Homosexuality (historical reference)

Homosexuality (historical information).  Photo from http://creative.gettyimages.com

Pre-Christian times

The history of homosexuality has its roots in antiquity. Homosexuality love was known Neanderthals. This is evidenced by unambiguous rock paintings found by archaeologists. However, there is nothing surprising, because on the basis of Darwin's theory, we are all descended from apes, animals are not too choosy in sexual relations. An illustrative example to illustrate their morals: it is often the leader of the pack monkey to reinforce their social status, low-ranking copulate with sexually mature males. Such is the unique way of self-affirmation.

Homosexual relationships were common in many Indian tribes of North America, and among the natives of New Guinea. The connection of the two men wore not so much erotic as mystical and even ritualistic. So the tribe Sambia (Papua New Guinea) to be that for young men is the surest way to become a strong and courageous — often swallow cum adult warrior. It is interesting that this method of education in some tribes survived until the XX century.

Especially popular men's love in ancient Greece. Moreover, it is believed that it exalted and more refined than the love of women. Senior Greeks not only did not hide their "blue" preferences, but on the contrary tried to show them in every way. Poets sang wonderful experiences unions seasoned men with beautiful young men, philosophers wrote treatises on the benefits of homosexuality. Thus, Plato dialogues in selected noted that love among men is higher goals and pushes young people to serve society. Medical point of view onhomosexuality expressed the father of medicine Hippocrates. He claimed that such links are very useful, because "masculinity, and other positive qualities of adult men passed through his seed teenagers." By the same adult men, according to the same Hippocrates, a similar relationship was carried youth and health. The taboo on homosexuality in Greek society concerned only slaves. There are several reasons. First, the banal pragmatism: the slaves shall multiply. Secondly, the aesthetics: what can be beautiful in the slave of love? By the way, the word "sodomy" (literally, "love of boys") is of Greek origin, but in those days it was not a sense of humbling.

Approved by the chief physician of antiquity, homosexuality has flourished not only among the Greeks. Preserved much evidence of the "blueness" aristocracy of ancient Rome, ancient Egyptian gods, as well as gay Japanese samurai warriors and the Scythians.

Christian times

With the decline of great civilizations attitude towards homosexuality has changed dramatically. In the fight for moral values entered religion: "Do not lie with a male as with a woman — it is an abomination" — has taught Old Testament, scaring the fate of the wicked inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah.

However, the widespread persecution of the followers of non-traditional love began only a few centuries after Christ. Following the example of Christian theologians private life of citizens finally ceased to be a private and became a public issue. To fight against sin were introduced special church laws regulating sexuality. Sex, do not lead to conception, called unnatural and labeled with the word "sodomy." About sexual orientation at the time it was not so under the same article were not only homosexuals but also heterosexuals simple, inclined to experiment in bed. Found guilty of sodomy church threatened heavenly retribution.

The Middle Ages were particularly severe for the "blue". By the XIV century, the rulers of almost all European countries to the pressure of the church and declared sodomy a crime. Doctors diplomatically kept silent, leaving the issue at the mercy of the priests, who, in turn, does not stand on ceremony with the sodomites. The Inquisition declared homosexuality a product of the devil, no less than witchcraft or heresy. Thus, according to English law, the XIII century, the people seen in sexual relations with persons of the same sex (as well as Jews and children) were burned at the stake. For sentencing judges do not even need to prove that the defendant fuck with men lacked frank confession, drawn by torture.

In the Renaissance, when the power of the church have weakened, "blue", and most importantly unconventional sex, were still criminal offenses. And while people burn longer, fell into the hands of justice threatened: the death penalty, imprisonment, exile, pillorying or castration (depending on the country, the severity of the offense and the social status of the accused).

Russ

In Russia, for sex between men treated much calmer than in the West, in the XII century, the only penalty for the "blue" was the church repentance (from one to seven years, as well as for other sexual excesses). By sinned and unmarried adolescents treated more leniently than the married. And if between men had anal sex, it is not talked about sodomy, masturbation and of being punished softer.

The very first in the history of Russian mention of the severe penalties forhomosexuality appeared only in the XVIII century in military numbers are also of Peter I, which, according to some accounts, he did not disdain male caresses. The document says the Corporal Punishment for sodomy and "eternal exile" in the case of rape. At first these instructions relate only to the military, but later spread to civilians.

Search for Truth

So, about the middle of the XIX century public opinion considered sexual relations with persons of the same sex terrible vice and perversion. And only when the nature of human sexuality interested scientists around homosexuality has been slowly changing.

Lived in XIX century in Hanover gay man named Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-1895). Knowing full well what he faces the disclosure of his sexual preference, Ulrichs decided to prove to the world that love between men is not a vice, but a feature of the psyche.

Putting together your own life experiences and sexual fantasies, looked through Plato and a textbook on anatomy and physiology, Karl Ulrichs from 1864 to 1869 on the own funds of a series of monographs published under the heading "Research mysteries of love between men." However, not under his own name and under the pseudonym Numantius Num. It was first described by Karl Ulrichs homosexual identity, coined the term "sexual orientation" and suggested that it is innate and immutable, and hence natural. Men attracted to each other uranizmom he called by the name of Urania, the celestial Aphrodite, the patron of the "blue" of the ancient Greeks. A familiar to us the word "homosexuality" (Latin for homos — «same», sexus — «sex") came up with Hungarian physician Karl Maria Benkert in 1869.

