What is it?
The first reports of
It is now known that this virus originally from West Africa, is determined by its nature and structure, transmission and investigated the viability of the virus, but so far all this has not led to the creation
Symptoms of the disease was first reported in 1978 in several patients in the U.S. and Sweden (y
Why did this happen?
There are several ways of infection
- unprotected (without a condom) sexual intercourse (
- Sharing needles, syringes and other injecting equipment (
- transfusion of infected blood (
- transmission of the virus from
mother to child — during pregnancy, childbirth and breast-feeding ( HIV-positive, percent); 5-10
- the use of non-sterile tattooing and body piercing;
- use of another's shaving supplies, toothbrushes with visible remnants of blood (extremely rare).
HIV is transmitted through blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk, thus there is no risk of infection through other biological materials (such as saliva, sweat, tears, urine, and feces). This is because it is necessary to infect certain minimum concentration of the virus. So necessary for the infection of the virus is contained in a drop of blood, which fits on the end of the sewing needle and the volume of saliva which would provide the same amount of virus is 4 liters.
What's going on?
It is known that viruses can not reproduce on their own. To play them you want live cell, in which they are inserted into their genetic information. After that, the cell begins to operate as a "factory" for the production of viruses. Finally, exhausted, she dies. So, for its HIV replication uses certain cells of our immune system (a kind
Immune system is weakened gradually. A person living with HIV may look and feel good for many years and did not even know that they are infected. However, the virus destroys more cells of the immune system. When the number of cells is reduced below a critical level, the person becomes vulnerable to diseases, including those to which people with normal immunity is immune.
AIDS diagnosis is usually made after several years of HIV infection, when a person develops one or more serious illnesses. For example, the early signs of progression
- candidiasis (thrush) of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract
- prolonged fever
- night sweats
- loss of flesh
- frequent acute respiratory infections
- Shingles (herpes), etc.
The period after infection, before the appearance of antibodies to HIV in the blood is called the "window period." It lasts 25
Upon detection of antibodies to HIV screening result is regarded as positive. However, this is not the final answer, because the result is necessarily cross-checked another confirmatory test. Only after receiving repeated positive doctor informs the person if they have a
Medicines used to treat
In the presence of some HIV infection, such as syphilis should be treated
Many people are afraid of contracting HIV through casual contact. In fact, these fears are unfounded, and regular contact with people living with HIV / AIDS, it is absolutely safe. However, there are several factors that increase the risk of infection through sexual contact:
- Related sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) — they are also rightly called the "gateway to the virus," because they cause ulcers or inflammation of the genital organs;
- Erosion of the cervix in women — is dangerous for men and for women. For a woman — as the erosion is the "entrance gate" for the virus. For men — because
female erosion can lead to delamination cervical cells containing virus; HIV-infected
- Anal sex significantly increase the risk of infection, likely because microtrauma of the mucous membrane of the rectum and anus.
To avoid HIV infection must observe the rules of personal safety in the intimate sphere.