Bunnies"It so happened that we as a bridge between East and West over lost their value than all the nations of Europe. Estimates there: we have only two percent made in the Belarusian land. Who profited not only here in centuries, and where not only exported stolen … "
Adam Maldis "Aivazovsky of Shishkin need to change the values on the Belarusian"
Oleg Trusov elaborates that Poland and Lithuania and Latvia, and Ukraine. But according to a public commission "Return", more of Belarus were taken at different times of the Russians. Including only from 1964 to 1991 in Moscow sent 2,088 gold coins and products.
What specifically Belarusian historical and cultural values are in neighboring countries? When and how did they get there? There are poses to return home state inheritance?
A huge number of Belarusian historical and cultural monuments located in the museums, libraries and archives in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other Russian cities. Started this business troops of Ivan the Terrible and Alexei Mikhailovich. Property confiscated Polish and Belarusian gentry, who participated in the national liberation movement. Many values exported himself Belarusian know exiled to Siberia.
Nicholas I ordered the transfer to the Hermitage art, books and manuscripts from the palace after the uprising Sapieha 1831-1832 period. In the midst of a capital storage Belarusian values has Municipal Historical Museum: its funds (mostly in the vaults) are a collection of Slutsky Niesvizh Grodno belts.
After the revolution, according to the Riga peace treaty, the Bolshevik government gave Poland a lot of values.
Over the last four years of war in Belarus was destroyed 10 museums. Of Mogilev in June 1941 disappeared famous holy cross Euphrosyne. Large loss suffered Minsk Art Gallery and Historical Museum of the BSSR.
Part Belarusian values after the war was returned from Germany not to Belarus and in Russia.
Export values and lasted in the first postwar years, especially in connection with the repatriation of the Polish population in Belarus. Greatest loss appeared repressive rasfarmavanne Vilnius Belarusian museum that virtually no losses suffered occupation, but also the first year after the war could not resist the Stalinist totalitarianism and ignorance.
It would seem that such tremendous losses of state property on their identification would need to throw a significant scientific and search powers, municipal funds. But it did not work out. In Belarus, there is only public commission "Return" of the Belarusian Cultural Foundation, which is headed by Dr. Adam Maldis:
"In other countries, there is a municipal structure — Committee on restitution or special department of the Ministry, as in Ukraine. And we only public commission" Return. "And what can the public? Nothing can only learn and what to study for what means? "
Dr. Maldis makes Huge job: already compiled a list of Belarusian property located in Russia, Poland and Ukraine. On the days are taken in Lithuania, and later in Germany, the United States.
What is needed notable municipal structure recognizes and Deputy Culture Minister Viktor Kurash:
"We proposed to the Council of Ministers to make a joint commission for the return of cultural property to head its Deputy Prime Minister, which would include scientists, historians."
Currently on display in Minsk Slutsk belts of city museums, and again we are talking about returning to their homeland. But a more affordable way to return values — it is an exchange, says Adam Maldis:
"So with Russia is not even an agreement concluded between the Ministry of Culture. Only Poland had a contract and was about our joint commission. And with Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania has no agreements. So what can be read? We like small kids or the richest!
And in-2, if it does not export military, why should they return? Say Rumyantsev evacuated from Gomel in St. Petersburg, Moscow and later in his library and museum. Then he brought — the master-master. We can not read: return library Rumyantsev! People often do not realize that such restitution. Restitution — is the return of exported during the war. Here Mogilev fees cross Euphrosyne and 20 thousand other valuables from Mogilev Museum — is, of course, military exports. The rest can only be changed. We have to change that. At that time we buy Aivazovsky, Shishkin? And at the moment it is in the vaults. We especially need it? Better same Shishkin Slutsk belts to change, since any of them unique. "
Even if there is agreement on the return at the highest level, this is not always happening. As is the case with the library Khrentovich that in Ukraine. But Belarusians gave Ukrainians books from the library Petlyury, Germans exported from Paris.
Not so long ago, a meeting of the Belarusian-Polish commission on the historical and cultural heritage. The Polish side has promised that if disclosed would Nyasvizh ensemble, he will give Belarus a deposit portraits Radziwill. Dr. Adam Maldis convinced:
"As for the other, if we are given them? Bierut gave themselves in their time on the team from Moscow. What are they — have taken us Poles they say," maybe we helped. "Will be given 100 years in the deposit. How can they be if it is the property of the museum? First, let’s deposit will be. This does not need to dwell. "
Some exhibits for Nyasvizh castle will swim, and for that the government allocates funds, says Deputy Culture Minister Viktor Kurash:
"By Nesvizh castle planned for this year about 78 million. We believe that this little, looking for funds to 30 million more to add them."
