"Songs of giving people satisfaction" — under this title for the first time in Belarus published a book about eminent singer Misha Zabeyda-Sumitskogo. It was published by the publishing house "development" in the famous series "Our famous countrymen." About complex fate singer we talk to the creator of the book Ales Gorbach.
"Misha Zabeyda-trained Sumitsky not Zelva and Zelzinskay in school"
Michas Scoble"Alexander, you are a lawyer by education and work in the legal field. What prompted you to write a book about opera singer?"
Ales Gorbach"Well, in the 1-x, the education I also philologist — graduated from the Faculty of Philology and Culture Belarusian Pedagogical University named after Maxim Tank. Worked for a long time reporters, well, at the moment my work is related to legal journalism. A-2 in -x, — and it certainly played a major role — we Zabeyda countrymen, I was born on Ruzhanshchyne, in the village of Kul that near Zabeydavymi Sheypichami. And when I first heard about Zabeyda, then they first became interested in Compatriot. the 100th anniversary of the singer, in 2000, wrote an essay about Zabeyda, which was published in the newspapers of Brest. Well, already on the basis of this essay to write books. "
Scoble"Until now, different encyclopedic guides provide different birthplace Zabeydy-Sumitskogo. Referred villages nearby Różan: Sheypichi, Nestsyarovichy, Podorosk. Either you know, where is in fact came to light, the future singer?"
Gorbach"Yes, indeed, the birthplace of confusion exists singer. According to the documents, the official number birthplace Nestsyarovichy village, which will correct you, away from the Rouge is now Svislochskiy district. This happened as a Nesterovich was the father of the singer. Zabeyda But he never there was not. Namely, in one of his letters to his cousin Hope Kazlyak wrote: "Were you when Nesterovich? Write that I was born there. "
Small homeland were to Zabeydy Sheypichi — native village of his mother. There’s childhood singer. Sheypichami he dreamed, he Sheypichi in a dream, as he wrote in his letters. In Sheypichi superintending in the 1930s, when he was already famous. His mother was buried there. Zabeyda And, by the way, he asked: "Let those who think that I did something for the native songs, visit the grave has a mother, my will be harder to reach."
Vorachivayas to the birthplace of the singer, I must say that in his archives preserved extract from the books of the metric by which Zabeyda was baptized on the eleventh day after birth in Sadelnitskay church. And Nestsyarovichy and Sheypichi away from Sadelnikav. Why was the drive for peace baptize the baby? Quite near Sadelnikami Podorosk. Because I conclude that it is in Podorosk and birthplace of the singer. Incidentally, this is also confirmed by the memoirs Zabeydy, according to which his mother were two versions about the birth of Misha: "… may Podorosk, and maybe quite a meadow."
Scoble"More than once I’ve read that some time Zabeyda Zelva studied at school. This is my native place, because I spent a little research: where, what school could learn Zabeyda? But no trace of it in Zelva not found …"
Gorbach"And they could not find it. Understand that Zelva disappoint, but essentially Zabeyda trained not Zelva and Zelzinskay in school — in the village Zelzin that a few km from Sheypichav. Seen because of the similarity in sound of these titles populated Fri who -what a mistake, and later she became a repeat others. "
"The Germans offered Zabeyda-Sumitsky head Belarusian radio in Berlin and accused him of" propaganda of the Slavs "
Scoble"From 1940 Zabeyda-Sumitsky lived in Prague. Not he cut his own concert activity and the beginning of the second World War. Where he spoke, who organized his concerts, and heard his voice was Belarusians? It is not in vain they say: if noise Cannon — muses are silent. "
Gorbach"Times of second world war — the most difficult period in the life of the singer. Germans not once tried to use his noble name, for example, offered to lead the Belarusian language broadcast from Berlin. Zabeyda had to abandon work in the theater and concerts in Germany, the Baltic States , Belarus. Twice during the war he came to Minsk, spoke at Dazhynki conducted in 1943. Obviously abandon these performances he could not. Served and Vawkavysk, where he met with his mother and relatives. Incidentally, according to the testimony of witnesses , their fees from concerts Zabeyda passed partisans on medicines.
