Russian fleet in the Mediterranean

Last year marked 45 years since the creation of the 5th operational squadron of the Navy. In common parlance it simply called "The 5th Squadron," and in the public media used the word that reveals the location of its action — Mediterranean. In connection with the anniversary of Sevastopol were organized large-scale celebrations, during which sounded not only congratulatory speeches and memories — much has been said about the importance of this unique combination of the Navy of the country, that Russia can not be present in the Mediterranean …

Then this idea in his address expressed Advisor to the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Admiral Igor Kasatonov, who commanded the Black Sea Fleet in 1991-1992. and save it for Russia, and later to 1999, he served as the Deputy Commander of the Navy of the country. Speaking about the importance and role of the squadron, the admiral said:"Mediterraneans have not lost a single battle the cold war, and they made will be stored not only in human memory and the historical record. Battle Experience squadron will not be confused, and exploits will be multiplied ".
Now is the time when this experience once again in demand.
Russia has set its sights on a return of the fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, more than that — to ensure his continued presence in this strategically important area.This was recently stated repeatedly. Started and practical work on the implementation of these plans.

I must say that the second half of the last of the twentieth century, without a doubt, the most intense in the military-political terms, the region was the Middle East. The figurative expression of one of the politicians who are located here, "world political kitchen." This important region of the planet — the center of world civilization — so far and represents a focus and an interlacing of the interests of almost all countries of the world. Including, of course, and Russia — the great naval power.

***

History of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia and Russian annals of the Mediterranean squadron (Archipelago expedition) for the last three centuries suggests that it is here, on the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, held the grandest naval battles that brought victory and glory of Russia, Russian and Russian sailors Arms are committed deeds and heroic deeds.

Mediterranean Sea, at the junction of three continents — Europe, Asia and Africa, has always occupied an important place in the foreign policy of Russia. It is worth mentioning: it is in the south of the young EmperorPeter A.in 1695 his first Azov campaign launched"Hack window to Europe". The failure of this enterprise was due to lack of Russian fleet. By building it in Voronezh and blocking of Azov to the sea, in the following year, Peter I succeeded. The result of that victory was the birth of the regular Russian navy, leading his official history with the verdict of the Boyar Duma "Sea ships to be" adopted 20 (30), October 1696.

And that was only the beginning — the emperor, who decided later to create new capital of Russia on the southern shore of the sea, the city of Taganrog, he continued, in modern terms, the implementation of state shipbuilding program. However, the story had its own way, but somehow one of the vectors of sovereign Russia was defined to the south, to the southern seas.

By the way, it's perfectly understood by our ancestors. In the words of the famous English historian Jane F.,"There is a widespread belief that the Russian navy recently founded by Peter the Great. However, in reality it can be considered the more ancient than the British fleet. Over a hundred years before Alfred built the first British ships, Russian has struggled in fierce naval battles, a thousand years ago, the best sailors of his time were Russian ". And so it is.

From the early Middle Ages, our ancestors, battling the sea, went to Zabosfore, reaching the land of the current Italy and Cyprus. With the fall in the XV century by several centuries the Ottoman Porte was the main opponent of Russia, which were held periodically bloody war. This is particularly evident in Catherine's time.

Constantinople and the Straits — that's the real goal of Russian policy. This is the Orthodox idea of the "Third Rome", but it's safety, and access to"European"Mediterranean from the Black Sea Straits overlapped"Lakes". Mode Straits — the crucial question of the Russian security and sovereign perspective. It is perfectly understoodCatherine the Great, Come to think and realize their"Projects""Eastern" and "Greek" orientation. Formally, she sought to return the crosses on the dome of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. In fact, it was about protecting the interests of the empire and expand its zone of influence. The question was: if Russia does not, then someone else. At that time — the Ottoman and British empires.