While the authorities are trying to arrange with the neighbors, some of the values vorachivayutsya exported to Belarus as gifts. For example, Mary Sviatopolk-Mirsky — a descendant of the last owners of the castle in the world, referred to Belarus archive own family.
Says Oleg Trusov:
— In 1992 in Minsk CIS leaders signed an agreement on the return of the historical value of the state of origin. By law, the Crown ownership and no statute of limitations.
Yeltsin refused the imperial principle and signed the document. But inside the Russian Federation began a desperate reaction of the local intelligentsia. And led the movement against the return of the famous and pochetaemy Academician Dmitry Lihachovyu. His motto was simple: You can not create bidder, so will spread all Russian culture …
And in 1997, Russian State Duma adopted a new law on restitution, according to which all cultural values, which at the moment are on the ground Russian Federation is its property and non-refundable.
Russian imperialism did such a document, which was not even in English and French.
Olga Ipatova: "Our museums simply afraid to deal with archives of emigrants"
By the way, a lot of the values associated with Belarus, there is at the moment in the same England, France, and even further — in the United States, Canada, Australia. Suffice it to say that until the beginning of World War I left for America and Europe from 500 to 800 thousand Belarusians. During follow — more than 100 thousand people. Official statistics show: at the moment outside RB in 25 countries constantly live about five million ethnic Belarusians. It is clear that they have basic manuscripts, books, diaries, pictures, and documents. But now the first waves of immigrants in the past people leave. How to preserve their legacy? Remains whether it is children and grandchildren, in the end — Belarus itself?
Not so long ago in Canada died recognizable Belarusian emigre writer Konstantin Shark, after which was a big archive. Ira Sparrow from Toronto said the fate of the archive to solve three people care about what the late Constantine. "Naturally, it is difficult to find a place, but something will decide" — sure Ira. C and whether they have in mind in the midst of other var
iants of Belarus?
"No, there somehow terrified that post. Even thoughts arise, or it will go abroad? Will the descent will take away a certain person."
According to Ira, in the postwar era in Canada and the U.S. in almost all research institutions to study the history of Belarus and there accumulated noteworthy materials. Also a lot of people keep things in their own unique personal archives, and their future is an urgent need to take care of.
"We need our own library, its own center where it could give. At the moment I’m slightly inspires in this sense, when found out, formed in Kansas City (USA) special Belarusica Institute. His last salting initiated in Belarus sovereign Speckhard. Now they fired Ivonka Survila and her daughter Pavlinka Survila. Hopefully, there will be post libraries, archives — that have accumulated over the years. "
Writer Olga Ipatova not excludes part of the archive of Constantine give Sharks in London, in the famous library and museum, which made his father Knudson. The writer said that some method of personal valuables and documents from the West have uniformly come to Belarus. But if they started to do its historic goal in the homeland?
"I will not call myself because behind this there are certain people. But I tried to archive part of the 1st known our expat put in a museum area, where he was born. Know, they accepted with great horror. Maybe they are forbidden, as libraries are prohibited from accepting suspicious books? "
Horror — a powerful tool that is used by those who destroys memory. But hardly the strongest? Not so long ago in a local school Navagrudak opened Boris Museum of China, the famous emigrant worker who participated in the United States in the program of space exploration. Stanislav Sudnik ethnographer, who was at the ceremony, spoke to local teachers. Tape fourth
"When there was a question, are not you afraid to open such a museum, said:" We are afraid, but we do. "
In the midst of the richest on the Belarusian value of continental Europe last deputy and salting Peter Sadowski behalf of Germany. He traveled to Hamburg in the town library, where found a number of documents involved in Belarus exported from Vilnius during the First World War. Another location Belarusian values considered Dresden, which houses part of the Radziwill archive.
And the most famous homemade Belarusian museum Peter Sadowski calls museum in the small town Lyaymane which made Belarusian emigrant Jora Popko, at the moment, unfortunately, deceased. History of the museum is also revealing. According to Sadowski from labor immigrant from Belarus, which is freed from Nazi Germany began working as a storekeeper at the end of life was Lyaymane for three apartments. Made in one of their museum Jora Popko bequeathed pass free Belarus, and by the Council of Guardians has permitted as tenants. Peter Sadowski said:
"According to my calculations, for the rent already accumulated 360 thousand euros. This could be funded and Belarusian cultural affairs. But since our embassy completely dissociated itself so Popko considered nationalist, etc., the Germans use it for all sorts of events very far from the Belarusian state of affairs. "
Says Oleg Trusov:
— Our postwar emigration has accumulated a lot of material and spiritual values, but now she leaves. And our contagion task to do everything to their archives, their memoirs, photo unique, some things have remained life, and if not returned to Belarus, it would remain in those countries where they live and die, our fellow citizens.
And the first swallow, not so long ago appeared in Navagrudak where a museum was opened Boris China for his life.