Despite the fact that there was a war, life lasted, and people were attracted to the arts, to the song. As for the Zabeydy, he was sure that his own concert activities he fights with the enemy, it awakens the will to fight. By the way, the Germans it was accused of "propaganda of the Slavs."
In the book I quote Nicholas Losik memoir, which was subjected to forced labor in Germany and got on one of the concerts in Berlin Zabeydy. And there he was not the only Belarusian. Losik remembers that people could not hold back his tears when he heard the song home. Memories of the Losik were so strong that after the concert, he became conscious Belarusians ".
"Accusations of collaboration with the Nazis were officially removed from Zabeydy-Sumitskogo Ministry of Internal Affairs of Czechoslovakia"
Scoble"Larissa Heniyush in his own" Confessions "recalls how she organized one of the concerts Zabeydy-Sumitskogo in the prestigious Hall of Prague" Smetanava blue. "And further writes that the maestro adored wealth, even luxury, and upbraided suachynnikav who could not provide their own singer. Either Antonovna Larissa was right? "
Gorbach"You see, Michael, here you should consider so called" human factor ". As I understand, Larisa Antonovny remained resentment Zabeyda-Sumitskogo. For example, I have heard from people who have been in close collaboration with Larissa Antonovna that the singer took care of her when Janka Heniyush the war he worked here, in Belarus. In "Confessions" is an episode which describes how the 1st boyfriend Heniyush down the stairs, up the hat in front of him flying. Means Zabeyda-Sumitsky. "
Scoble"And Misha Ivanovich, it turns out, was Don Juan …"
Gorbach"Besides, Heniyush if they were arrested in 1948, had hoped that Zabeyda care of their son Yuri. Their had every reason to believe that they should Zabeyda: thanks doctoral Relations Yankees Heniyush singer arrived in Prague to improve health and Larissa Heniyush really organized his concerts. well and in general, they help him settle in new place … Why Heniyush hopes to Zabeyda remained vain hard to say. necessary to consider the fact that the singer did not have his own family, he was given all art. Besides, it is also called in for questioning, and it was not clear how it will end.
Well, relative luxuries Tipo-adored Zabeyda Sumitsky … The singer was a man of very moderate. This is evidenced by at least the fact that part of his apartment he lost someone else’s family, and he lived before his death in a small room, which also served as the living room and bedroom, and a kitchen. "
Scoble"Explain to me and our listeners one thing. Larissa Heniyush Zabeydy Sumitskogo and were about the same" sins "before the Russian authorities (Zabeyda performed in Berlin, Heniyush printed in the newspaper" Morning, "which were published in Berlin, and t . etc.). Zabeyda Sumitsky After the war, remains at large and continues to sing, and Larissa Heniyush gets 25 years in Stalin’s camps. Why How Zabeyda-Sumitsky managed to avoid persecution? "Gorbach"You can only make some guesses. I’ve read that after the war Zabeyda also had a lot of problems. For example, blamed for his role in the Belarusian Committee of self-help, even fine him big enough, has been appointed. But these charges were officially removed, as evidenced by one of the documents of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Czechoslovakia.
You can make another guess as to why the fate Heniyush formed so catastrophically. Larissa Heniyush as clear was close to the Government Belarusian People’s Republic.
Could save Zabeyda and that he was eminent in Europe, an opera singer, his arrest could cause a lot of resonance. "
"Russian authorities tried to discredit Zabeyda-Sumitskogo while touring in Belarus in 1963"
Scoble"Zabeyda-Sumitsky heard applause own the address in Harbin, in Milan, Prague, Poznan, Warsaw … In 1963, he eventually comes to Belarus and gives concerts. Not tried Russian prapagnada compromise him — for that spoke to the Germans? "
Gorbach"Tour-Zabeydy Sumitskogo in Belarus in 1963 have been resolved thanks to the tremendous efforts of the authority of Gregory Screens and Maxim Tank. But everything is done to concerts could get little people. Posters and programs from concerts were, incidentally, published in the Russian language. Because often People get to the concert event. Who wished deliberately hit, could not — at the box office says that there are no tickets, but later it turned out that the hall is half empty. I know what they were in the House of officers Baranavichi hall where the concert took place, filled with local military fighters parts came from Central Asia or the Caucasus, which the Belarusian song was completely uninteresting.
