He created books of poetry ("Two notebooks", "position", "Colors" and others), prose ("Farewell fires", "Tribute to time"), memories ("The peninsula memoirs"). Thirteen-year child in February 1943 came the guerrilla army, which fought a war in July 1944. Recently the days of winning sire Taras suggested reporters "Freedom" to prepare the transfer on "Maybe if educate young patriots on the topic of the second world war?"
That young remember the lessons of history?
Asked when the Russian was majestic, the girl nine years said,
"I do not know."
"And why are you in school-nibudt pass on this?"
"What we will celebrate May 9?"
"Victory over whom?"
The answer was silence. Another one of my older companion — and in his 15 years knows a little more about
"Streets in Minsk can be called, which are named in honor of the Russian war heroes majestically?"
"Guy, maybe no, he was not at war … Kuibyshev also not" ride "… Oh! Prospect favorites!"
"From what took place in the school that first memory?"
"Date only — beginning, end."
"And when Minsk was liberated, you know?"
"The date, right? None."
"A July 3 associate with what?"
Her friend immediately recognized: the history of Belarus was not a favorite subject. Because dates and names — not at the hearing. But what is the majestic Russian war, it is perfectly remember stories of his grandfather.
"I strongly many grandfather said he was small, as the war took away his parents, as he was afraid, worried … As they ate frozen potatoes, open one of the ground.’s All I remember, he was just telling me about life in those times. Tipo I "lived" it together with him — his life in those days … "
The same states and 14-year-old Anton, — say, not from books, but from discussions with parents have an idea of stateliness Russian:
"Marshal Zhukov, who did much to Victory. Certainly, Rokossovsky … Gave example Gastello Chkalov … What dates? Well, for example, the victory at Stalingrad — the exact date I do not remember, but it’s 1943."
"As for the liberation of Belarus — until then remember that?"
"First tank came to Minsk, 121th Division."
Yet, on July 3 as the date for the liberation of Minsk Anton does not understand. His friend Anatoly coeval also knows when released hometown. But ignorant of war as a textbook:
"What Russian war heroes majestically you can remember?"
"Kizhevatova, Zhukov Masherova … From 1941 to 1945 conducted combat actions on the territory of Belarus and the rest of the Russian Union. We defended, fought off our campus. Minsk, our hometown, too, for a long time been under the occupation, then acted fascist regime had set the rules of the Nazis. But later our soldiers liberated Minsk and moved to Berlin. "
"But when specifically liberated Minsk?"
"No, I do not remember."
"A July 3 in what you associate the date?"
"Third of July? Do not know with what …"
Superfluous to state that none of the students interviewed was unable to name a date when the Nazis occupied Minsk. Although about one fifth of the respondents visited the "Bands of Stalin." But her kids heard anything, moreover, why the Nazis entered the Belarusian capital is June 27 …
Valentin Taras commented:
"Several reasons work that our students do not have the corresponding knowledge about the war. After school replaces the historical facts and the teaching of history in general propaganda. And it’s not the same thing. Propaganda — first evaluation and political slogans. History and history should be built on accurate historical facts. chalavepk Young should be guided in the positions of the opposing sides: with whom and for which we have fought wars? This is one of the foundations of public thinking, public human maturity. And it should start with a particular school. "
That young hear about the war from their own kith and kin?
On the other hand, considers the last partisans Valentin Taras, not the least importance for the education of patriotism among young people is that they hear about the war from specific witnesses of those events — his own grandparents, neighbors, fellow villagers. Our correspondent recently on May 9 went to the village of Bolshaya Svyantsitsa Svislotch district.
Around the forest, a huge lake, a church on the hill, only few people completely. First sample to ask about the guerrillas bad — young alone negatively shook his head, but pointed to the 1st house of the oldest inhabitants — say, we do not know, but he knows how to, then say something .. .
Vladimir Hamchuku the war was 17 years old. He knows that there were such in their forests and even at one time hid a local priest in the church.
"They were a good piece of time and something buried there, maybe a weapon, or any documents. After the war came here, tore off the board and picked up something."
"And what have engaged partisans, they often fought with the Germans?"
