Selecting a non-Soviet elite — Belarus

"The Germans did not interfere with those cases dealt with by the Belarusian intelligentsia. Belarusians did it all yourself I too was cooked up in this cauldron, but my personal contribution to Belarusian small business. B" Belarusian newspaper "I was technical rather than creative staff … But what breathes and what criteria revision works, I understood well. Vsepolnotsennuyu business conduct was hard — German censorship behaved very aggressively. About her and moved editorial plans. As a result, the main place in the newspaper was given to military events. Attention was paid to literature, culture, but not as big as it wished Anton Adamovich — specific Belarusian patriot … I remember every employee read: Savenok, Shkyalenka, Senkevich, Plaschinsky, Levanovich obviously my mom [Natalia Arsenyev], which makes proofreading. editorial was on our street International, about the church that Liberty Square. contrary was building radio. Edition "Belarusian newspaper" really was the center of Belarusian Minsk, so we often went to the people who came from the provinces. the main — just to talk. Germans same in the editorial room did not come ever. "
From the memoirs of Vladimir Kushel outlined in the book Alexander Odintsov "postwar emigration: Crossroads destinies"
Vyacheslav Rakytskyy: "In his memoirs, Vladimir Kushel recognizable names of people who worked in the Belarusian newspaper in the German occupiers. How to explain their action?"
Oleg Gordienko "They just used the moderate abilities, which gave the German occupation."
Rakytskyy: "War, the occupation put the Belarusian intelligentsia (doctors, teachers, scientists, writers) before deciding with whom to be? What choices have their been?"
Gordienko "If we talk about the Belarusian intelligentsia during the war, then it must distribute the Soviet and anti-Soviet. You also need to think about the difference, at least, between the western and eastern Belarus, because the conditions of life in them, and in 1941, during the German occupation was different. Representatives of the Russian intelligentsia in the first days of the war in the most proper evacuated. Anyone who does not have time to do this, try to adapt to the new conditions of life, either joined the underground or tried to sit out the occupation, while in passive resistance to the Germans or not at all take part in public life. "
Rakytskyy: "The pro-Soviet intellectuals we have long understood everything. More noteworthy choice and motivation-Soviet fate intelligentsia — those people for whom it was above the national communist. Perceived as the German occupation in 1941 representatives of the Belarusian intelligentsia of Western Belarus? "
Gordienko "For the majority of the inhabitants of Western Belarus in general occupation in 1941 was only just another change of government.’s Young generation in old Poland, learned during the early councils, senior figures have also caught the royal Russia, first the Germans and the Bolsheviks. Part intellectuals believed that no one-neither Poland nor our homeland, neither the USSR — not decided in their opinion, the Belarusian issue ".
Rakytskyy: "And they found allies for the creation of the Belarusian nation?"
Gordienko "Yes, because actually Belarusian forces that in the 1910s, at the end of 1930, there were small. Allies Because search was necessary. In 1919, part of the elite put on Soviet Russia. Others believed in the joint declaration Polish federation but later became disillusioned. Because in 1939 the Belarusian people and welcomed the Soviet power, that later also bitterly disappointed. And here’s what he wrote an intellectual, known Belarusian leader Adolf Klimovitch about the transfer to Vilnius 1939 Lithuania: "We, Belarusians, consider the arrival of the Lithuanian army as a natural twist to the glorious past of the Lithuanian-Belarusian and deposit the same peaceful cohabitation of our people now and in the future." However, Klimovich also very rapidly disillusioned with the latest Lithuanian administration, which did not want to reckon with the Belarusians. But this case is symptomatic. Belarusian elite tried to find allies in the midst of at least some who have tried to hint that will take care of the decision of the Belarusian issue ".
Rakytskyy: "It happened with the Germans?"
