In today’s wars and local armed conflicts significant role is played by special reconnaissance and sabotage operations carried out on the terrain of the enemy. For such operations in the armies of developed countries and units are available for special purposes. They are designed for covert penetration and combat missions in the frontal zone of the enemy, and in its deepest rear; reconnaissance for a long time and, when necessary, defeat the principal military targets of the enemy, and perform other specific tasks. The main task is to conduct a special forces reconnaissance and sabotage operations against the principle of municipal and military enemy targets with the aim of gaining the desired disk imaging, inflicting military, economic and moral damage, disrupt command and control, logistics, and disruption of a number of other tasks.
Formed in order to equip the Russian Union to the 1970-1980-m respectively parts for special purposes — several brigades and separate battalions of special purpose, and special units of the KGB and the Ministry of Internal Affairs; intelligence units of the mechanized infantry, armor, airborne divisions and connections Marines Russian Army and Navy required effective weapons concealed introduction of various types and purposes, including space-saving and quiet small arms.
One of such tools for the Russian special forces became silent single system of small arms developed in TSNIITOCHMASH in the 1980s. It is composed of a special sniper complex, consisting of a 9-mm rifle sniper special BCC 9-mm machine special speakers and special 9mm cartridges.
This complex appeared as a result of amplification of confrontation between Russian Union and the West in the 1960s — 1970s. Expansion at this time geography undeclared wars and local conflicts, which were conducted on virtually all continents, sought for a successful fight against our enemies all possible new types of special weapons, including the defeat at small distances of enemy personnel, equipment tools personal protection.
A significant shortcoming of Russian small samples silent guns of the first generation, by this time were in service with Russian Special Forces, were relatively low, compared with a combined arms weapon purpose, combat and service-operational properties — sighting range, lethal and piercing power of the bullet weight and dimensions properties. As a result, existing standards are silent guns could not completely change the standard Arms gun and were, in fact, only a supplement to the regular swatches guns commandos. These standards were equipped with automatic small gun nadulnymi special devices silently, flameless, so called. «Silencers» and their patrons were finalized in the growth direction of the bullet weight and lowering its initial velocity to subsonic. But as an important condition for combat missions Special Forces units on the ground was the enemy stealth action, the extraordinary importance in carrying out similar operations acquired introduction of guns with small shot unmasks factors — sound, flame and smoke, ie, the «silent» guns. In addition, when the end of 1970 significantly changed the combat tasks of special units, identify missing and the effectiveness of individual samples of special (silent) guns and ammunition.
Specifically, at this time, in accordance with state applets development of weapons and military equipment, is the beginning of research and development (R & D) in the conceptualization and creation of a unified system of small arms silent instead of certain types of special tools, which are then operated by the Russian special purpose units of the army and KGB.
Realization of these works was entrusted to the Central Research Institute of clear Engineering (TSNIITOCHMASH) in Klimovsk, under the leadership of the Research Institute of the KGB together with the Principal Intelligence Department of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR. By decision of the intended target Russian gunsmiths approached holistically. Creating a unified system of small arms silent planned spending by the development of new structures; decrease nomenclature special weapons and ammunition, perfecting relevant species such tools, designed for standardized cartridges.
After analyzing typical tactical problems solved SWAT units, and conduct a number of different studies, it was decided to develop all the forces of several special purpose noiseless shooting complexes and including — sniper that would include three main components: a «weapon — munition — sight. «
9mm Rifles sniper special ARIA «Vintorez»
In 1983 he had developed requirements for the newcomer special sniper systems (get code «Vintorez»). This gun was supposed to provide covert defeat enemy personnel at ranges up to 400 meters, including in the personal boonezaschity. Solve a similar puzzle was only possible with the introduction of a new cartridge with the heaviest bullet that would have enough damaging effect and the higher accuracy of hits throughout the sighting distance of 400 meters sniper shooting range on such sought the creation of new optical (daytime) and electro-optical (night ) sights.
Partially disassembled sniper rifle VSS
Since all the necessary equipment to carry out combat missions behind enemy lines commandos had to carry around, the newcomer to the arms imposes very strict requirements on weight and dimensions. In addition, for a series of special operations similar rifle was disassembled into small in size the main nodes, which allowed her to carry discreetly and quickly translate into the firing position.