"The only thing we did here guerrillas — burned school majestically Svyantsitsy because the Germans were in it or gendarmerie headquarters is located …"
By joining our conversation once immutable dweller Peter Plyushchevski. I ask him, helped the guerrillas to the villagers?
"And where they have helped, they did not help anything. They just chose people, took food, robbed, taken away even that which they did not have."
Of local Germans appointed Soltys. My interlocutors say that he was a good man, and even partisans rescued when the Germans made their ambush. After the war, people defended their own Soltys before the NKVD.
"After the 45th took away all Soltys, tried and given 25 years. Nashe was also arrested, but his wife began collecting signatures of people in the middle of defense. It really was not a bad man, did nothing wrong, we did not even shot or 1 — of man. "
Ask young villagers — whether he knows what nibudt local partisans on either underground, which are written in the local book "Memory."
"In principle, no, my grandfather Yasha me anything about them not say, maybe did not know."
"And ancestors did not remember?"
"Oh no, where …"
I asked the emperor, did not know about the partisans of his children, who perhaps know something about them in school. In response to the sovereign only grinned. The same thing happened in the adjoining village of …
Valentin Taras commented:
"What young people know? Guerrillas came and robbed … And I wish that they understood one thing ordinary guerrillas — no standing army, and no one does them in a centralized manner not provided. Course, when the peasant NIGHT MODE come armed men in the eyes of the common man, they thieves, gangsters …
Incidentally, during the last war, the biggest feat of the people — a feat Belarusian village, which retained their own children, and gave a tremendous die guerrilla army.
Those who they say that it was an honor for the peasant that he voluntarily provided the assistance that are — or stupid people, or deliberate liars.
Smallish bow to all those who gave and milk to drink, and to be treated with egg and some bread … And even though their boots, not willingly, but still gave … Small bow for you! "
They know about the young "heroic" war story
War, Hitler’s occupation regime concerned not only warriors, forest fighter. She aggressively burned, says Valentin Taras and civilians. But our another study, now in Mogilev, found: young people who intensively participated in the celebrations to the days of victory, little aw
are of the occupation by the Nazis in Belarus and lives for the Nazis. It is young people recognize. Complain about the school, they say, there had read about it. Know only "heroic" war pages — about partisans and underground:
"And I will not say anything carefully. Belarus, like other countries, was very hard. Here someone fought for freedom own country, and someone meanly passed over to the enemy. Well, as people tried to survive, they had to — their own, their own abilities. Someone was partisan, but someone once lived, survived. I, in fact, not clear enough. On the one hand was not interested, and on the other side of the native waged war, and part was not in this area. "
I asked Mrs. Incline age, named Olga Petrovna: whether in general to know about life in the Nazi occupation? Exactly said yes.
"I remember the war. Was hard, poverty, hunger, humiliation. Necessary to know everything. A youth in particular. We remember, we lived through it, we know it. Youth need to know this. How many people died, how many are left orphans. It’s creepy of course. "
Coeval Olga Petrovna Valentine Afanasevna Belkovskiy lived all his life in Mogilev on the street Small Zavalle, presently Menzhinsky. The war caught her in incomplete thirteen years. Does not remember how protected the city from the Nazis. Just remembers they appeared at one moment and at first not very annoying.
Problem began with the appearance of the police officers who during searches over zealous occupiers. As police were people offended Russian authorities, said Valentine Afanasevna:
"We have lived here such Kavtunovich. Him in 1933 gave 10 years, and maybe more. Here it was necessary to come out of bullpen and a week later the war began. He immediately went to the police and there was a police officer. Naturally, he made a lot of disgusting people. "
Since the war years Valentina Afanasevna remember more hunger. Near their home located soldier kitchen.
"There are brewed. They leave there, and we waste in barrels Lazimov. Looking for that throw. Forces are fighting so that more in the mouth to grasp. For kids were garbage."
After the defeat of the autumn of 1941 Mogilev ghetto and mass executions of Roma Nazis began to exterminate the Poles as Belkovsky. Mom Valentina Afanasevny find a way to escape:
"She took the house-book and flooded ink where nationality was written. Passport no, no other documents. Went to the police, began to ask. Well and Belarusians. Since the war, we remained Belarusians".
