Breast disease — is a benign breast disease that is characterized by impaired relationships in the breast tissue and is accompanied by characteristic symptoms.
Why and how to develop breast?
Mastitis occurs in women aged 17 to 50 years, with the diagnosis is usually between the ages of 30-40 years. The causes of the disease are varied, but they all lead to a violation of hormonal levels in the tissues of the breast, which also entails the proper development of mastitis.
The causes of interstitial hormonal imbalance can be:
• Abnormalities in the diet
• Severe stress or neurosis
• Late delivery or lack of delivery
• Menstrual irregularities of any nature
• Other gynecological diseases associated with the violation of the level of sex hormones
• Chronic liver disease
• Tumors of the pituitary gland
• Iodine deficiency
And many other factors which, anyway, can alter hormonal balance.
What types of mastitis are there?
In Russia, the most commonly used clinical and morphological classification, which divides into two types of mastitis:
1. Diffuse disease of the breast (DFAM, DFKB) — violation of the ratio of tissue without the formation of knots in the gland:
• diffuse disease of the breast with a predominance of fibrous component
• Diffuse cystic disease of the breast with a predominance of the component
• diffuse disease of the breast with a predominance of glandular component
2. Central, or localized breast (LokFAM, LFKB) — violation of the ratio of tissue to form outlined morphologically node or multiple nodes.
How does breast?
The main symptoms of mastitis:
• A dull aching pain in the breast during the premenstrual period or in the period between periods (mammalgia, mastalgia)
• Seal cancer that can be detected by self-
• The increase in breast engorgement and her menstrual period or in the period between periods, which occur due to swelling
• Discharge from the nipple of any kind.
• Increase in the axillary lymph nodes (relatively rare)
The presence of a node in the gland (possibly painful) is characteristic of the nodal mastopathy. In this case, the need for urgent SEEM Mammolog to prevent breast cancer
Very often the symptoms of mastitis patient is confused with the symptoms of premenstrual breast swelling and consider it the norm. But, no premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or breast are not the norm — this can and must be fought, so do not over-tighten a visit to an oncologist at mammologist or any pain in the breast.
How is it diagnosed?
The main methods of diagnosis of mastitis are:
1. Inspection doctor (gynecologist, breast physician, an oncologist) — during the examination, the doctor listens to complaints, collects medical history and conduct a thorough palpation of the breast, axillary and supraclavicular lymph nodes.
2. Ultrasound of the breast — very informative method for the diagnosis of mastitis, very accurately and reliably detect the presence of cysts and parameters, the ratio of tissue in the breast, and to answer the many questions a doctor. Sometimes performed under ultrasound biopsy of the breast tissue (take a piece of tissue — biopsy for research)
3. X-ray mammography — the main method of eliminating breast cancer, and is also suitable for a more complete diagnosis of mastitis. Very informative, if necessary to differentiate nodal mastopathy from breast cancer.
4. Histological or cytological examination of biopsy — a diagnostic method in which microscopically examined the samples of cells (cytology) or tissues (histology). Very accurate method, however, to obtain a sample for the study must perform an invasive procedure fence tissues or cells from a currently existing method.
5. To identify the direct causes of mastitis can be used a variety of methods, which ones should be used in each case, the doctor decides, based on the diagnostic criteria of search (tests for hormone levels, visualization of the abdomen and pelvis, and others).
Now Russia is extremely common methods of diagnosis, as mastitis and breast cancer, the accuracy of which is not confirmed in the principles of evidence-based medicine. These include electrical impedance and radiotermografiya. In most cases, these methods are not effective, because it can with any degree of confidence to answer any of the questions a doctor.
In addition, research is often prescribed levels of tumor markers, but his results do not guarantee a correct diagnosis, or mastitis or breast cancer. Tumor markers are useful oncologists, they are only effective in cancer patients and in a very limited number of clinical situations.
How to treat mastopathy?
Treatment depends on the cause of mastitis, it caused, if any, can be revealed. If there is no obvious cause mastitis, then resort to symptomatic treatment, which comprises:
1. Diet therapy:
• No (or at least reducing) the use of coffee, chocolate and cocoa.
• An increase in dietary iodine-containing foods (kelp, etc.)
• Increasing the proportion of the diet of fruits, vegetables
• Eliminate (or reduce) the use of fatty meat, fried and smoked foods.
2. Selecting the right bra size (often the case that the size selected is not true)
3. Exclusion of psychogenic effects (to avoid stress)
3. Drug therapy:
Currently, Russia offered a large number of dietary supplements to address problems with the breasts, but their effectiveness has not been proven in clinical trials. Of the reported drugs used to treat mastitis:
These preparations can be administered together, but often regimen involves administering a medicament base, whose effect can be enhanced drugs other groups.
Mamoklam — No hormonal drug of vegetable origin, which contains organically bound iodine. Main effects — in reducing pain and swelling breast tissue (such as breast, and tissues of the abdomen) in menstrual period. Currently Mamoklam is one of the main components of the treatment provided for a basic standard of treatment of mastitis in the Russian Federation.
Mastodinon — No hormonal herbal preparation, contains a plant extract Agnus castus. The main effects — the regulation of prolactin levels, reducing swelling and pain in the breast during the premenstrual period.
Prozhestozhel — Hormonal preparation of local action, progesterone. The dosage form is a gel that is applied to the mammary gland, and thus can regulate the ratio of estrogen and progesterone in its tissues.
In specialized drugs in the treatment of mastitis may also be used:
• Vitamins A, E, B. (E.g. Aevit)
• Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (diclofenac, Ketorol etc.)
• Sedatives (Novopassit, Afobazol, etc.).
• The regulatory function of the gastrointestinal tract (depending on the problem).