It was about the security of the southern borders and the possibility of the peaceful enjoyment of the Black Sea straits. It is well understood and its successor on the Russian throne Paul I. Accordingly, geopolitical adversaries and competitors sought to lock Russia in the Black Sea, at the same time creating for its southern borders permanent military threat. "The problem of the Straits" has for a long time"Achilles heel"Russia. It is understood not only by Russian emperors and politicians, but also the leaders of the Soviet state, especiallyIV Stalin.

With the start of another war with Turkey in 1768 by Catherine II at the insistence of Count Alexei Orlov was decided to send five squadrons of Russian fleet from the Baltic to the Mediterranean Sea in support of combat operations in the Russian army in Moldova and the Balkans. It was a bold decision — to send ships over 8,000 miles in the Eastern Mediterranean, which has never swam Russian court. Regular Navy Russia for the first time, and as it turned out, for a long time gone beyond the Baltic Sea voyage across the ocean.

Admiral Gregory A. Spiridonov

The first squadron under the command of AdmiralGregory A. Spiridovaleft Kronstadt July 19, 1769 It included seven ships of the line, "Sviatoslav", "Three Hierarchies", "Iannuary", "Europe", "Three Hierarchs", "Northern Eagle", "Eustace," frigate "Nadezhda well-being ", bombing ship" Thunder ", 4 military transport ship and two messengers.

Chesme battle


24-26 June 1770 at the island of Chios and Cesme battle took place, during which the Russian fleet defeated the Turkish fleet. Chesme battle was the first victory of the Russian fleet in the Mediterranean. High combat training, dedicated and determined action crews, outstanding skill captains, great tactical skill admirals GA Spiridova and SK Greig brought the Russian fleet brilliant victory.

Will be remembered feat lieutenantDmitry Ilyin, fire-ship which blew 84-gun ship of the enemy, and thus predetermined the outcome of the battle. When Cesme fame and commanded the lead ship of a squadron battleship 'Europe' captainA. Fedotov Klokachev, future first commander of the Black Sea Fleet. Empress generously endowed participants Chesmensky battle orders, and the fleet was announced monarchical favor and granted not to offset a year's salary. In memory of the victory medal was struck with the image on one side of the Empress, and on the other — burning the Turkish fleet with the laconic inscription: "Was."

After the victory at Cesme whole of Europe has to reckon with the fact that there are significant in the Mediterranean naval forces of Russia. The Battle made a major contribution to the development of Russian naval warfare. Cesme column in the Park in Pushkin — is a remarkable monument in honor of the great victory, reminiscent of her descendants for all time.

The most important event of the period was the accession of Crimea to Russia, th
e creation of the Black Sea Fleet and the base of its main base — sea fortress of Sevastopol (1783). Russia actually"Unsealed"last quarter of the XVIII century, the implementation of plans to return the Black Sea its former name — Russian sea. Power grow through lands of New Russia and the Kuban, Taman and the Caucasus, the seaside — from Colchis to the Danube. Sovereign look quite definitely was sent to Constantinople, who fell under the onslaught of the Ottomans in 1453 and became Istanbul.
It is not only frightening and caused dissatisfaction among the future, "the Lady of the Seas", but also gave rise to the threat. Britain could not allow Russia to master"Key revival of Byzantium"under the protectorate of St. Petersburg — the Bosporus and Dardanelles.

"The arrogance of Russian cabinet becomes intolerable to Europeans. The fall Ochakova visible target Russian policy on the Bosphorus, Russian will soon be released to the Nile to occupy Egypt. Let us remember: the gateway to India they are already open ", — Wrote in 1791William Pitt the Younger, Prime Minister of Britain. Then he threatened to Russia, trying to cobble together against her alliance with Prussia:"We do not just turn St. Petersburg in miserable ruins, but will burn and shipyards Arkhangelsk. Our squadron overtaken by Russian ships, even in shelters Sevastopol! And then let the Russian floating on rafts as primitive savages ".