Proceeding from the requirements of a study on «Vintorez» Klimovskikh gunsmiths were conducted in the following areas:
— Development of technical capacity to ensure effective firing range of the silent sniper rifle (that? Accuracy is at a distance of 400 m, at which the possibility of hitting the target should be more than 0.8);
— Selection of the principle of sound suppression and shot lowering his ardor;
— Development of the constructive scheme sniper cartridge subsonic bullets providing specified accuracy when firing, the damaging effect of automation and reliable operation;
— Design of the cartridge and the rationale for its main design characteristics;
— Development of the constructive scheme of automatic tools to provide the desired accuracy of fire; sound level shot; reliability of automation; mass-dimensional characteristics;
— Design a sniper rifle;
— Development of new optical sights.
Designing special sniper complex TsNIITochmash began with the creation of a new submachine gun cartridge created to defeat the enemy’s manpower to specific criteria.
The main problem that had to be addressed Klimovskikh designers, was to address the issue of sound suppression and shot.
The intensity of the sound of shot is dependent on the muzzle pressure of powder gases. In addition, the bullet itself, if it has the original supersonic speed (more than 330 m / s), and generates a shock (ballistic) wave. All this unmasks firing position arrow. To exclude sound from ballistic wave gun with a silencer is required to have an initial subsonic velocity. But less than the speed of a bullet, the less damaging effect of flatness and terrible line of motion, which significantly reduces the effective range of fire. So Makar, in particular small arms nestled implementation had combined two disparate features — effective firing range necessary and sufficient damaging effect of bullets at a relatively low speed of its source. While silencing shot in a similar sniper systems could only be achieved with the introduction of the original silencers and subsonic speeds.
The result of this work was the new 7.62mm cartridge experienced consisting of bullet-h54 7.62 mm sniper rifle cartridge 7 H1 and sleeve 7,62 x25 mm TT pistol cartridge. This cartridge meets the requirements of tactical and technical specifications (TTP) to «Vintorez» for grouping, but the bullet did not provide the desired slaughter act. In addition, when designing a new sniper cartridge into account that in the long term to the noiseless complex state machine in the near future may be made excessive demands on the breakdown of the bullet. In the process of work and considered the question of unification with a sniper rifle and ammunition used by the machine.
Subsequent studies on promising munition focused on the creation of a fundamentally newest design holder. A group of professionals from TsNIITochmash by Vladimir Fedorovich Krasnikova developed on the basis of the sleeve 5,45 x39 mm submachine gun cartridge once 7.62mm sniper cartridge subsonic (300 m / s) velocity bullets received index «RG037.» His bullet was made constructive scheme bullet sniper rifle cartridge 7 H1. Its outer shape was determined to meet the requirements for exterior ballistics of bullets at subsonic speeds. New sniper cartridge has a length of 46 mm, the total weight of 16 g, 10.6 g bullet weight and had good accuracy. So, at a distance of 100 m for this cartridge R50 was 4 cm, and at 400 m — 16.5 cm, but a new cartridge RGO37 not let confidently hit enemy manpower in Ballistic body armor at point-blank range 400 m
Under the 7.62 mm cartridge was designed RGO37 silent sniper rifle, received an index «RG036.» The lead designer of the rifle was Peter Ivanovich Serdyukov.
The selected scheme of automation with a gas engine and rigid locking of the barrel by turning the gate ensures reliable operation of the rifle in different operating criteria. Combined silencer consisting of a chamber nadulnogo muffler baffles arranged obliquely with a separator and an expansion chamber for partial discharge of powder gases from the bore, reduced sound level shot to a value similar to that of 9-mm pistol PB.
But despite the fact that the 7.62 mm sniper rifle complex consisting of RG036 and RG037 cartridge sustained preparatory tests, subsequent work with him were terminated since the end of 1985 the Ministry of Defense Industry of the USSR approves new requirements for special state machine complex — yet one element of the silent weapons. Based on the TTZ, required to make a weapon, allowing confidently hit multiple targets (manpower), flak vest type 6 B2 (III protection class) at a range of up to 400 m to the vending machines also produce the highest demands on noiseless firing, including automatic fire. It was assumed that he would get the convenience of carrying a folding butt, in addition, it provided for the possibility of acquisition of various optical sights. Because exactly needed to unify and sniper submachine complexes used munitions.
