take, for example, a cat. Gravity acts on her body evenly, so the cat's blood will not be targeted to stagnate in the hind legs and the end of the intestine. But at the same erectus human gravity increases the load on the respective vessels.
Who is more likely to suffer from hemorrhoids? Knowing the mechanisms of this disease, we can say for sure: those who have been stagnation of blood in the rectal area, and those who have problems with the supporting "skeleton." Scientists believe that the predisposition to hemorrhoids can be inherited as an initial enlarged hemorrhoidal veins and connective tissue defect.
However, even if we did not get the disease from their parents, there are a number of factors that can provoke it. This is, first and foremost, the stagnation of blood in the pelvis due to a sedentary sedentary lifestyle. No wonder Hemorrhoids — occupational disease motorists, programmers, accountants, secretaries and chiefs. Hemorrhoids may also suffer cyclists, motorcyclists and riders. Anyone who spends all day on their feet — is also a candidate for the disease, atmospheric pressure overloads the vein. Not immune to the disease, and people who do heavy physical labor. For example, porters and athletes, particularly weightlifters.
Excessive force, lead to an increase in intra-abdominal pressure and therefore an interruption of blood flow. The situation is nearly hopeless. It seems only recumbent work can protect people from hemorrhoids. However, a reasonable alternate loads and gymnastics can, if not completely rid of the disease, or at least significantly alleviate the symptoms.
A big role in the development of hemorrhoids has the power. Fans of hot and spicy dishes, coffee, tea and alcohol should be prepared for unexpected problems in the rectum. The above products increase blood flow where you need it the least. Indigestion, especially frequent constipation and diarrhea — the eternal companions of hemorrhoids. Especially dangerous is too long sitting on the toilet and straining with constipation.
The following risk factors — stress, with emotionally disturbed people, it leads to a prolonged spasm of smooth muscles of the walls of blood vessels, diverting blood from hemorrhoids. Diseases of the live
r and intestine, obesity and abuse of sex, including anal, increases the chance to get hemorrhoids. But the main reason for women hemorrhoids — pregnancy and childbirth, extreme pressure on the veins of the rectum.
Hemorrhoids, as well as many other diseases bother people at all times. Another 4,000 years ago in ancient Egypt and Babylon about it already had an idea, and even tried to treat surgically, apparently, cutting falling hemorrhoids. Mention of the symptoms of hemorrhoids are found in the writings of Hippocrates, Galen and Avicenna. These great men rightly pointed connection with constipation disease, eating spicy foods and alcohol.
Chinese healers have gone even further, they have identified 24 types of hemorrhoids in size, shape and location. The first scientific definition of hemorrhoids was given only in the XVIII century, when pathologists found kavernozopodobnye plexus in the final part of the rectum, not only in patients with hemorrhoids, but also in healthy people. However, to study the mechanisms of hemorrhoids doctors started only a century later.
A large contribution to this study made in the late XIX — early XX century Russian Nikolai Sklifosovskiy surgeons, Arseny V. Starkov, Petr Butkovskiy. Until the beginning of XX century hemorrhoids treated the old way. Prescribed lotions from nettles, rhubarb and cucumber. Applied to the hemorrhoidal nodes and leeches that they sucked excess blood and thus reduces the size of nodes. Practiced and send patients under the knife, but the results of this treatment have not always been satisfactory. Surgery to remove the hemorrhoids are very painful and bloody.
Only by the 1930s, finally formed the optimal technique hemorrhoidectomy. With some modifications, it has survived to the present day. By the names of the creators of surgeons operation is called hemorrhoidectomy Milligan-Morgan. In developed countries, today it is performed in 17-21% of patients, usually in complicated haemorrhoids. In Russia, this operation is carried out much more often — it is prescribed 75% of patients.
Over the past several decades in the treatment of hemorrhoids, new trends. First, the final shape classification of the disease. Now hemorrhoids are divided into acute and chronic, and in chronic define four stages. In the acute phase of the disease is characterized by transience and complications in the form of thrombosis, infringement of hemorrhoids, etc.
Chronic hemorrhoids lasts for years, it is less painful, so patients go to the doctor only in the later stages, when the veins are not right. Secondly, new methods of dealing with hemorrhoids are used in accordance with the stage of disease.
In acute hemorrhoids and the early stages of chronic conducted conservative treatment. Its main purpose — to relieve pain and inflammation, normalize blood circulation in the rectal area, adjust the digestion. Conservative treatment is common: pills that increase the tone of veins, improving blood flow in small vessels and hemorrhoidal veins, and local: wound healing, analgesic and antipruritic ointments, suppositories, microclysters and baths. At the same time appointed antigemorroynaya diet: vegetables, fruits, bran, and that's about spices, spicy food and alcohol have to forget.
Minimally invasive (or a little traumatic) therapies prescribed for chronic hemorrhoids for I, II or stage III, as well as on the back of improved well-being of acute hemorrhoids. There are many methods. What is the best fit to the patient, the physician selects individually.
All methods are non-surgical removal of hemorrhoids, or mounting them in the wall of the rectum.
Infrared Coagulation the most popular in the West. Get rid of knots, acting on them the heat that is generated by infrared rays, respectively. This is the fastest, painless and effective treatment for hemorrhoids. After the intervention, patients may begin to work on the same day or the next day.
Ligation sites latex rings. The second most popular procedure. Hemorrhoid at the bottom tied with rubber (latex), as a result, he is left without power, and soon dies. The final release occurs about 3 weeks after medical procedures. The procedure itself is painless, but the death of a node can cause pain.
Sclerotherapy. Requires special medical professionalism. Fine needle assembly is introduced into the cavity of a substance that will lead to the formation of hemorrhoidal site of connective tissue, resulting in reduced sites.
Cryotherapy. Node liquid nitrogen removed under local anesthesia. Control the depth of the impact is difficult, so patients are not immune from postoperative complications.
Laser therapy. Docks hemorrhoid in the wall of the colon with a laser. Effective, though expensive procedure. Unfortunately, there are often complications such as bleeding.
ElectrocoagulationMono and bipolar. Getting rid of hemorrhoids using the current. Preferable to carry out a bipolar, it is less painful and almost no complications.
The third option of treatment of hemorrhoids — full operation. The one where the hemorrhoids are excised, and their vascular legs tied. Spend it under general anesthesia at any stage of the disease. Patient after surgery in the hospital spends nearly a week, swallowing painkillers. But after the statement about hemorrhoids can ever forget.
In 1993, Italian surgeon Antonio Longo came up with an entirely new witty operation to deal with hemorrhoids. Unlike other surgeons not deleted hemorrhoids and part extended mucosal rectum which lines the inside and covers the components. The operation resulted in the mucous hemorrhoids pressed against the walls of cancer, while blood flow was reduced to them. This operation takes about 10-15 minutes. Patients spend in the hospital for 2-3 days, and after 3-5 days, forget about the operation and hateful hemorrhoids. The only disadvantage of techniques — its novelty. What could be the long-term effects of the operation, while no one knows. So now it's safe to say that hemorrhoids can be cured, the main thing is not to run it.
According to historians, the Emperor Napoleon before the Battle of Waterloo rolled acute attack of hemorrhoids. Ailment known commander was one of the reasons why the battle was lost. But if Napoleon was able to use the services of proctologists XXI century, it is possible that history would have taken a completely different path.