These threats did not come true. However, as the plans of the Russian Empress — her grandson, not by chance and with long-term named Constantine did not "Byzantine king" …

One of the most important stages of the history of Russian military fleet in the Mediterranean was the period associated with the wars against Napoleonic France. This is most clearly manifested flotovodchesky talent AdmiralFyodor Ushakov.

Admiral Fyodor Ushakov

Joint Mediterranean squadron under his command for two years (1798-1800 gg.) Liberated from the French Ionian Islands, where the Republic was proclaimed and established a Russian naval support base.

Russian squadron under Admiral Ushakov went to the Ionian islands of Corfu and blocked, which was the key to the entire Adriatic. Attack fortified island fortress from the sea forced the French garrison to surrender March 2, 1799.

Mastering the storm the fortress of Corfu (18-19 February 1799), which was considered impregnable, was one of the heroic exploits of Russian sailing fleet. Upon learning of this victory,AV Suvorovcould not help exclaiming:"Hurrah! Russian Navy! .. Why was not I at Corfu, while a midshipman! .. "For the capture of the island of Corfu, FF Ushakov was promoted to admiral. In 2000, he was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church.

As of 1805-1807. the Mediterranean acted Russian squadron under the command of Vice AdmiralDmitry Nikolayevich Senyavina.Brilliant victories were won by a squadron under his leadership during the Dardanelles (10 May 1807) and Athos (21 June 1807) battles, as a result of which it completely defeated the Turkish fleet.

Vice-Admiral D.N.Senyavin

In the battle of Navarino (October 8, 1827) Russian squadron under the command of Rear AdmiralLP Heyden,
operate as part of the union with the British and the French Navy, was most successful in defeating the Turkish-Egyptian fleet. Subsequently, this victory had a significant beneficial effect on the signing of the peace treaty of Adrianople, Russia and Turkey in 1829.

Rear Admiral L.P.Geyden

Particularly successfully in the battle squadron flagship "Azov", commanded by Captain 1st RankMikhail Petrovich Lazarev. Then stir in the battle LieutenantPS Nakhimov,
warrant officerVA Kornilovand midshipmanVI Istomin, future famous admirals. Ably and bravely fought and crews of other ships of the squadron, including the battleships "Gangut", "Ezekiel," "Alexander Nevsky", frigates "agile", "Helena", "Castor", "Constantine", etc. In his report on the the results of the Battle of Navarino, Rear Admiral Heiden wrote that the Russian sailors' fought like lions against the numerous, strong and persistent enemy. "

Battle of Navarino

The participants of the battle were awarded medals, including sailors, officers — golden arms, and MP Lazarev promoted to rear admiral. The crew of "Azov" received a special award certificate and a stern St George flag, which was the first time in the history of the Russian Navy was established and raised on the ship. Then was born the naval guard.

So, only 4 of the Russian Navy squadron under the command of famous admirals of the greatest winner in the battles in the Mediterranean in XVIII-XIX centuries. Maybe that's why the 5th Mediterranean Squadron of the USSR, to perform tasks in the Mediterranean Sea in the XX century, and was made famous Number 5, thus confirming the inexorable and historically established the continuity of generations in the Russian Navy. Not ruled out another explanation numbering 5th Mediterranean Squadron, and the priority for this belongs to the Commander in Chief of the Soviet Navy Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet UnionSG Gorshkov, who stood at the origins of the squadron. He alleged, according to eyewitnesses, said the words that the U.S. Navy at No. 6 can withstand the squadron only at number 5.

***

In the XIX century Russia is not only maintained, but also increased its presence in the Mediterranean.Emperor Paul I, which is largely Russian fleet must achieve its peak at the end of XVIII century, largely realized his hope of mastery of Malta. Malta has even been declared a province of the Russian Empire, but failure in the "Great Game" for dominance in the Middle East, part of which were prepared by the British conspiracy and murder of Paul, was not allowed to pick up at Valletta St. Andrew's flag.