Trying to rehabilitate homosexuals tireless Ulrichs sought the support of the famous scientist: a pathologist Rudolf Virchow and psychiatrist Carl Westphal and Richard Krafft-Ebing. Of the three, the most interested in the problem Krafft-Ebing. The idea of "gay" self-taught Ulrichs about the "naturalness" of homosexuality seemed venerable psychiatrist heterosexual delusional. In 1886, Krafft-Ebing published a book about the "sexual deviation", which refers to same-sex love and degenerative pathological state of mind. "Homosexuality — it's a mental illness," he says. New theory readily supported by the majority of psychiatrists.

Attempts to cure homosexuality

Since the beginning of XX century from vice, forwhich should be punished, homosexuality has become a disease that must be treated. The first thing that came to mind to physicians — to "cut to the devil."

-Since the end of XIX to the beginning of the XX century, until about 1912, tried to cure homosexuals castration. Doctors naively hoped that by removing the
gonads forever relieve the patient of attraction to men. Some of the "blue" came to the operation voluntarily, others were forced to. However, the results of this treatment were disappointing, sexual orientation, gay eunuch did not change.

-Another method of treatment of homosexuality was no less original. Remembering physiologist Pavlov's dogs with his scientists, doctors decided to work out at the "blue" right reflexes. The most harmless method was as follows. Homosexuals were put into a dark room and forced to masturbate. When he reached orgasm, sharp turns on the light and saw the stunned ill huge photo on the wall of a naked woman. It was assumed that after several sessions in a homosexual will be excited by reflex type of female body. Hope doctors did not materialize.

— Less gentle way to look alike. Homosexual showed pornokartinki with naked men, and as soon as he was excited, and beat current (electroconvulsive therapy) or pricked substance that causes nausea and vomiting. Doctors sought to form a male body caused patients disgust. The course of treatment is 10-20 sessions. Aversion to occur, but turned out to be temporary.

-Some doctors have taken as a basis for the treatment of the concept of Sigmund Freud, according to which the features of human sexuality are associated with childhood trauma. Homosexuals years went to the sessions of psychoanalysis, but this does not heterosexual become. Did not help, even hypnosis and self-training.

-In the 50-ies of XX century, there is another type of surgical treatment of "blue." This time the doctors decided not to cut the genitals and the brain. The operation was called a lobotomy. Surgeons, guided by their own preferences, ripped the bridge between the hemispheres of the brain, the hypothalamus were cut, destroying the structures responsible for sexual behavior. The outcome of such transactions were few: a complete loss of libido, incoordination, paralysis, vision problems. Since 1969, at the request of the medical community and government bodies such operations were discontinued.

-Once opened hormones, doctors are used to treat hormone homosexual. Alas, they are waiting for a failure. The "blue", which in large quantities taken female hormones lost all sexual desire, and they suddenly began to put on weight, and many grew breasts. Those who took the male hormones, sexual activity, in contrast, increased but love their own kind, they did not stop. However, in some cases, one or the other technique brings success, and physicians could adjust the sexual orientation of patients, but this was the exception rather than the rule.

Theory today

Where does the non-traditional sexual orientation? Today, there are more than a dozen theories, but so far none of them are finally confirmed.

-According to the neurogenic theory, all the fault of the structural features of the brain, or a disease.

-Conditioned reflex theory is that the causes of homosexuality are rooted in the experience of the person.

-The cause of congenital "blueness" of the child may be the lack of male sex hormones in the mother during pregnancy, says neuroendocrine theory.

-Genetics suggest that the predisposition to homosexuality is inherited, and the gene responsible for it, get the baby from the mother, together with the X-chromosome.

Homosexuality doctors seemed very strange disease. The reasons are unclear, it is not clear how to treat, and of the signs — only erotic attraction to persons of the same sex. Maybe this is not a disease at all? And in 1973, the American Psychiatric Association eliminated the majorityhomosexuality List of mental illness. The World Health Organization has supported this life-changing decision.

After almost twenty years (1993), this innovation has come to Russia. Homosexuality is excluded from all medical reference books, and of the Criminal Code, finally, removed the article 121 (1), on which punished for sodomy. Since the end of the XX century "blue" dream come true Karl Ulrichs, sexual orientation recognized harmless.

But problems still remain, but they are of medical social. According to statistics, from 1 to 4% of men are homosexual, and it, quite a few. Inevitably there is a lot of questions. Registered or not, gay marriage? How to deal with homosexuals in the military? For example, Russian gays there does not break, but the western very offended if they do not take to serve. And that, after all, to do with homophobic violating the rights of the "blue"?

On the last question answered, originally an American psychologist Xavier Kuantos. He identified eight symptoms of latent homosexuality, of which the most significant — the aggressive homophobia. So those who are foaming at the mouth, proves that "blue" in a normal society, no place, is to think about it.

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