Sous: S. Zeno, this year on June 3 will be 20 years, as was written in the "Lima" and Eugene Shmygaleva Your article "Kurapaty. Road death." It struck me as you in the introduction to the new fatakonkursu "Liberty" said "were initially Kurapaty … "As the biblical" was first word. "What is you Kurapaty?
Pozniak: Kurapaty for me — it’s part of life and part of my destiny, but important is what Kurapaty is for all of us, for our people and our history. I believe Kurapaty — is a sacred place and a sacred symbol of our civilization. This is very critical, as the Kurapaty were shot hundreds of thousands of innocent people, there was the shedding of innocent blood. And it is very crucial for the properties of this phenomenon and its awareness. So how in the world, as we know from the history of the spiritual history, the greatest value is justice, and there is the greatest spiritual sign of blood, and they are interrelated.
The history of our civilization designated innocent death of Jesus Christ and his innocent blood shed. And all this has caused great spiritual shift in the perception of the world changes over Europe. And it was a huge shock, a feeling that was killed innocent Son of God. People have assumed that guilt and have taken on this atonement. This great spiritual shift that moved the millennium civilization.
And it manifests itself in small and in bolshennom and Kurapaty here is the place where innocent people were killed: they were killed unjustly, they were killed during Stalin’s genocide. And this one does not know, and when found out about it, the Belarusian people it caused shock. This event showed that the Belarusian people spiritually alive, as in the soul of Belarusians awakened a thirst for justice. Not only because it was a sensation, and as this phenomenon, which showed that hundreds of thousands of innocent people killed just for the fact that they were people. Only for what they were Belarusians. And people tied it with themselves and their own history, their own spirit, and it’s caused such a catharsis, a sense of justice necessary.
In the 1970s. I lived on the street Koltsov, there were still a village — I spoke to the people that lived there, later visited these places, met Shmygaleva … So Makar, we carried this secret until the end of 1980. Since we are well aware that if it is not timely disclose, then this place is just killed. History would have it, it’s a time when you could say this openly and overcome. This is very significant, because I read that at first were Kurapaty.
Sous: Maybe not everyone knows that you have christened this place near Minsk Kurapaty. Tell the, please, how did this title?
Grandparents 1989 goduPoznyak: It came to the case, and logical. This place was called Wade and all the surrounding population knew it. But in some villages, namely Drozdave, and was another name of this place. Babies and children were in charge of me that they walked there "in a partridge in Kurapaty" and explained to why they call this place so much. It seemed to me that this title reflects more the essence of what happened there. And when I wrote the article, I decided not to call him "Brod — the road of perdition" and "Kurapaty — the road of perdition." So this title and left, although it was more local and Broad — general. And history has shown that it title played a role in exposing fraud later.
Sous: You have said that they knew about the place of execution near Minsk for a long time until the summer of 1988, but some time had not disclosed the terrible truth, collected confirm that the authorities did not destroy this place. For example, in Loshitsa, as it became clear that there were shot people once built the garage to avoid excavation. Do you think maybe I hide or force people to forget the truth about sin?
Pozniak: Our history and experience show that in principle can be hide the truth about sin, but briefly. Even if this is true long nestled in mortality, people living a spiritual life, understand that this truth will come up later in the world, which is eternal, and the faithful knows that very well. But the story also indicates that cover up the atrocities, particularly terrible atrocities against the population of the earth, which are as innocent blood, very hard, almost impossible. At some point, the blood gets killed, and the truth will surface. Usually, almost always so. And for this it is necessary that were just people, that lived memory and so that was a struggle. That’s why all offenders, making sin, trying to kill people fair, stomp memory not give the ability to make people fight for their standards, for the truth. But suspend life impossible. After all, to this end, new crimes should be the same. That pattern: one sin drags another, third, fourth … This is reflected in the literature, "Makbetse" … Life indicates that such atrocities hide unrealistic. So come to the surface Kurapaty.
