Nuclear attack submarines and multipurpose. Projects 945 «Barracuda» and 945A «Condor»

Nuclear attack submarines and multipurpose. Projects 945
Along with the development of multi-purpose nuclear submarines of the second generation in the leading countries KB, naval and industrial research centers, conducted exploratory work on third-generation submarines. For example, first the 1960s Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod) CDB-112 «Lapis» developed predeskizny project number 673 — multipurpose nuclear submarine design that incorporates many advanced solutions — based on rational beliefs hydrodynamics contours (without cutting fencing) polutorakorpusnaya scheme, single-shaft power plant having a single reactor and the similar. Later work on the new multipurpose nuclear submarine in Gorky continued. One such study was 71 and the year is taken as the base project first Russian nuclear submarine of the third generation.

Expansion of U.S. Navy combat abilities — first underwater component, which in the 1960s and 80s developed busier sought sharp increment potential anti-Russian Navy. In the 73 th year in the Soviet Union in the framework of programs from «Argus» developed the concept of anti-submarine warfare. Under this concept CSPA «Comet» (Manager — Chief Designer Savin) started to implement the program from the creation of the PSTN «Neptune» (all-embracing system of lighting conditions) which included:
— central element of the system is the center of the collection, processing, and display rassredotachivaniya disk imaging, reflection;

— stationary system of the underwater environment, which worked on different physical fields submarine;
— sonobuoys, which are exhibited in the oceans aircraft and ships;
— detection of cosmic submarines in various telltale signs;
— maneuver forces, which include aircraft, submarines and surface ships. With all of this last generation multi-purpose submarines, which had inflated search capabilities, seen as an important means of detecting, tracking and destruction (after receiving the respective teams) enemy submarines.

TTZ to develop large multipurpose nuclear submarine issued March 72 th year. With all this navy put the puzzle to limit displacement boats boundaries that provide building submarines in the domestic plants (namely — the factory «Red Sormovo» of bitter). The main purpose of the new submarines of Project 945 («Barracuda») has been tracking the missile carrier strike groups and potential enemy submarines, as settlement of these objectives in the event of hostilities. The chief designer of the project — NI Kvasha and chief observer of the Navy — IP Bogachenko.
Fundamentally important element of the modern nuclear submarine was used in its sturdy body titanium alloy having a yield strength 70-72 kg/mm2, which provides increased 1.5 times the limit depth in comparison with the second-generation submarines. Implementation of a titanium alloy having a higher specific strength of allowed by lowering body weight to save on the displacement of the submarine up to 30%, which made it possible to build nuclear submarines in Gorky and transport them inside aqua ways. In addition, titanium body can significantly reduce the magnetic field of the vessel (in this parameter submarine project 945 th retain leadership in the midst of the submarines and now).

But the introduction of titanium drawn to a substantial increase in the price of a nuclear submarine and those. reason to limit the number of ships under construction, the number of companies participating in the program (in Komsomolsk-on-Amur development of hull of titanium was not mastered).

Torpedo-missile submarine recent compared with previous-generation nuclear submarines had to hold twice as great ammunition, increased firing range through the use of improved targeting systems and new munitions (for rocket-torpedoes — 3 times for torpedoes — in 1.5), also inflated combat readiness (to prepare for firing the first salvo took half the time).

OKB Minaviaproma «Innovator» running LV Lyuleva in December 1969 began work on new 533-mm anti-submarine missile systems of the second generation «Waterfall» and 650-millimeter «Wind», intended to equip priemuschestvenno promising nuclear submarines of the third generation. «Waterfall» unlike PLRK «Blizzard-53» had to be equipped with not only a special warhead, and compact homing torpedo UMGT-1 (developed in NGOs «Uranus») with a range of 1500 m response to the acoustic channel, Range up to 8000 m and a maximum submerged speed of 41 knot. Application of 2-type configuration expanded the range of use guns. The «Waterfall», compared with «Blizzard-53», grew the greatest depth of the missile launch, which was up to 150 meters, increasing the range of distances of fire (with depths ranging from 20 to 50 meters — 5 to 50 thousand square meters, with 150 meters — from 5 to 35 sq m), significantly shorter time prelaunch (which was 10 seconds).
«Wind», which had a huge half, compared with the «waterfall», the highest range, could be equipped with a torpedo UMGT or nuclear warhead. Complex «Waterfall» (index RPK-6) entered the Navy in 1981 (as they were equipped with submarines and surface ships), «Wind» (index RPK-7) — in the 84th, the

