Hormonal contraception

Hormonal contraception.  Photo from www.sciencephoto.com

This form of contraception, by definition, experts of the World Health Organization, is the most effective to date (degree of reliability is almost 99%). It is therefore not surprising that hormonal contraceptives are more than 70 million women around the world.

The mechanism of action of any hormonal preparation is as follows:

  • suppress ovulation (the maturation and release of an egg);
  • contributes to thickening the mucus in the cervix, making it impassable for sperm.

Before you start taking hormonal contraceptives, it is desirable to pass a gynecological examination and consult a physician. It is also necessary to warn doctors about the use of hormonal contraception in the appointment of any other medications.

When choosing a contraceptive has important value and lifestyle. If you regularly have sex, or if you have many partners may control pills — not the best option. Would be preferable to the method by which you can use as needed, or a method that will provide protection against transmission during sexual intercourse diseases — AIDS, syphilis, hlomidioza, herpes and other (barrier method: condoms). If you do choose to hormonal contraceptives, is to protect against sexually transmitted diseases, you should use condoms. But if you are married and some time do not want to have children, the oral contraceptives — this is just what you need. Still, the choice is yours.

Types of hormonal contraceptives:

  1. Combined estrogenic-progestin preparations.
  2. Mini-pill.
  3. Injectable drugs.
  4. Subcutaneous implants.
  5. Hormonal vaginal ring use.
  6. The contraceptive patch.
  7. Postcoital drugs.

Combination products

Combination products — Is birth control pills containing substances similar to female hormones that the ovaries produce — estrogens and progestins (progestin). Depending on the proportions of these compounds are:

  • monophasic: containing 21 tablets with the same amount of estrogen and progestogen.
  • biphasic: 21 tablets contain two different combinations of estrogen and progestogen.
  • Three phase: containing 21 tablets with three different combinations of estrogen and progestogen and differ in color. Their method is completely simulates the secretion of female hormones during the normal menstrual cycle of a woman.

Tablets must be taken daily, and preferably at the same time within 21 or 28 days (depending on the drug).

Side effects:

  • amenorrhea (absence of hemorrhage menstrualnopodobnoe end of the cycle);
  • intermenstrual bleeding and spotting;
  • depression (change in mood or loss of sex drive);
  • headaches (possibly in combination with visual impairment);
  • high blood pressure;
  • breast tenderness;
  • weight gain;
  • decreased sex drive.

Combination birth control pills are not recommended to take smoking women over 35 years old, suffering from hypertension (high blood pressure), women withcardiovascular diseases, diseases of the liver, cancer of the breast and lactation.


Mini-pill contain only small doses of progestogen (300 — 500 mg), which is 15-30% Of the dose of progestogen in combined estrogen-progestin preparations.

Changes in the liver when taken mini-pill negligible. Based on the characteristics mini-pill, they can be recommended as a method of contraception for women with extragenital diseases (diseases of the liver, hypertension, tromboflebiticheskimi conditions, obesity).

Mini-pill Also recommended:

  • women complaining of frequent headaches or high blood pressure during use of combined oral contraceptives;
  • lactation through 6-8 weeks after birth;
  • diabetes;
  • varicose veins;
  • in diseases of the liver;
  • women older than 35 years.

Mini-pill taking in continuous operation since1st every day of the cycle, during 6-12 months. Typically, at the beginning of the use mini-pill spotting, the frequency of which gradually decreases to3rd month of receiving completely stopped.

Injectable drugs

Hormonal injectable contraceptives— This is a highly effective method of long-acting, containing one hormone — progestin. It is administered by intramuscular injection with a syringe. One injection provides contraception for 3 months.

The use of injectable hormonal contraceptives necessarily solved by a doctor.

Not recommended for use injectable contraceptives:

  • if there are malignant diseases of the female genital or breast;
  • earlier than six weeks after delivery;
  • in diseases of the liver;
  • diabetes.

In our country, this kind of contraception is not widely used.

Subcutaneous implants

Subcutaneous implants Capsules are silicone containing hormones — progestins. Six capsules are inserted under the skin of the inner surface of the forearm through a small incision under local anesthesia. Release capsules every day a small amount of the hormone, and it is gradually being absorbed into the bloodstream, creating a reliable contraceptive effect for 5 years.

The implant may be administered:

  • in the first 7 days of the menstrual cycle;
  • immediately after an abortion;
  • after delivery in 4 weeks if the woman is not going to breastfeed;
  • after 6 weeks of breastfeeding mothers.

Subcutaneous implant can be removed at any time before the expiry of the five year period.

The advantages of this method include high efficiency (comparable with sterilization, but reversible) and a great convenience (the drug does not require any attention, you need only visit the gynecologist 2 times a year).

In addition, implant contraception can be used by women with diseases in which the tablets are contraindicated (migraine, varicose veins, heart disease, diabetes without vascular complications, high blood pressure, severe obesity), as well as smoking women over 35 years old.

This method of contraception, as well as injectable contraception, due distribution in our country has not received.

Hormonal vaginal ring use

Hormonal vaginal ring use (Elastic ring), — a flexible ring contraceptive hypoallergenic material, which contains trace quantities of hormones and applied topically, taking the form of a woman's body and which is placed in the vagina.

One ring is for one menstrual cycle: a woman enters it into the vagina from the 1st to the 5th day of the menstrual cycle. NuvaRing is located inside the vagina and stays for three weeks, releasing microscopic dose of hormones needed to protect against unwanted pregnancy.

Contraindications exist, so you can have the first ring only after consulting your doctor.

Because hormonal ring applied topically, it has several advantages. First, the ring contains the bare minimum of hormones — only 15 micrograms of estrogen is less than any other drug. Secondly, there is no unnecessary load on the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Thus, the effect of NuvaRing on the body is minimal.

The contraceptive patch

The contraceptive patch — The transdermal contraceptive use, the most advanced and one of the most effective methods of hormonal contraception. Refers to mikrodozirovannym contraceptives, combining maximum efficiency and safety in use. Securely attached to the skin does not come unstuck at any water-based treatments, or under the influence of the sun.

The transdermal patch is very easy and comfortable to use. Adhesive bonded to a clean dry skin (in the buttoc
ks, abdomen, upper outer surface of the shoulder or upper half of the body) once per week for 3 weeks (21 days), one week apart. Contraception with Evra contraceptive patch begin on the first day of menstruation. The patch is attached and removed the same day of the week. During the 4th week, from 22 th to 28 th day of the cycle, the patch does not apply. The new contraceptive cycle begins on the day after the end of the 4th week, the next patch should stick even if menstruation was not or is not over.

Impermissible use of contraceptive patch on the breast, as well as hyperemic, irritated or damaged skin.

Contraindications exist, so have the first contraceptive patch can only be talking to your doctor.

Postcoital drugs

Postcoital drugs— Is contraception, which can not be used continuously, but only in an emergency, within 72 hours after intercourse. It is usually combined or progestogen hormones. But the main thing for emergency contraception — high content of hormones in order to achieve the desired effect.

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