20-round magazine to a special machine with AC chargers-10 cages with 9 x 39 mm special ammunition (left to right): 7 H12; JV. 6; JV. 5
Based on the new challenges, the designers were able to correctly estimate the bullet 7.62mm cartridge RG037 fails to ensure the defeat of manpower, secure promising vehicles for personal protection. In accordance with the revised requirements for themselves silenced sniper complex.
Because designers TsNIITochmash NV Zabelin and LS Dvoryaninova had to start work on the creation on the basis of the liner 7.62 mm submachine gun cartridge standard 1943 new 9 x 39 mm special sniper cartridge SP. 5 (index 7 H8) with the heaviest bullet weighing 16.2 g (subsonic initial rate — 290 m / s). That bullet was more than twice as heavy bullets 7,62 x39 mm cartridge standard 1943 and almost five times heavier bullets 5,45 x39 mm submachine gun cartridge.
SP bullet cartridge. 5 had a core component: metal head (with truncated top diameter 0.5 mm) and the main lead, rolled up in a bimetallic shell. Metal core acts to increase the breakdown of the bullet was located in her bow. Lead core not only pocketed pool desired mass, and provided her bumping into the rifling of the barrel. Pointed bullets ogive form provided her excellent ballistic performance when flying at subsonic speeds. Despite the initial subsonic speed bullet with that weight had significant kinetic energy — on departure, it was about 60 kgm, and at a distance of 450 m — 45 kgm. This was quite enough to reliably manpower in the lungs of personal protective equipment. Tests have shown that at a distance of up to 400 m bullet cartridge SP. 5 has enough energy to break through a 2 mm steel sheet while maintaining the desired slaughter act. Cartridge weight JV. 5-32,2 g cartridge length — 56 mm, the length of a bullet cartridge — 36 mm.
Distinctive colors bullet cartridges SP. 5 does not have. Only on closures cartons 10 rounds deposited inscription «Sniper.»
Already in 1987, the new standard special sniper guns, made on the basis of RG036 and perestvolenny under 9mm cartridge SP. 5 (recognizable under the code name «Vintorez»), taking into service units special purpose troops and KGB intelligence and sabotage parts of Russian Armed Forces under the designation «special sniping rifle» (ARIA) index 6 P29.
The new gun, which means the group nestled attack and defense, intended to engage targets by sniper fire in the criteria required to maintain silent-flameless by public enemy troops (destruction of the enemy’s command, his reconnaissance; observers and time) for the decommissioning of surveillance devices, pieces of military equipment and defeat unarmored vehicles at distances up to 400 m
Rifle ARIA consisted of: barrel to the receiver; muffler with iron sights; Butt; bolt with a gas piston; shutter; revertible mechanism; impactor; the trigger; forearm; gas tube; receiver cover and store.
Automatic sniper rifle VSS worked on the principle of removal of powder gases from the bore. Locking produced by rotating around its own axis shutter 6 lugs. Flag Guard descended on the right side of the receiver directly with this, closed slot handles reloading, protecting from the ingestion of dust and mud. Translator type of fire is mounted inside the trigger guard, behind the trigger. With its horizontal movement to the right of being a single fire, and moving to the left — automatic shooting. Handle reloading placed on the right side of the receiver. Sights consisted of an open sector of the sight mounted on the housing and muffler designed for firing range up to 420 m, and flies in namushnike. Food was made from a plastic box magazine dual inline for 10 rounds. Butt wood frame type rubber butt.
The trigger mechanism of the rifle VSS provides the highest accuracy with single shots. Hammer mechanism with a separate mainspring admitted conducting both single and automatic fire.
Single fire is the main sniper rifle for BCC; it is characterized by high precision. When firing single shots from a prone position with a stop at a distance of 100 m on a series of 5 shots costavlyaet R 50 4 cm and 400 m — R50-16, 5 cm at the same time a continuous fire bursts can be used in an encounter with the enemy at small distances, or when there is a need to hit the target, true enough observed. Given that capacity magazine rifles BCC is only 10 rounds, because automatic fire, usually can be conducted in small bursts of 2-4 shots, and in exceptional cases — one continuous burst until used up cartridges in the store.
Reducing the sound of the shot (up to 130 decibels at a distance of 3 meters from the muzzle — corresponds to the sound when fired from a small-caliber rifle) was achieved, along with a special silencer «integrated type» with the separator flow of propellant gases introduction sniper cartridge SP. 5 with good ballistic characteristics. «Integrated» muffler has permitted greatly reduce the overall length of the gun.