Another type of weapon that was introduced on the third generation of nuclear submarines, has become remote-controlled homing torpedo TEST-71. This torpedo was designed to destroy submarines and equipped with active-passive homing to fade away, which is shared with the system remote control biplane provide guidance to the target. A system of remote control made it possible to make the control of the work equipment and maneuvering homing torpedoes, and manage the shot. Operator on board a nuclear submarine, depending on the tactical situation, could refocus torpedo homing or ban it.

E-motion power-plant provides torpedoes 2-modes — search (speed of 24 knots) and the mode of approach (speed of 40 knots) with multiple switching mode. Most cruising range (depends on the prevailing rate) ranged from 15 to 20 thousand meters depth search / hitting target from 2 to 400 meters. By the level of secrecy TEST-71 was superior in almost all South American torpedo Mk.48, curb piston engine, although South American torpedo at a comparable range, had some huge speed (about 50 knots).

Submarine K-276 (head number 302 from 03.06.1992. — B-276, from 06.04.1993. — «Crab» from 15.11.1996. — «Kostroma»), after the collision February 11, 1992 with NS «Baton Rouge» class «Los Angeles.» Picture made while escorting boats in the base board a rescue tug SB-523 was on duty on it among rescue team of the Northern Fleet
Combat damage enclosure sliding devices submarine K-276 (with 03.06.1992. — B-276, with 06.04.1993. — «Crab» from 15.11.1996. — «Kostroma») Project 945 «Barracuda» after the collision 11.02.1992. with the submarine «Baton Rouge» U.S. Navy

To illuminate the surface and underwater surveillance and target designation was decided to apply the improved HOOK MGK-503 «Skat». Thanks to the measures to reduce noise and reduce the nuclear submarine self-interference during sonar system detection range has more doubled in comparison with the second-generation submarines.

The introduction of the new system of electronic armament gave an opportunity to reduce 5 times limit error in determining the place, also significantly increment intervals between surfacings in determining the coordinates. Twice increased communication range, tripled — depth radio reception.

For the development of the technology and problems of strength by the «Red Sormovo» titanium alloy built a full-scale compartment also HIL compartment with the introduction of other, more robust titanium alloy, which was intended for use in ultra-deepwater promising submarine. Bays taken in Severodvinsk, where they spent the fatigue and static tests in a special docking camera.

Nuclear submarine of Project 945 was intended for combating missile submarines enemy surface vessels and from the aircraft carrier battle groups and compounds. Combat potential increased by increasing the torpedo and missile-torpedo, progress in the development of targeting systems, detection, navigation, communication, integration of information and control systems and to improve the tactical and technical parts — depth, speed, stealth, maneuverability, survivability and reliability.

Submarine 945-year project was completed on doublecase scheme. In the light hull and fusiform elliptical bow aft. Outboard holes are locked using scupper gates, also Kingston ballast tanks head.

Strong body made of titanium alloy has a relatively ordinary shaping — conical tip and a cylindrical middle part. End bulkheads — spherical. Strong tank attached to the body such makarom that excluded the bending stresses that occur when compressing the submarine at depth.

Housing submarine is divided into 6 watertight compartments. Marine armed with an emergency ballast flushing cisterns brain using fossil fuel combustion products.

The boat crew consists of 31 officers and th 28-warrant, which made great habitability conditions. Nuclear submarine has been popped rescue chamber able to contain the entire crew of the submarine.