Emperor Paul I

Britain embarked on the path of growth of sea power in Russia. One of the great conductors of British influence in the court of the Russian Tsar was the Russian ambassador in London (from 1784 to 1800 and from 1801 to 1806.) GraphSemyon Vorontsov,
Anglomaniac and Anglophile, who lived in England until his death (1832). Unsuccessfully lobbied for British interests, including seeking to undermine the power of Russian fleet, and other representatives of the Russian political elite. Result: In the first quarter of the XIX century, Russia has lost its sea power, the empire defeated the heavily imposed from outside her"Overland thinking".

Count SR Vorontsov

In 1822, the newspaper "Manchester Times" wrote:"Every English sailor is ready to help bring freedom and unhappy Poles(A large part of Poland at that time was part of the Russian Empire. — Approx.).A month later, our fleet will sink all the Russian vessels in all the seas of the world. Who then will be the Russian emperor? Kalmyk, surrounded by several barbarian tribes, savage, whose power at sea is not more power to the Emperor of China ".

Even fighting with Russia, including the sea (in the same battle of Navarino, in 1827), the British did not change his principles. From a coalition of Navarino, where, together operated joint Anglo-Russian-French squadron, the British easily passed to the creation of a military alliance completely different direction."We need a coalition war that would unite against Russia, England and France in order to destroy its main naval strategic base — Sevastopol and Kronstadt, expel her from the Black and Caspian seas, with the help of the Caucasian mountaineers and Persia establish there the complete domination of the British Navy . It is also necessary to raise, and other non-Russian peoples and unleash a civil war in Russia "— With the "initiative" in 1828, Colonel spoke EnglishGeorge De Lacy Evans, published a book, "The designs of Russia." In fact,"Enlightened"Europe managed to do it.

Already during the Crimean War in 1854, the head of the Liberal Party, the leader of the British House of CommonsJohn Russellcalled for:"We have to pull teeth of a bear … While his fleet and naval arsenal on the Black Sea is not destroyed, would not be safe Constantinople, there was no peace in Europe".

After the Crimean (Eastern) War (1853-1856.) And the loss of the right to have Russian navy in the Black Sea, St. Petersburg finally decided the question of basing its fleet in the Mediterranean — in the most convenient bay Cote d'Azur, French Villefranche. Here, by the way, for a hundred years before that Russian ships were based Archipelago expedition. For a long time while our ships were in Greek ports.

From 1857 to 1907, the Mediterranean Sea was a field of confrontation between Britain and Russia. Unfortunately, the events of those years, largely predetermined the course of events of the twentieth century, today is little known to the general public. Meanwhile, what was happening in those days could well be called the first Cold War — the global confrontation between the two great empires.And the Russian fleet, including acting in the Mediterranean, as well as in other areas of the oceans, played a key role in defending the interests of the Russian great power and putting into practice the geopolitical designs of its national leadership.

Of course, England could not put up with it. Bestselling author of "The Rise and Fall of the British Empire"Lawrence Jameswrote:"From the time of Nelson British perceived as the British Mediterranean lake and were not prepared to tolerate the presence of anyone else was on this lake. They hardly put up with the presence of the French, but the appearance of it Russian Navy, well-trained and equipped, threatened the British lines of communication with India. British statesmen were very wary of this line, which, as demonstrated by Napoleon in 1798, so easy to break ".

***

Prior to 1917, Russia held the fleet in the Mediterranean constantly. Ships committed educational campaigns, conducted the research.

Russian sailors ships midshipman squadron of Rear AdmiralVI Litvinovthe first to come to the aid of Italian cities affected by the earthquake, December 15, 1908 It has been over 100 years since the tragic events, but the warm feelings and memories of grateful residents of Messina for their assistance, are still alive. In 1911 messintsy knocked medal to commemorate the selfless participation of Russian sailors in the rescue of the affected residents of the city. She was solemnly presented the crew cruiser "Aurora". In thanksgiving address was written:"Fraternal assistance rendered by Russian fleet is one of the most beautiful pages in the great book of humanity, and when Messina will rise from the ashes, she will never forget that, thanks to your efforts, she sees her sons alive".