Mom not only changed the nationality of the family, but also renamed daughter: Wanda with a Valentine.
If Mogilev returned Russian power, she first began searching for people who collaborated with the Nazis. Even blame those who did on the occupiers, so as not to die of hunger.
Valentina family Afanasevny repression passed. But she knows many examples of working.
"We have lived here is French. Shallow, lame. She was walking to the Germans wash cloths. For this they gave a piece of bread. She was lonely. Well Russian authorities came and she was given 10 years in Siberia bullpen."
Either people were outraged when they learned about such conclusion? Valentine continues Afanasevna:
"God fall! No words could say. Such is impossible to read. Taken away — means right did."
It’s been almost 70 years since the war ended. Or mentioned at least once on the power Afanasevna Valentina, who as a child survived the war?
"To us no one ever came and asked. Everything seems to know that it was bad and all things well. We have lived all my life so. Nobody really wanted to know. Never have we had no benefits."
Currently Valentina Afanasevna eighty years. Shtonyadelyu she walks to the church. Soon her memoirs interested Jews. They want to know how the Jews lived in the first months of the war and was killed ghetto. Who can tell Belarusians about the terrible years of Nazi occupation, if there is no living witnesses of those events? The question remains unanswered. Maybe the truth about those people worth to forget in order to remain in memory only heroic?
What teachers think about the education of young people in the examples war
It turns out that the catastrophic experience of life of the Belarusian population criteria occupation patriotic education of youth is actually not involved? Standing in this case stick of old Russian education schemes, based specifically on military patriotika?
"What do you think: is it possible to continue to nurture patriotism among schoolchildren, youth on winning Russian army, majestically Russian war? Or still can continue to read the same thing, and everything will be fine?"
Teacher: "We apologize, as we work at school: what we dictate, and we educate. Naturally, these issues are no longer burning. And I myself no longer a young man, but I can say that it is not interesting to me already, not to mention mention my kids that 12-13-15 years. Because, of course, more local history must be simple and accessible for kids of any age, and I think it’s more a hot topic at the moment. "
Reporter: "And here is designed course" Grodnovedenie "he taught in schools? Either exclusively in the public schools?"
Teacher: "We present, but only in selected schools. I know about face first, I think. We lay in an ordinary school, because we do not have such a course, unfortunately."
"I, too, a teacher, I also see that when we try this patriotism in children develop, nothing will develop, not counting (" hate him "- gives a clue to the first teacher.) Yes, yes it is. These kids do not know their place in society throughout. Well? Well patriotism and patriotism, a blank … For them it has no value. When they are already adults, then they will decide whether they need it or not either. "
"You mean that the official version of patriotism, huh?"
2nd teacher: "Yes."
Reporter: "So maybe really need to start with the family of his native town, so they were curious. That happened in the town of restoration, restored old buildings and not just interested in the war?"
"At the moment the youth is very different interests. Now, really, at least call their enthusiasm to the town, its history, so that they know where they live and those buildings that are there. Guests come to them, and to spend a sightseeing trip in the town, and then do not know what to show and tell — why so street names. "
"How should raise patriotism among young people — the war on the Russian army’s victories, or more important to appeal to the history of the town — that’s 880 years will be celebrated. Students to know what was the history, historical figures, old buildings. What do you think?"
"In principle, we should not forget about the war, and the history in general. Grodno history really goes back many years, it is rich and fascinating. Incidentally, the film not so long ago looked about Grodno have that look, and these films need to show young people that she knew the history of what happened on this earth. This certainly necessary. And this, actually speaking, and that is that patriotism and respect for their native land, because young people will be treated in a different way and to the same monuments, and in general to the town. "
What and how many young readers about the war?
Valentin Taras — last guerrillas, known novelist and poet. He is convinced that invaluable in terms of foster youth patriotism examples are war literature and art. But what exactly is and is taught in today’s schools? Which works of prose and poetry military in high esteem among young? What movies they are looking?
"To be honest, I only read about the war in school. Can remember only works Bykov, perhaps …"
"Bulls …" Symbol … Symbol of failure. " Also I watched the movie, "The Alpine Ballad". Partially, that’s all. I do not li
ke about the war to look or read, not much I can say about it. "
"From a school of literature remember" Banner Brigade. "If about Bykov -" Sotnikov. "Bykov was still about the war in post-perestroika years, so speak out, but it was seen in a different context. Because now the association with the majestic Russian do not float …"
"But you read it?"