The main power plant rated capacity of 43 thousand liters. s. includes water reactors OK-650A (180 MW) and steam-timing unit. OK 650A-4 has a steam generator, the circulation pump 2 of the first and fourth circuits 3 and the third circuit pump.

The boat has two turbo generators AC, two nutrient and two condenser pump. For customer service, who use unchanging current, there are two reversible converter and two groups of batteries.

Multi-blade propeller has advanced sonar features and reduced speed.

When failure of the main power plant for the next input were provided emergency supplies, and spare drive means. There are a couple of diesel generators DG-300 filled reversible transducers (750 liters each. C.) With a ten-day supplies of fuel. They were intended to generate alternating current for ship’s consumers and unchangeable — for propeller motors.

For the movement of submerged speeds up to 5 knots nuclear submarine equipped with 2 propulsion motors constant current (power 370 kW each), each working on its screw.

SJC submarine armed MGK-503 «Skat-KS» (has analog information processing). Complex «Molniya-M» consists of a satellite communication system and towed antenna «Paravan.»

Complex rocket torpedoes and combat information and control system provides a single and simultaneous firing with no restrictions on the depth (right to limit the depth of immersion). At the bow mounted four torpedo tubes 533 mm and two 650 mm. In the ammunition comes 40 units of guns — torpedoes and rocket-torpedoes.

Head boat project 945, K-239 «Carp» laid May 8, 1982 in Sormovo, July 29, 1983 and launched on 21 September 1984 came into operation. Second sister vessel, the K-276 «Crab», was laid in August 1983 and in April 1984 launched the. Nuclear submarine joined the Navy in the fall of 1987. In the 96th year of K-276 (under the command of Captain V. Sokolov) was awarded the title — «Kostroma».

Further development of the sub-945 nuclear submarine project was a Project 945A («Condor»). The main difference from the submarine ships preceding series — modified armament, which included six torpedo tubes 533 mm. In ammunition including strategic cruise missiles «Granat», destined for destruction at a distance of up to 3 thousand meters of ground targets. Submarine is also equipped with eight sets of self-defense MANPADS «Igla».

The number of watertight compartments increased to 7. Submarine got improved power plant capacity of 48 thousand hp a 190-megawatt reactor OK-650B. In columns installed two retractable thrusters (370 HP each). By level telltale signs (magnetic field and noise) 945A submarine project was the most unobtrusive submarine in the Russian Navy.

First improved submarine K-534 «Catfish», was founded in June 1986 in Sormovo, in July 1988 and launched on December 28, 1990 came into operation. «Catfish» in 1995 was renamed the «Nizhny Novgorod» (the captain of the first rank Voronkov). Followed by a «perch» K-336 (May 1990 laid in June 1992, launched in 1993 and went into operation). This submarine in 1995 was renamed the «Pskov».

Fifth nuclear submarine, is designed by 945B («Mars») which is actually its characteristics meet the requirements of submarines to the fourth generation, was cut in 1993 on the slipway.

The island Kil’din in Russian territorial waters, February 11, 1992 K-276 under the command of captain second rank I. Elbow faced American nuclear submarine «Baton Rouge» («Los Angeles»), which tried to make covert tracking Russian Navy in the area of ​​the exercise. As a result, the collision, «Crab» was damaged by cutting, having ice reinforcement. Position of the American nuclear submarine was more languid, she could hardly walk to the base, then decided not to repair the boat, and to withdraw from the Navy.

Currently, all huge nuclear submarines of projects 945 and 945A continue to serve as part of the first fleet of submarines in the Northern Fleet (Ara-lip), not counting derived in 1998 from service B-239 «Carp.»

The main technical characteristics of nuclear submarines of projects 945 and 945A:
Surface displacement — 6300/6470 tons;
Submerged displacement — 9100/10400 tons;
Length — 107.0 / 110.5 m;
Width — 12.2 m;
Draught — 8.8 / 9.4 m;
Most underwater speed of 35 knots;
Most surface speed of 19 knots;
Operating depth — 480/520 m;
Maximum diving depth — 550/600 m;
Crew — 60/65.


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