Battle of Navarino

The participants of the battle were awarded medals, including sailors, officers — golden arms, and MP Lazarev promoted to rear admiral. The crew of "Azov" received a special award certificate and a stern St George flag, which was the first time in the history of the Russian Navy was established and raised on the ship. Then was born the naval guard.

So, only 4 of the Russian Navy squadron under the command of famous admirals of the greatest winner in the battles in the Mediterranean in XVIII-XIX centuries. Maybe that's why the 5th Mediterranean Squadron of the USSR, to perform tasks in the Mediterranean Sea in the XX century, and was made famous Number 5, thus confirming the inexorable and historically established the continuity of generations in the Russian Navy. Not ruled out another explanation numbering 5th Mediterranean Squadron, and the priority for this belongs to the Commander in Chief of the Soviet Navy Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet UnionSG Gorshkov, who stood at the origins of the squadron. He alleged, according to eyewitnesses, said the words that the U.S. Navy at No. 6 can withstand the squadron only at number 5.

***

In the XIX century Russia is not only maintained, but also increased its presence in the Mediterranean.Emperor Paul I, which is largely Russian fleet must achieve its peak at the end of XVIII century, largely realized his hope of mastery of Malta. Malta has even been declared a province of the Russian Empire, but failure in the "Great Game" for dominance in the Middle East, part of which were prepared by the British conspiracy and murder of Paul, was not allowed to pick up at Valletta St. Andrew's flag.

Emperor Paul I

Britain embarked on the path of growth of sea power in Russia. One of the great conductors of British influence in the court of the Russian Tsar was the Russian ambassador in London (from 1784 to 1800 and from 1801 to 1806.) GraphSemyon Vorontsov,
Anglomaniac and Anglophile, who lived in England until his death (1832). Unsuccessfully lobbied for British interests, including seeking to undermine the power of Russian fleet, and other representatives of the Russian political elite. Result: In the first quarter of the XIX century, Russia has lost its sea power, the empire defeated the heavily imposed from outside her"Overland thinking".

Count SR Vorontsov

In 1822, the newspaper "Manchester Times" wrote:"Every English sailor is ready to help bring freedom and unhappy Poles(A large part of Poland at that time was part of the Russian Empire. — Approx.).A month later, our fleet will sink all the Russian vessels in all the seas of the world. Who then will be the Russian emperor? Kalmyk, surrounded by several barbarian tribes, savage, whose power at sea is not more power to the Emperor of China ".

Even fighting with Russia, including the sea (in the same battle of Navarino, in 1827), the British did not change his principles. From a coalition of Navarino, where, together operated joint Anglo-Russian-French squadron, the British easily passed to the creation of a military alliance completely different direction."We need a coalition war that would unite against Russia, England and France in order to destroy its main naval strategic base — Sevastopol and Kronstadt, expel her from the Black and Caspian seas, with the help of the Caucasian mountaineers and Persia establish there the complete domination of the British Navy . It is also necessary to raise, and other non-Russian peoples and unleash a civil war in Russia "— With the "initiative" in 1828, Colonel spoke EnglishGeorge De Lacy Evans, published a book, "The designs of Russia." In fact,"Enlightened"Europe managed to do it.

Already during the Crimean War in 1854, the head of the Liberal Party, the leader of the British House of CommonsJohn Russellcalled for:"We have to pull teeth of a bear … While his fleet and naval arsenal on the Black Sea is not destroyed, would not be safe Constantinople, there was no peace in Europe".

