One of the main tasks of Russian aircraft in the fifties of the last century was the creation of bombers capable of rapidly and excellent facilities make possible enemy attack. Available Tu-4 far not fully meet current requirements and solve the problem of development could only completely new aircraft. Own contribution to the creation of a revolutionary modern aviation technology in 1952 made the Head of promising schemes SibNIA them. SA Chaplygin (Novosibirsk) R. Bartini.
It all started with a preparatory study type aircraft codenamed T-203. Using zaniyami alone in high-speed aerodynamics and arithmetic, Bartini in rather short time counted several aerodynamic configurations and chose the best. Was good intergralnaya tailless wing with variable sweep across the front edge. For similar appearance since the aircraft was very new, because the T-203 and remained on paper.
Yet, the development and calculation on the subject were not in vain. In 1955 he graduated from the preparatory project Bartinini supersonic bomber A-55. This aircraft is to a large extent resembled the T-203, although its design was worked out even better and more. Of particular interest in a new project represents the method of implementation. Bartini going to make not just a distant supersonic bomber, and ensure that it is actually not limited radius of action. To do this, the A-55 was to be amphibious aircraft. So Makar, A-55 was able to soar with concrete airfields, go to the area and, when necessary, sit on the water and create a refueling from submarines or surface ships. In addition, amphibious would allow the A-55 for a long time to be in a certain area, flying from which it was possible in a few Minutka strike at goal. We can say that if the T-203 was just a bold project, the A-55 was very brave. Fascinating fact: in the appropriate form in terms of aircraft and A-55, and all of the following projects in this family got the nickname «strategic cocked.»
According to calculations Bartini A-55 design of reaching the highest speed of about 2500 km / h at a distance of more than 10 thousand kilometers. Management of the aviation industry, having familiarized with the project, issued its conclusion: the project, of course, exciting and necessary, but it is not feasible today’s criteria. Yet, thanks to a series of research conducted on the topic, Bartini managed to defend the project and he was entrusted to continue the work. The entire 56th year left for the next blow, consultation with experts and other related industries research. In April of 1957 subsequent Bartinini transferred from SibNIA CACA in the Ministry of Aviation Industry. At this point, the project again slightly alter your own view, and to connect the work of the industry’s leading universities — TsAGI and CIAM. Namely, the employees of the Central hydrodynamic Institute studied features takeoff and landing on water, the ability for long-term determination of aircraft on the surface of the sea or ocean.
At this stage, the project has received a new index — the A-57. Now it was a whole complex of aircraft armament created for strikes on bolshennom distance from base airfield. Aircraft with variable sweep delta wing at the front edge of the structure had integrated circuit. Pairing the fuselage and wings were constructed such that any perceptible boundary between them was missing. Amphibious aircraft was supposed to provide an unusual ski gear. Taxiing for take-off aerodrome and airplane A-57 was to be fitted with discharged after separation wheel carts. The possibility of landing on water was provided with 3 retractable in-flight skiing. Ski chassis also allowed to sit on snow or ice. It was assumed that such an opportunity will not only fly from airfields or continental waters of the World Ocean, and with ice in the Arctic airfields jump. As weapons for A-57 intercontinental offered doodlebug RCC, develops designer P. Tsybina. Because the internal volume of the assembly carrier aircraft PCC had to be mounted on the top side 57-A.
Crew of 3 persons, according to the preparatory project, had all the facilities for a long stay on board the aircraft, including the criteria and autonomous action. In addition, the possibility of carrying out all maintenance work with the upper surface of the wing. This feature provides the ability to design medium-sized repairs by the crew or ship refueling technicians.
In the next couple of years, the project A-57 has undergone a number of configurations of a different nature. For example, only one nacelle was revised three times under different engines. In 1961, the project was presented, even A-58, according to which the plane had a nuclear power plant. Either way, all configuration ultimately did not lead to the start of construction of the most experienced at least a reference. Project A-57 was very difficult, expensive and require the creation of a mass of new technological processes. In addition, Bartini plane was still more perceptible for radar stations, if not so long ago made Tu-95. The project was closed. But on the basis of A-57 was created by another project — the F-57. From unusual aircraft he was different size, purpose and a little lower technological complexity of the design.
According to the results of a series of consultations Municipal Committee in aeronautical engineering at the Council of Ministers of the USSR (GKAT) agreed to continue to work towards sverzhzvukovyh beskhvostok design Bartinini piloted. To start decided to limit a 20-ton aircraft demonstrator. Not even leave your own project without any prospects of fighting, the designer began to make not just a prototype aircraft, but front-line bomber. Along the plane with respect to initial plans potyazhelel — its takeoff weight up to 25 tons. On the F-57 was supposed to install two promising turbojet engine thrust VC-13 to 10 thousand kgs. These motors provide the estimated aircraft cruising speed of about 2400-2500 km / h With all this aerodynamic assembly provides excellent flying characteristics as supersonic, and the landing speed of 260 km per hour. Normal range comes out to about 2,800 km. From past projects Bartini in the supersonic F-57 bombers got ski landing gear, although its design was substantially revised. Unique scheme ski chassis implied one basic support disposed about the center of mass and two more under the wings. In other words, Bartini rigged own F-57 some semblance of cycling gear, but without wheels and without a single main bearing. In fuselage volumes were provided for the deployment of weapons. F-57 could carry 15 bombs caliber 100 kg to one and a half tons.
Bureaucrats aviation authority painstaking manner estimate project and related documentation and came to the same conclusion as before. F-57 bomber was really good, but they reappeared prepyadstviya with the technological part of the construction. Despite the increase in production of some convenience, components and assemblies, the F-57 was still not applicable for mass production. Yet, GKAT gradually began to prepare for the start of production of experimental aircraft. As the site for the construction of the plant layout was considered metropolitan number 30. While designers by R. Bartini preparing documents to be sent to the company, in the military leadership of the country matured new ideas. First 60s there have been several changes in the structure of the aviation industry and related areas of production. In the context of the F-57, they led to the plant number 30 failed to even start training to assemble an experienced frontline bombers. Due to lack of ability to continue operations and certain bias towards rocketry Project F-57 was closed. He was destined to be the last of a family of «strategic treugolok.» Create a Project A-55 and his «heirs» required to spend a huge amount of tests, calculations, etc. They are not all in vain. Most of the acquired knowledge was used to develop a new supersonic bomber, also passenger Tu-144.
Created by Kirill Ryabov