Controls sniper rifle VSS
Along with this ability rifle ARIA greatly expanded, a range of sights, both optical and night vision. At the request of the customer sniper rifles equipped with different scopes: KGB — 1 day optical P43 (allowing lead daytime aimed fire at 400 m) and one night bespodsvetochnym PN75 (MBNP-1), the time of day in black designed for a distance of 300 m; and for the GRU — respectively — daytime PSO-1-1 and 4 X34 and night — 1 PN51 (NSPU-3). Specially commissioned by the security organs for carrying concealed rifle can be disassembled into three nodes (with silencer barrel, receiver with trigger mechanism and butt) and coupled with the sight and shops are packed in the suitcase type «Diplomat» size 450 h370 h140 mm, This time needed for translation tools from the transport position to the firing is less than one minute.
The kit includes a rifle ARIA carrying bag sight, 4 shops, spares, also carrying bag rifle.
After the occurrence of SP cartridge. 6 of its introduction in sniper rifle VSS made probable defeat enemy personnel, even at maximum range precision fire, and at a distance of 100 m — in flak jackets to protection class II and including (in modern systematization), putting it on a par with the most severe types of infantry small guns.
VSS sniper rifle tactical flashlight (top) and a special automatic AC (bottom) (right side)
In 2000, teachers Combined Arms Military Academy. Frunze and its affiliate, the Course «The Shot» Colonels Korablin VV and AA Catch released in the brochure «Modern Russian small arms» Review of the combat use of this tool, which allows a lot more than the highest estimate properties sniper rifle BCC: «Command Motorised Company of the 1st regiment in force in 1995 in the mountainous region south of Snouts Yarysh-Severe, now Major VA Loukashov, from personal experience BCC believes a good addition to the standard weapons infantry units in those criteria. His company operated in isolation from the main body portion and conducted reconnaissance of enemy forces and their agents. Rothe were delivered several sets of rifles ARIA. Command allocated for exploration team — usually the company commander himself or one of the platoon commanders — was armed, except the regular machine rifle ARIA and bore her back on the belt. When in the process of intelligence needed to hit a separate target at a range of up to 400 m, silent shot of the BCC did not allow the enemy to find a group. Successfully used this tool and in other cases requiring noiseless and flameless fire. «
9mm AUTO particular AS «Val»
VSS sniper rifle was so successful prototype special small tools that PI Serdyukov immediately with this at its regular basis develops complex silent guns on «Shaft.» The new complex included: a special automatic AC, which is a modernized version of «Vintorez» and custom cartridge SP. 6 with a bullet over-penetration.
Custom automatic speaker with folded butt (left view)
In TsNIITochmash for complex automata «Val» designer Yu Z. Frolov and technologist ES Kornilov developed a fundamentally new custom cartridge SP. 6 (index 7 H9) with armor-piercing bullet (bare core). That bullet had a more penetrative action highest than a bullet cartridge SP. 5. The calculated to defeat manpower, secure protivoskolochnymi body armor to protect inclusive class III (in modern systematization), as unarmored vehicles at a distance of 400 m, it provides 100 percent penetration of 6-mm thick stainless steel on the firing range of 100 m, and at distances up to 400 m — 2 mm sheet iron (metal army helmet (helmet) or iron sheet 1.6 mm wide and 25 mm pine boards while maintaining sufficient slaughter zapregradnogo act, which is equivalent to the breakdown of the American action 5.56mm M16 A1 assault rifle, 7.62mm AKM rifle and 5.45 mm AK 74.
Ballistic properties cartridges SP. 5 and SP. 6 close to each other, because both cartridges can be used in weapons with one and the same gun. Accuracy of bullets cartridge SP. 5 higher than that of SP bullets cartridge. 6.
Device bullets, their action and breakdown caused ballistics and purpose of these cartridges: sniping at unsheltered unprotected manpower usually used cartridges SP. 5, and to engage targets in personal protective equipment, located in vehicles or for light shelters — SP cartridges. 6.