After the Crimean (Eastern) War (1853-1856.) And the loss of the right to have Russian navy in the Black Sea, St. Petersburg finally decided the question of basing its fleet in the Mediterranean — in the most convenient bay Cote d'Azur, French Villefranche. Here, by the way, for a hundred years before that Russian ships were based Archipelago expedition. For a long time while our ships were in Greek ports.

From 1857 to 1907, the Mediterranean Sea was a field of confrontation between Britain and Russia. Unfortunately, the events of those years, largely predetermined the course of events of the twentieth century, today is little known to the general public. Meanwhile, what was happening in those days could well be called the first Cold War — the global confrontation between the two great empires.And the Russian fleet, including acting in the Mediterranean, as well as in other areas of the oceans, played a key role in defending the interests of the Russian great power and putting into practice the geopolitical designs of its national leadership.

Of course, England could not put up with it. Bestselling author of "The Rise and Fall of the British Empire"Lawrence Jameswrote:"From the time of Nelson British perceived as the British Mediterranean lake and were not prepared to tolerate the presence of anyone else was on this lake. They hardly put up with the presence of the French, but the appearance of it Russian Navy, well-trained and equipped, threatened the British lines of communication with India. British statesmen were very wary of this line, which, as demonstrated by Napoleon in 1798, so easy to break ".

***

Prior to 1917, Russia held the fleet in the Mediterranean constantly. Ships committed educational campaigns, conducted the research.

Russian sailors ships midshipman squadron of Rear AdmiralVI Litvinovthe first to come to the aid of Italian cities affected by the earthquake, December 15, 1908 It has been over 100 years since the tragic events, but the warm feelings and memories of grateful residents of Messina for their assistance, are still alive. In 1911 messintsy knocked medal to commemorate the selfless participation of Russian sailors in the rescue of the affected residents of the city. She was solemnly presented the crew cruiser "Aurora". In thanksgiving address was written:"Fraternal assistance rendered by Russian fleet is one of the most beautiful pages in the great book of humanity, and when Messina will rise from the ashes, she will never forget that, thanks to your efforts, she sees her sons alive".

The next step in solving the problem of strengthening Russia's position in the Mediterranean was the First World War, during which the task was to master the Straits. On the southern theater was the main opponent of Turkey, which eventually suffered defeats on land and at sea.

However, in the fighting in the Mediterranean during World War II was attended only by Russian cruiser "Askold". During the Dardanelles operation in 1915 cruiser sailors distinguished mark artillery fire for its traditional art landings. British Admiralty expressed the Minister of Marine, Admiral RussiaIvan Konstantinovich Grigorovichadmiration shining actions cruiser "Askold". The officer who commanded the landing, planted with this ship, one day soon won three awards — the Russian, British and French.

The cruiser "Askold"

Through the Suez Canal and Gibraltar during World took place at different times from the Far East in the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk Russian ships "Scesma", "Askold" returned Japan cruiser "Varyag", 6 destroyers and a submarine "St. George ", built in Italy. In the 1916-1917 years. the Mediterranean Sea from Arkhangelsk and from the Far East were transferred to 45 thousand Russian soldiers to France to participate in the fighting on the Western Front. Russian navy already had orders to be in readiness for battle for possession outs in the Mediterranean Sea — Black Sea Fleet prepared for it thoroughly. However, to solve this problem do not have to — shot "Aurora" in 1917 ushered in the new Russia, a different era …

***

Forty years of inactivity of the Russian policy in the Middle East have led to the fact that Moscow has faced a number of difficult problems.The Kremlin was in thought: Where to Start?

As the victorious powers, the country — the founder of the United Nations, which has made a decisive contribution to the Great Victory, Russia had the right to much. One of the areas of the implementation of these rights — the dominance at least in the eastern Mediterranean. The way to solve this problem, in principle, was given to Peter's and Catherine's time. It was founded on an ideology and a strong political and military base.