Gordienko "Yes. During 1-x, the older generation remembers that the first Germans who occupied these areas in 1915 — 1918, the goodwill for the Belarusian movement. In 1939 — 1941 it is no a secret that Germany was preparing to war with the Soviet Union, and therefore will try to build on the national movement. Although Belarusian leaders met in Berlin bureaucrats second-tier, but that negotiations had to. "
Rakytskyy: "You want to say that the Belarusian national direction elite preparing for war? And even negotiated with the Germans? Please tell me the names of these people."
Gordienko "Single-handedly played the German card Fabian Akinchits. Back in April 1939 Chairman of BNR Zakharkov Vasily and Ivan Ermachenka addressed a memorandum to Hitler request to consider the Belarusian issue. Zakharkov But later I saw that the Germans are not going to cooperate with Belarus as an equal, and completed all measures BNR. A June 19, 1941 at a meeting in Berlin was created by Belarusian State Center, which was headed by Doctor Nicholas Shchors, past head of the Belarusian Students’ Union. The committee included Khanyauka, Tumash, Godlewski, Shkyalenak. center was to coordinate the Belarusian activities in Germany and Poland and expected war with the Soviet Union, later to sort out the situation. Shchors After the war came into contact with the German military command and assured him throw Belarusian assets of emigration to Belarus, that assist to organize the Belarusian administration. Moved more than 20 people including Ostrovsky — he led the Minsk District and Tumashev — he was nominated first Burmistrov Minsk. Leonid also came Golyak brothers jamb, Janka Stankiewicz and others. "
Rakytskyy: "But the Belarusian government was not formed. Naive fool the Germans Nation?"
Gordienko "Not at all. Germans did not give clear promises, but simply hinted that take into account the Belarusian issue. For example, in July 1941 Shchors had contacts with the German military command, and he promised that the issue of Belarusian independence will be resolved, but in the end so referred to as the eastern campaign. Nicholas Shchors in July-August 1941, traveled on Belarusian towns and, realizing the prospects of the Belarusian movement and the reality of the occupation, refused to follow the plans in heading Belarusian movement. He returned to Warsaw, where he worked as a doctor throughout the war and ruled Belarusian Committee. back after some time in Germany, Vytautas Tumash. Radoslav Ostrovsky, in contrast, faced with passivity or sabotage the German occupation authorities in the Belarusian issue went to the east: he managed the administration in Bryansk and Smolensk. "
Rakytskyy: "But not all gone … How behaved those who remained in the occupied Germans Belarusian countryside?"
Gordienko "Those who had nowhere to go, on the contrary tried to use the moderate ability, which gave the Germans. Same Klimovitch Adolf, who was very critical of the Germans, Belarusian officials in Minsk and boycotted role in the 2nd All-Belarusian Congress in 1944, read that remain passive, doing nothing while it would be a crime. Germans not give autonomy, then you need to work as teachers, to educate a new generation to create the basis for building the future of Belarus-independent, so that when the power to adopt a comfortable circumstances. But longtime director of the Belarusian Vilna gymnasium Radoslaw Os
trovsky admitted: "We are not science fiction, but the real policy and with 25 years of experience in our national catastrophe, perfectly aware that in present circumstances the Belarusian people on the way to commit their own highest standard, must find for himself anointed by the more massive peaceful neighbor. Political situation zlazhylasya so that this patron-protector for the Belarusian people is Germany. " And at the end of 1943, he headed the Belarusian Central Rada. Note that despite the fact that the Germans did not give so much power BCR Central Rada had her far more than the BNR Rada in 1918. At least, were made structure in Minsk and regions, also controlled by the school, the court case, the social sphere. "
Rakytskyy: "Since the creation of the Belarusian public organizations gave permission for the Germans?"
Gordienko "At first they agreed to create a national self-help charity Belorussian in October 1941. According to the statute, BNS had only to help the victims of war and rescue people from starvation. But a year later, in late 1942, BNS turned into a nationwide company that controlled all spheres of social and cultural life, in which, however, in the majority of Germans did not interfere with his own. "
Rakytskyy: "With zapadnobelorusskoy intelligentsia more understandable. A Minsk intellectuals who remained in the capital What she held the Soviet drill, made during the occupation?"