SP bullet cartridge. 6 consisted of an iron core, lead-shirts and bimetallic shell. Thanks to his own design bullet cartridge SP. 6 had the highest more penetrative action than a bullet cartridge SP. 5. Languid SP bullet. 6 had bimetal shell with rear speaker cone and a 6.5 mm spiky metal heat-treated core (diameter 7.5 mm) in a lead shirt. Metal core of the bullet had significantly great length than the bullet cartridge SP. 5. Leading length of the bullet JV. 6 has been reduced to 10 mm ledge which forms a cylindrical centering section (9 mm diameter and 6 mm long) because of the bullet nose protrudes from the shell. The core had an ogive head portion and the rear cone. Bullet weight — 15.6 g bullet cartridge SP. 6 had a weight — 15.6 g, the mass of the core — 10.4 g, if the mass of the cartridge — 32.0 g Cartridge length — 56 mm, length 41 mm bullets. Vershinku bullet cartridge SP. 6 stained a dark color. On ukuporennyh cartons for these cartridges deposited distinctive band of dark color. Later, after a 9-mm submachine gun cartridge with armor-piercing bullet 7 H12 vershinku bullet cartridge SP. 6 became discolored blue.
New cartridge SP. 6 received the best reviews from professionals who deceived. The developers of this chuck wrote: «9-mm cartridge, which owns unique punching and damaging effect to reach your enemy wherever it would get your vision, simultaneously punching at least some of those vest that real people can wear without outside help. And not very longish queue can cause quite a damage to incapacitate truck launcher or radar. «
Automatic AS «Val» (index 6 P30) is a personal weapon nestled offense and defense and is designed to engage targets in the criteria required to keep silent, flameless protected by enemy troops, also unarmored or lightly armored materiel.
Automatic AC consisted of: barrel to the receiver; pistol grip and butt; muffler with iron sights; bolt with a gas piston; shutter; revertible mechanism; impactor; the trigger; forearm; gas tube; receiver cover and store.
Automatic machine AS «Val» worked on the principle of removal of powder gases from the bore. Locking is also produced by turning the bolt 6 lugs. The trigger mechanism striker type was designed for conducting single and automatic fire. Translator type of fire is mounted at the rear of the trigger guard. Flag fuse exclusive shot at accidentally pressed the trigger and the barrel unlocked, displayed on the right side of the receiver above the pistol grip fire control. Handle reloading placed on the right side of the receiver. The sighting device consists of an open sight, calculated on the firing range up to 420 meters and flies in namushnike. Stock is made from plastic box stores dual inline with a capacity of 20 rounds. To expedite equipment store complete machine available clips for 10 rounds. Unlike the AK 74, an adapter for attachment clips to the store was made complete with a holder. To reduce the sound level was used a special device to silent-flameless «integrated type.»
The design of the machine by 70% AS was standardized with a sniper rifle VSS, including types and applicable scopes. But unlike automatic rifle received a new 20-round magazine (one hundred percent interchangeable with 10-round magazine from BCC) and iron frame butt, folding to the left side of the receiver, making it more compact and maneuverable. Automatic AC comfortable for fighting in confined spaces: buildings, subways, trenches, etc.; when moving in the bush, bush, and landing in tf; in landing. AU from the machine can conduct aimed fire with butt folded. As rifle, equipped with automatic day and night sights.
Custom automatic speaker with optical sight PSO-1-1
Cartridges for rifle and machine ARIA AS also interchangeable. Compared with a rifle «Vintorez» automatic «Val» more adapted for of automatic fire at targets, flak vest, at distances up to 200 m — chuck JV. 6 small bursts of 2-4 shots; unprotected by Target — chuck JV. 5, in the tense moments of the battle on small distances — longish bursts of 6-8 shots, and when necessary — continuous fire until used up cartridges in the store. Single target is more efficient and economical shooting a single lamp. In all cases, the sound of the shot and the flame significantly lowered muffler, making it difficult to define the position of the enemy gunner. The reliability of automation, including in difficult criteria, it is not inferior to the famous Kalashnikov assault rifle, and weighs less than a kilogram, which is very important in combat.
The set includes AC machine carrying case machine; carrying bag and vest sight for placing and carrying 6 stores; 2-flares or one signal rockets and a knife; 3 hand grenades; PSS pistol and spare magazine to him.
Create a sniper rifle and BCC in machine AC mastered Tula Arms Plant.
Custom automatic speaker with night sight 1 PN93-1 (right side)
Special purpose weapon — sniper rifles VSS and special machines speakers with dignity all the past wars and military conflicts past 30 years, fully deserved have authority not only in the elite special forces units, and in the Russian Armed Forces. Currently, BCC rifle used as an additional and very efficient service in intelligence units airborne and mechanized infantry units.
Created by Vladimir GONDUSOV