One of the highest hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church, the first half of the twentieth centur
y, Metropolitan KharkovAnthony Khrapovitskywrote that Russia should restore the Orthodox Byzantine Empire, the Turks resettling in their"Primordial"Asia Minor. He believed that Russia must possess a wide ribbon of land from the southern Caucasus to Damascus and Jaffa master Syria and Palestine."If this is done, — Wrote to the Metropolitan —our people, and will rush to settle in the country where he lived our Savior. There will be a place for purely Russian culture for the Russian language, Russian for Trade and Industry. " The events of 1917-1920., Of course, have made such plans are unworkable, but the idea remained.

Of course, their literal incarnation after the Second World War, it was not. However, for the shortest time (1946-1948 gg.) On the agenda of the Kremlin decision to put a few questions. Find the answers to all of them failed. In particular, it was concluded Soviet-Turkish alliance and put into practice the requirements set out in 1946 in the notes of the Soviet government against Turkey over the Straits regime. Not everything went the way you want, in the process of creating the State of Israel (1948), although its birth, this country must, above all, the Soviet leadership and the Soviet position in the UN. It did not happen to take control of Tripolitania, which before the war, hosted by the Italians. If not already in the 40s in the western part of the current Libya could appear Soviet military bases, including the Navy.

These foreign policy failures have been caused by your former allies in the anti-Hitler coalition, particularly the United States, "zadvinuvshih" after the war Britain to the second role. The fact that Americans are changing the British in the Mediterranean, it was clear right away: they do not put out of his pool their naval forces, transforming them into the 6th Fleet. Its objectives were clear: to control oil-rich Middle East and prevent a "breakthrough" through the Black Sea straits naval forces of the Soviet Union."I have no doubt that Russia intends to Turkey to invade and capture the Black Sea straits leading to Turkey", — Said in 1946, the American PresidentHarry Truman. Then the Secretary of the Navy and the first U.S. Secretary of DefenseJames Forrestalon the same occasion stated:"We are dealing not only with Russia as a national identity, but with the help of an expansionist Russia since Peter the Great, and besides, plus more and more missionary religious power …"

***

The emergence of the real threat of the Soviet Union from NATO as a result of increase in the region, the presence of the Alliance Navy, aircraft carrier battle formations and nuclear submarines of the 6th U.S. fleet, equipped with nuclear weapons, creating a network of military bases in the Mediterranean countries put the Soviet leadership with the need for adequate response measures the output of naval groups in the world's oceans and the far sea zone to neutralize the threats arising from offshore destinations.

Created after the war, the Soviet ocean-going nuclear missile navy by its membership and combat capabilities, was able to provide global strategic stability and territorial integrity of their own maritime borders, retain dominance in coastal seas, protect its interests and allies in almost every area oceans, promote land forces in the coastal areas.

For the Soviet state trade routes in the Mediterranean and beyond — through the Suez Canal into the Indian Ocean, as well as through Gibraltar — the Atlantic and to the coast of West Africa in the areas of fisheries and research — were vital. These waterways in need of reliable protection from the possible impact of the NATO forces, provocation by some African states, pirates and terrorists of all stripes, as well as on the basis of the requirements of navigation and hydrographic their development.

Since the mid-50's military-political situation in the Middle East has become progressively worse and take intense, explosive nature. In this difficult situation the command of the Black Sea fleet is increasingly understood the need to have in the Mediterranean, its constantly deployed forces, and above all submarines as the most secretive clan, and effective forces have also a large autonomy.

The proposal was supported by the sailors in Moscow, with the result that in 1959 the Soviet Union appeared intergovernmental agreement with Albania, and began to be based in Vlora Black twelve submarines and serving their two mother ships. There are new facilities on the island at the entrance to the bay, located at the very base of the brigade OVRa ships, which had in its composition division of minesweepers.

In the 60 years of the breakthrough of the Soviet Navy in the Mediterranean was still carried out — from the outputs on active duty single ships, then mixed squadrons and detachments of the Black Sea Fleet. AJuly 28, 1965, there was another major event — in the Mediterranean Sea for the first time entered the nuclear submarine of the Northern Fleet.