Gordienko "Naturally, in the capital remained part of the intelligentsia, who did not want to flee to the east, but were visiting monasteries. Remained painters, musicians, techno intelligentsia. Techno intellectuals went to work in the new structure. She has worked in city government, in the factories — many were later repressed. painters and composers changed section: if in 1941 served the Soviet regime, but now — German and Belarusian. Goldfinches before the war was the cantata, which praised the Soviet reality, presently writing works are designed in the spirit of the Belarusian state. Painters also earned — and well — drawing portraits of German officers. find application in new technical criteria and spices — Belarusians joined public life. For example, teacher Minsk Polytechnic Porfiry Trysmakov headed in urban management department of industry, in exile, he became one of the major figures in Australian life Belarusian Adelaide ".
Rakytskyy: "The Germans are not given the ability to make the Belarusian political structures. Around what time gurtavalasya public intellectuals?"
Gordienko "The surrounding area and counties around the city and county offices, committees of self-help in Minsk around Minsk city council, BNS centers," the Belarusian newspaper. "For example," the Belarusian newspaper "writers worked Natalia Arsenyev Levon Savyonok Anton Adamovich, publicist Nikolai Shkyalenak journalists Nicholas Karalenka Alexei Senkevich, Isidore Plaschinsky — brother Joseph Forest and others. official Russian propaganda in the postwar years, and right up to this argues that the newspaper was fascist and sowed hatred of Jews and tips. So, in the newspaper published reports from the front promotional materials or German, because it was censored. But not enough people know that in the pages of "Belarusian newspaper" was taken by Maxim Garetsky novel "Vilnius Communards" and published under his naming Yanka Bryl. "
Rakytskyy: "And what path elected opponents of Russian power in Eastern Belarus?"
Gordienko "Those vskhodniki fiercely hated Russian regime deliberately went on cooperation with the latest power. For example, the outstanding Belarusian poet Vladimir Dudichsky. Twice arrested in 1930, and in 1940 he returned to Belarus. Germans came. Dudichsky headed the department Culture at the town council. underground guerrillas tried to win him over to their side. Dudichsky disagreed. In 1942, they hanged his mother. How should refer to the Bolsheviks writer? Hatred Bolsheviks Dudichsky preserved for a lifetime. "
Rakytskyy: "Year 1944. Retreating Germans … How to solve the problem of Belarusian intellectuals latest: go with the Germans or not to go?"
Gordienko "Most really appreciate the action. They understood that the Russian authorities on the head is not pat. People chose the path into the unknown. In exile, working for low-paying jobs, but remained free and not repressed. For example, burmistar Baranovichi salting Polish Sejm Yuri Sobolewski did carpenter in the hospital in New York. Lawyer, creator nezatsverzhanay Constitution BNR Leonid Golyak worked for waffle factory, the priest Nicholas Lapitsky was packing televisions at the factory. But they were free. Nights they were not afraid that it will come to the dark craters And those who remained or believed Russian propaganda and returned, was repressed. For example, the poet Todor Quinoa, who could not even after serving a sentence in Siberia to return to Belarus. "
Rakytskyy: "Those who stayed at home, in the majority of his own hit the bullpen either camp. After serving time, they continued his own work. At one time I had a chance to work alongside actors Pauline rotor and says, Vladimir Bondarenko, who worked in the theater in Minsk couple occupation. Even during these Russian people respected. Yet, very often by official historians or ideologues can hear the contempt for the people. Because these people treat now? Who’s counting — collaborators, traitors and patriots? "
Gordienko "The Belarusian point no they are not collaborators. Collaborator is someone who collaborates with the occupation regime to the detriment of their own state and the people. But Belarusians own country did not have, but rather sought to make adverse criteria or prerequisites for recovery proclaimed independence in 1918, or raise the national consciousness. Well that relied in the first half of 1940 on the Germans, the Soviet Union and Germany in 1939-1941 were also allies. "

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