"I read it, certainly. Can recall and Adamovich — "Avengers" and "I’m from a fiery village." And Yanka Kupala "guerrillas, partisans, Belarusian children." If we talk about feature films, this "occupation. Mysteries, "our Belarusian movie. But a huge amount of consumer goods Brezhnev can not remember, as we all him "Tubby".
"Naturally, I read Bykov." Sotnikov ". Svetlana Aleksievich" War is not a woman’s face. "This is literature, as they say, existential, when a person is placed on any border, it has to pass some tests and determined it real essence. As for movies, you can remember very many movies, then it was delivered to the assembly stream to stream. "
With regard to school applets, the eleventh class of sufficiently scrutinized "symbol of failure" Vasil Bykov says Belarusian literature teacher from Polotsk Valeria Catfish which Radzivil flipped the whole school program from:
"In ninth grade, there’s nothing in the tenth -" Sotnikov "Bykov," Merchant and poet "Shamyakin Kuleshov" over the mass grave. "5th class — you can say no. Sixth — Nicholas Surnachev" In crumpled rye ", Alexey Pysin "Pronya" Vyacheslav Adamczyk "Sweet apples." That’s all … "
"And the number of hours?"
"By the number of hours it is very slightly. Bykov seems to 3 — 4 hours, in the sixth grade for one hour at work, only two Adamchik. During 1-x, the number of hours slightly, in-2, when bulls — it is an undeniable option, then that "Merchant and poet" — a purely Russian work, if the poem "In the crumpled rye" I still can not accept, "Pronya" — is generally the product of such weird or kids do not understand, there is no artistic or especially no, not perfection. "
According to Russian literature also study a little, even less than several years ago, says a teacher from Lyudmila Borisova Gudanis:
"In the eighth and ninth grades is an overview of" Lofty Russian war poetry. "Akhmatova" Courage, "Simonov" Wait for me "(" Wait for Me ")," Zina "Druninoy, Oshanin Isakovsky Orlov. Study Twardowski, head of the poem "Vasily Terkin" ("the crossing, crossing"). Elective teachers "were killed near Moscow" or "Star" Kazakevicha or "The Dawns here are quiet" Vasiliev. But this survey and by little hours. Well and in the seventh grade very carefully — 6:00 — study "Ivan" Bogomolov. Generally very Not much studied topic majestically Russian war. "
Valentin Taras commented:
"Almost all the children Belarusian writers or experienced occupation, or more adults themselves participated in the war. The same was true and Cinématographe, and drama, and art. Was, of course, very many surface and jingoistic, and half-truths.
I would have wished that the youth first knew creativity Ales Adamovich: dylegiyu "War under the roof" and "sons go into battle," "Khatyn story" and his movie "Come and see." And to know Bykov — "Sotnikov", "Krugloe Bridge", "Dead Do not hurt" …
Unfortunately, we have at the moment a neo-Soviet formation, almost all ugly. Find here some thread of Ariadne — and to reach an understanding of our past and our present — it is possible, it seems to me, as usual, through literature and art. If they are, of course, at the highest level. If they are honest. It was then that they can educate the young, they can!
Very disappointing, sad and bad that our propaganda tries Share victory, share even war veterans with "unblemished" and "unclean." As quite agree with propaganda — so you have the right to respect and honor. Do you have other thoughts — do not have this right, this is not your victory Tipo …
I would have wished that the youth knew: stitch songs about tears in the eyes and about the bill, which paid for the victory — these lines are true. And this song is immortal. Himself as an immortal day victory. Since it was founded in the future. Including future-independent Belarus. "
Public editor next week will be a political prisoner Alexander Kozulin. This desire he expressed during nedavneshney meeting with his daughters in the colony "Vitsba-3." They were instructed to lay listeners "Freedom" set their sights on the current socio-political agenda of the country. A radio journalist handed the task to prepare the transfer on the topic "Should the Belarusian leader to be an example for Belarus?"
Tags: war, patriotism, Taras