The Government of the USSR adopted a decision on the formation of the 5th Mediterranean Squadron Navy ships — ships of Task Force with finding them on a permanent basis in the Mediterranean for combat service. Which began June 5, 1967 "Six-Day" Arab-Israeli war only accelerated the implementation of this decision.

The credit for the creation, formation and management of the 5th Mediterranean Squadron is largely owned by the Fleet Admiral of the Soviet UnionSergei G. Gorshkov, eminent naval commander and statesman. To him, the Commander in Chief of the Navy, said the words, uttered in May 1965 at a meeting with the Admirals, the Northern Fleet submarinersAP MikhailovskyandAI Petelin:"We need to create a permanent grouping of forces combat service in the Mediterranean, as opposed to the 6th U.S. Navy … It's time to think about the formation in the region of a permanent operational squadrons, which includes nuclear submarines". And this squadron was established July 14, 1967.

5th

Stood in front of the Black Sea Fleet is a difficult and important task — to deal with threats to our country from the sea, to reduce carrier-based and nuclear blackmail of the West to zero.At headquarters perfected ways and means of countering naval forces of possible nuclear attacks from areas of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, which were connected to a confrontation seaside army air defense group, the compounds of the Northern and Baltic fleets, long-range aviation. By the early 70's Black Sea Fleet has become a powerful tool of Soviet foreign policy with which the West was now forced to take …

***

In the period from 1967 to 1978 in the Mediterranean Sea on active service in 1546 visited the Soviet ships and vessels, that is not less than 100 per year. The average length of military service at various times was for nuclear submarines to 3 months, diesel-powered submarines — from 6 to 12-13 months, surface ships and vessels — from 6 to 8 months.

Included the building of new anti-submarine ships, and with access to the Mediterranean Sea anti-submarine cruisers of project 1123 "Moscow" and "Leningrad" with Ka-25 helicopters on board, as well as nuclear and diesel submarine
s of the tasks a successful fight against American nuclear missile submarines was a reality. The emergence of a fundamentally new type of aircraft carriers TAVKR "Kiev" with the Yak-38 and Ka-27 dramatically increased the possibilities of solving the problems in the Mediterranean, gaining dominance in the eastern part.

TAVKR "Kiev"

By the time of the formation of the 5th fleet in the Black Sea Fleet based on the experience of local wars and conflicts have been taken to recreate the Black Sea Fleet Marines, formed brigade of amphibious ships for delivery in the Mediterranean landing parties"Black berets", which then virtually throughout the history of the squadron patrolled in its composition.

In close cooperation in the interests of the squadron operated units of naval aviation — the squadron of TU-16, IL-38, BU-12, AN-12, based in the 70s on the ground and Cairo West Matruh (Egypt), since 1985 , the TU-16P operated from the airfield Tifor (Syria). They performed regular flights over the Mediterranean Sea with the task of aerial reconnaissance and identification of areas of action of compounds and ship carrier battle groups of naval forces of NATO.

In addition, since 1968, the squadron was almost constant up to 2 squadrons of helicopters Ka-25 anti-submarine cruisers stationed at the "Moscow" and "Leningrad". Prior to 1991, these ships made 35 trips to the military service in the Mediterranean Sea.

Help Tb

Antisubmarine cruiser "Moskva" and "Leningrad" were the first aircraft carriers (helicopter), the Navy of the USSR. The reason for the occurrence of these large ships was outreach to alert U.S. strategic missile type "George Washington" — 16 ballistic missiles, "the Polaris A-1? with a range of 2,200 km badly frightened the Soviet leadership

The result is a "hybrid" with a powerful missile weapons, the entire aft portion of which was a runway with an extended underdeck hangar. To detect enemy submarines, except for 14 Ka-25 helicopters on board had podkilevoy sonar "Orion" and towed sonar "Vega".


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