Hormones and pregnancy

Hormones and pregnancy.  Photo from www.veer.com

It is known that during pregnancy the body is quite a lot of changes, many of which are caused by hormonal changes. How can change these parameters?

First of all, the level of Progesterone— The hormone that prepares the uterus for pregnancy, and helps keep the embryos implanted. Progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum — the structure, which is formed in situ bursting of the follicle during ovulation ("pouch", which matured egg). Progesterone support in the central nervous system dominant, a kind of "setting a pregnancy", stimulates the development of mammary glands, and also suppresses the immune system, preventing the rejection of the ovum. It is a remarkable hormone, without child bearing would be impossible. However, progesterone promotes salt and fluid retention in the body, a depressing effect on the psyche (increases irritability, mood deterioration) can sometimes cause headaches.

Increases during pregnancy and the level of Estrogen. Their co-produce the adrenal glands of the fetus (here synthesized precursor of estrogen) and the placenta (it actually formed from precursors estrogens). Estrogens stimulate the growth of the uterus, are taking part in the birth act, facilitates the removal of excess fluid from the body (acting as a natural diuretic), relax blood vessels, contributing to the normalization of elevated blood pressure.

From 10 weeks pregnancy, the placenta begins to actively produce hormones. Among the many placental hormones of particular note chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and somatomammotrophin.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)— A hormone structurally similar to thyroid-stimulating hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland. Under his influence the concentration of thyroid hormones increases. Increased secretion of thyroid hormones entails, among other things, accelerate the metabolism, thereby updating of all cells, including improvement of the skin and hair.

Chorionic somatomammotrophin— Stimulates the growth of breast cancer. It is because of this hormone (and progesterone) milk gland increases in size, the breast becomes more "curvy" shape. However, the effect of this hormone can "together" lead to an increase, for example, the length of the foot (up to the shoe size changes).

Growth Factors— Special substances produced by the placenta and stimulate the renewal of the body's own tissues (eg, connective tissue, epithelium). Due to growth factors skin and connective tissue of the breast and abdomen, "fully armed" meet the need for stretching.

Adrenal hormones— Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid. Their output (secretion) is stimulated by the pituitary hormone-specific with a complex called "adrenocorticotropic hormone" (ACTH). Raising the level of ACTH (and after him, and adrenal hormones) — is the body's response to any stress, which for the body, for example, is bothpregnancy. ACTH itself enhances skin pigmentation. Mineralocorticoid regulate water and salt exchange, holding the body fluid and salts. Among the effects produced by them, is called immunosuppression (which prevents rejection of the fetus), hyperpigmentation of the skin, hair thinning, stretch marks — stretch marks (due to thinning of the skin), increased growth of body hair.

Listed above list of hormones and the effect produced by them can not be called complete. However, on the basis of these data it is clear that the hormone concentration in the blood increases during pregnancy, often have the opposite effect. In the end, their impact on the appearance and health of the woman can be compared to painting, consisting of many shades and tones. The degree of severity of "positive" and "negative" effects depends on heredity, and the state of women's health at the time of conception, and of the peculiarities of a particular pregnancy.

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