Parameters of the world's foremost facilities allow you to create a laboratory analogue of relativistic astrophysical plasmas. Levels arising from electromagnetic fields that can not be achieved even in supernova explosions in the universe. Research carried out by the Joint Laboratory Relativistic Laser Plasma (LPI-MSU), are carried out at the junction of laser physics, plasma physics, high energy physics, astrophysics, nuclear physics and radiation medicine.
The results of the joint project of the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow State University can be used not only in solving the fundamental problems, but also in a number of problems of an applied nature, including those in medicine, biology, materials science, microelectronics.
With the advent of super-compact laser systems have the opportunity to create a super strong electric fields that can accelerate charged particles to accelerate the pace far exceeding the level that can be achieved by the most advanced accelerators, including the largest experimental facility in the world — the Large Hadron Collider.
The staff of the Joint Laboratory of relativistic laser plasma under the leadership of Chief Scientific Officer LPI VY Bychenkova and prof. MSU AB Saveliev-Trofimov proposed a number of ideas for optimizing the conditions of the interaction of laser radiation with matter in order to create a compact laser particle accelerator. Proposed a scheme of creating a compact source of hard X-rays. Energy of the accelerated electrons in these conditions become relativistic, the size of objects that irradiates the laser, often no more than one micron, which actually means the emergence of a new scientific field, called "Relativistic nanoplasmonics".
Under the subject employees Laboratory results have been obtained demonstrating substantial improvement of yield and x-ray photons with the energy of its ultrashort duration laser irradiation (radiation with a pulse length of 30 fs) of the target surface of the liquid metal (gallium). The target was pre-exposed to the same short but low-intensity laser pulse — the predecessor.
To explain this effect, it has been hypothesized that it is associated with significant changes in the properties of the target under the influence of a precursor (pre-pulse), which is ahead of the main pulse of 12 psec. As shown by optical studies, the impact of pre-pulse on the target surface are formed dense plasma jets micron size.
In parallel to these experiments was developed theoretical model and numerical calculations that are possible to explain the results obtained are as follows. Interaction main pulse microjet dense plasma gallium leads to an almost 100-fold increase in yield of hard x-ray radiation. The energy of the gamma — ray x-ray radiation increases by several times compared with the case of the interaction of the laser with the undisturbed surface of the target (see Fig. Above).
Three-dimensional numerical modeling allowed to describe the generation of a large number of hot electrons in the interaction of the laser pulse with a microjet and lay the theoretical foundations for an effective method of X-ray source.
It should be noted that the proposed scheme is compact source of hard x-ray radiation can be used for a variety of practical applications, including phase-contrast x-ray microbiological objects.
Commented LPI researcher, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Sergey Bochkarev: "The problems solved Joint Laboratory Relativistic Laser Plasma, require high-performance numerical calculations, which directly depends on the development of the supercomputer industry in Russia. Now it is important to achieve a level of "Supercomputer Education" that would rely on the development of computer technology and software ekzomasshtabah ".
Laboratory research results show that the officers used LPI and MSU form of non-commercial partnership is very effective with innovative products, as it allows you to engage issues, being on the forefront of world science.
At present, the laboratory task of transforming into an international center with the participation of foreign scientists — world leaders in laser physics of high energies.