SousNot so long ago, the MEPs from Poland, Lithuania and other European countries have proposed governance structures to initiate the trial of communism. Do you think, as it should pass such judgment? In which country? Who should be the accuser, counsel, and who is in the dock? And what punishment pavinnabyts?
PozniakI think that in terms of the Nuremberg process until it is unlikely that this could be. Then there was the war, had the power, were favorites and were defeated — was a completely different situation applies for the court. Offenders were caught and they were sitting on the dock. With regard to the current situation, the war was not communism collapsed, the people who did the crime, dead or still living. In almost all countries there is still communist regimes.
Because the tribunal should be, but, I believe, should be a tribunal over the phenomenon of communism, of the facts, in ways they have used, and that the tribunal should be as evidence for the adoption of the respective decisions. This means that there must be solutions such as law: the one who justifies the crimes of communism, he shall be punished. And because of fascism. And this could be.
Who should do it? First — those societies that have suffered from communism and understand what actually it is. Such courts may occur in each separate post-communist country, can occur together, then it can provide the basis for the adoption of the respective decisions of the United Nations, etc. But we must realize that this tribunal can not be one-sided. The defendants should be offenders. And this is one of the problems that will face even what court, which will deal with crimes of communism.
Sous: Currently on trial in Minsk number of youth activists for his role in the protest. Many of them, their family, friends, heed at the moment, "Freedom." What would you wish or recommend them? What is the method to go? What mistakes to avoid?
Pozniak"For these young people, who lives at the moment in a difficult time
destroying our culture and homeland, I wish that everything they think and do, that all good measured Belarus, that the Belarusian language and culture for their steel saints. defend and assert these values must always and everywhere, but first in your own heart and your own head. And in life you need to avoid impurities. positions in the public and in public affairs should be avoided Russia. It unavenged blood of millions of Belarusians, and it should be always keep in mind. "
Sous: In Russia, recently re-elected President in maintaining the driver’s actual role of Vladimir Putin. Do you think that will change significantly the position of Russia against Belarus, and the threat to independence, which you have not once had read — it will increase or decrease?
Pozniak: Russia’s position towards Belarus has not changed and will not change never ever until Our homeland will exist as an imperial structure. Their historic homeland beheld Our puzzle and sees to eliminate majestically Duchy of Lithuania and Belarus in the winding up of civilization. Russia’s position will change only when our homeland will be eliminated as an imperial superpower.
Politicians should be aware of this too. Carthage must be destroyed. Belarusian survival of civilization is not only in self-defense and in samarazvitstsi, and active in geopolitics.
With regard to current events in Moscow, we have seen that the performance is not as well gebovskoy gebovskoy circus tricks. Imagine a going gebovskoy Congress party "United Our homeland" and makes a decision that the head of the party may not be a party member. The next day the Congress is Putin, and unanimously elected head of the party. Is not this a circus? And these circus tricks is such a policy: the majority of the parliament will be "United Our homeland" Putin will control the parliament, and the parliament, as we know, can make to impeach the president. So Makarov, Medvedev is a puppet in the hands of Putin gebovskoy group that will own parliament and government, and will do everything that will give him an order. If he does that-nibudt bad or when the policy of Putin’s group fails, then all the blame on President Medvedev — is the whipping boy. Policies and position will not change, it will be even worse, as this group found a smokescreen to cover up. They openly, cynically playing these circus.
Sous: Let’s go to Kurapaty theme. For the 20th anniversary of the opening of Kurapaty Radio Liberty begins fatakonkurs "My Photos — my Kurapaty." We want to offer our listeners and readers to the web site to send a photo, made in different years in Kurapaty. Zenon S. agreed to be the public editor of the project. He will comment on the photo and sent once a week to choose a more exciting, more appropriate picture. Midst of prizes — cameras, books Poznyak, also books from the series "Library of Liberty" and flash "Radio Liberty" size 1 GB — will also be on their books from libraries svabodavskay. S. Zeno, please tell us why you think the creation of photo stories principal Kurapaty and what will be the aspect when choosing the best pictures?