Were open provocation. At a concert at the Conservatory singer reproachfully addressed the audience:
— Here is my accompanist, Czech, like now the streets of Minsk, listened to the people they say here, and says to me: "Pan Michael, I do not know where we came on tour? In your Belarus or Russia? Then it all they say in Russian. Maybe we made a mistake and the wrong train jumped? "
In response came a voice from the audience:
— In truth, you Celia on the wrong train. And it goes long.
Screen the same a few months after the tour in his own letter to the singer wrote: "We all remember you and are very pleased that evil people could not make some obstacles."
"After the" Prague Spring "in Czech radio were erased all records of the singer" and published his plate … "
Scoble"This year marks the 40th anniversary of the" Prague Spring. "What are the consequences for this event had Zabeydy-Sumitskogo?"
Gorbach"This was a political event for Zabeydy most direct natupstvy bad. After" Prague Spring "was strangled caterpillars Russian tanks in Czechoslovakia grew very anti-Soviet sentiment. Someone thought Zabeyda very pro-Soviet, and all naspyavanae them during their stay in Prague, Prague Radio gold fund, as the singer himself, "my big book" — all were destroyed. For him it was a big hit.
However, these policies have not prevented the exit vortices in the same 1968 last record Misha Zabeydy-Sumitskogo — "Belarusian songs and ballads."
"At the funeral Zabeydy-Sumitskogo instead requiem sounded Belarusian" Kalyhanka "
Scoble"Zabeyda-Sumitsky buried in Prague Olshansky cemetery. And on his tombstone monument ladies’ names, which was buried along with him. Kastetskaya This Hope. Some they say that it is his akampaniyatarka, others — that civilians spouse. Clarify this situation."
Gorbach"Hope Kastetskaya was from Baranovichi. During the second World War, fate has thrown her in Warsaw, then in Prague. After the war she married a Czech musician Lubomir Kastetskaga. Kastetskiya met Zabeyda-Sumitsky somewhere in 1950 years at a concert and were friends for life. Zabeyda not had his own family, he was very lonely. Kastetskih Family virtually became his family: they were for the singer closest friends and worrying about him, cared. Kastetskiya same and doing funerals Zabeydy -Sumitskogo, they are the same then transferred to Belarus Zabeydy archive, which are preserved in the Municipal Archives-Museum of Literature and Art. Incidentally, specifically Lubomir Kastetski offered at the funeral of singer include "dimensions night, kids" in the performance Zabeydy. And "Kalyhanka" that struck thousands of listeners, sounded like a requiem.
Upon the death of Hope Kastetskay after cremation her remains were buried in a tomb Zabeydy, as evidenced by a small granite slab next to the monument to the singer. "
"Zabeyda Sumitsky-deserved, so his naming in Belarus have been named music schools, theaters, kanservatoryya, street"
Scoble"Is it true that Zabeyda Sumitsky-expressed wish that his remains rested in his native land? In the book you write that the last will of the singer remains unfulfilled. Vorachivatsya But it is worth to the topic? Somehow these perapahavanni unchristian look. .. "
Gorbach"Yes, Misha Zabeyda-Sumitsky really wished that his remains had been buried in his homeland. This he often wrote to his friends. During a meeting with Lubomir Kastetskim in Prague, I elaborate on this issue. And Pan Kastetski confirmed the singer’s last will. This theme certainly controversial: a Christian looks perapahavanne or not Christian. But since no one now or not going to do tomorrow, then the dispute can be postponed.
But now of course: Zabeyda Sumitsky-deserved, so naming him were named music schools, theaters, kanservatoryya streets. To have been published recording his songs (worth mentioning here disk "Swallows in stress," released in 2000 "Belarusian musical nominee"). Typical parting words for all of us sound Zabeydavy words: "Song — the soul of the people, to which I belong. Necessary to open this soul, to show its properties to other people. Then we will respect and adore. And we will enrich themselves and the world culture. Let it be at least on my destruction, but it should be! "Tags: Ales, Heniyush, Zabeyda-Sumitsky, Gorbach