Grandparents 1989Pozniak: Photos can often say and says more than paper and the largest text. In-2-x, the photo — it is a document of time era. This particular phenomenon. More than there is a photo, the more extensive it is revealed. Photo — this moment of time terminated. No art has no such quality.
So here, from the opening of Kurapaty we gone for 20 years, it is history and it is very crucial for us to have a documentary and historical evidence, as reflected in the photos. This is our truth, what are living and will live for generations.
I have led four aspects that can be evaluated photo. First — it’s not a bad documentary evidence essence of the phenomenon, if the photo perfectly captures the essence of what happened there, the essence of Kurapaty. These photos have. Second feature — it’s a clear statement of the events that occurred in Kurapaty. This delegation may be, the laying of wreaths, candles, etc.. This is also part of Kurapaty. Third category of pictures — portraits and images of people. Here is an example: A picture of Vasily Vladimirovich Bykov Kurapaty — very expressive portrait. There are many people out there shooting — Yanka Bryl and others … And also we need to pick it up in our cultural Martyrology. And the fourth category — a typical sight. Mean some exclusive footage, some details that people were shooting, some etudy inspired Kurapaty.
Here are four categories for this I would suggest to evaluate the images. If they have been collected, it is not counting the fact that the creators of prizes will be awarded, it will be Kurapaty fund our culture, our martyrology, and means it will benefit our Belarus.
Old pictures can saskanavats or send by mail.
S / S 111, Minsk, 220005
Zenon Pozniak born April 24, 1944 in cleanup Ivie in Grodno region. After school he entered the Belarusian Theatre and Art Institute, received a degree in drama.
At this time, first the 1960s, began to intensively protect historical and cultural heritage, which was destroyed in the recovery process Minsk.
In 1969 he published a critical article in the newspaper "Pravda" that, on the one hand, stopped the destruction of the Upper Town, and on the other — has led to a cautious case for Pozniak by managers at various institutions. After the conflict with the management of Theatre and Art Institute to defend his thesis on "Formation and development of the Belarusian theater prof early twentieth century" was due in Leningrad.
Career began as a stagehand Municipal Theatre of Opera and Ballet. Was Minsk designer artistic production plant. Worked as a photographer at the Municipal Museum of the BSSR, museums Yanka Kupala.
Since the mid-1970s — in the Department of Archaeology, Institute of History of the Academy, which began with the latest force to protect the historic center of Minsk from ruin.
Published several books and reference books on the history of the Upper Town.
Since the late 1980s the name has become widely known Pozniak far outside Belarus. First, after in 1988 in "Lima" the article "Kurapaty. The road of perdition. " It was about the executions of thousands of people in the Stalin era in Kurapaty.
October 30 of the same year in Minsk was ruthlessly dispersed action in memory of victims of Stalinism Dzyady. Police and internal forces for the first time on the territory of the then Soviet Union used to disperse a peaceful demonstration batons and tear gas. In 1988, formed the organizing committee for the creation of the Belarusian Popular Front. Zenon Pozniak soon headed BPF "Revival".
In this status in 1990 was elected deputy of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus. Until 1995 — BPF favorite faction in parliament, a favorite of BPF.
In 1996, after the usual procession of "Chernobyl Way" power structures threatened criminal charges against the organizers of the rally. Without waiting for probable repression Zenon Pozniak emigrated to the U.S., where he requested political cover. At the same time received the status of political refugee. After the split in the ranks of "frontovtsev" in 1999 led the Conservative Christian Party BPF.
In 1994 Zenon Pozniak stood in the election of the first president of the Republic of Belarus, in some regions of confidence ahead of other candidates. Also participated in organized Viktor Gonchar another presidential election campaign in 1999, when, according to the 1994 Constitution, expired opportunities Alexander Lukashenko, but later withdrew his candidacy in protest against electoral fraud symbol. In
2006, withdrew from the election in step of collecting signatures.
Zenon Pozniak married. After emigrating some time lived in Warsaw, was engaged in teaching. Currently in the United States lives.
As previously interested in the photo.
Tags: Martyrology, kurapaty Poznyak, fatakonkurs