Such corners in schools, museums must be opened once a year, so that our emigrants could pass something in heritage.
Lena Karpenko: "Take away the Russians have the same collection Nemtsevich now unrealistic"
So makarom outside Belarus today public efforts revealed many unique and sometimes invaluable public artifacts. But more importantly, that they were in museums or archives of the Fatherland. On the days of, for example, a representative of the Grodno City Hall went to Poland to buy important for the town historical engraving. But nothing — no money. And the unique image of Grodno in 1568 remained at the Poles. Are there examples of current, when the Belarusian values still can not return to their homeland? That this helps and hinders?
The State Art Museum hosts an exhibition eight Slutsk belts will be on display until April, and then they will return to the Metropolitan Museum, because they are his property. What passed Belarusian museum in constant use, reports the old Belarusian Art Department Head Lena Karpenko:
"We passed some works of Western European art, Russian art, but it is helping. Not like these things once were we. To Russian museums us something passed at the moment, there is none. We even Belarusian Embassy in Russia gave such lists, for example, from the collection Nemtsevich, gentry collection of portraits. Several of these portraits are in Yaroslavl, a few in Smolensk. But they are there, because they do not belong to the Museum, and from the personal collections of ruined homesteads. How can we their claim? There is no particular reason. They happen to have been saved. "
The State Museum of History and Culture they say that some museum exhibit vorachivalis home also to a greater extent from Russia. Says Deputy Director Nina rattletrap:
"Naturally, we got something in the 50-60s from Moscow, and not only from Moscow, and other Russian cities. But the thing is such that it may not be of our pre-war museums. Maybe that the same Russian scientists were expeditions in Belarus and collected our values. example, Shchukin collection in municipal history museum in Moscow. He gathered all Slutsk belts here in Belarus, but he left it all metropolitan museum. And they do not return because their law forbids it. "
In State Library country said that this day we can only speak about the return of virtual public inheritance, said head of the department of rare books Galina Kireyeva:
"The fact that we have lost, we started to lose, since the 18th century. We can not at the moment to achieve it, because it was collected by the collector. Using MFA But we got a copy of Archangel Archangel Gospel Basil Tjapinsky. This CD Gospel, which was written by Vasily Tjapinsky in the 70s of the 16th century. Their only survived two copies: one in Arkhangelsk, and the other in St. Petersburg. And, of course, for us it is very much unique, and our readers can now take advantage of this . "
Electronic copies of historical documents has also State Historical Archives of Belarus, said researcher Museum Vladimir Denisov:
"Copies of documents, microfilm us now, for example, passed main archive of the old acts in Warsaw. It was such an exchange of archives Radziwills. But it can not be called back, because this collection before the war was there, in Warsaw. Such exchanges have copies we come. And the fact that someone some original returned soon after 1990, then I just do not remember these facts. "
On his return to Belarus lost the real historical and cultural heritage of the Ministry of Culture says Officer Igor Cherniavsky:
"At the present day the topic is not very popular return in the world. After all, no one wants to return. In addition, it is necessary to prove that the material and cultural goods exported illegally and make it very difficult, almost impossible. First because we are talking about collaboration, based on international law and law of those countries with which we must cooperate in this thread .. In what way? It may be that in a virtual, if there is a speech about the documents. Namely, with the Poles a work in progress. Well, on the other hand, is an organization of any joint exhibitions, long deposits objects within any museum collections. For example, the fact Slutsk
ys belts now. So this work is varied, multifaceted, and in each case can be organized completely differently. "
Says Oleg Trusov:
— All the same, our public activities gave some fruit. So. for example. Lithuanian government passed color photocopy faksymile Turov Gospel of the 11th century. Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma returned 5 icons. Not so long ago with the help of the French government, we received clear copies of paintings of Napoleon Orda and Valentina Vankovich.
And efforts are required to ensure that our fellow countrymen from all over the world the place knew that Belarus expects their help. In particular, it concerns the Belarusians of.
At the moment, there are a lot of ours. Many occupy the highest position, have the capital … And that our government is working with them, and they could donate some money, as did one of the businessmen to China Museum of Boris. This trend should continue.
Moreover, it would be great, that our government is taking the example of the Russian and participated in international auctions, taking antique artefacts belonging to the Belarusian people.
Andrei Pochobut: "In most cases, all so difficult that does not help and the international courts"
Experience the same international auctions that have already been mentioned several times in our program indicates globalization actualized the problem of restitution has updated its normal mechanism. How does it look in practice foreign experience? What neuvvyazkami face and try to solve them as our neighbors?
Notable cases of restitution in the sense of returning home state values — the fate of the state shrine Hungary — Crown Stephen I. He ruled the state on the border of 10th and 11th centuries. The crown is made of gold and silver, decorated with enamel plates trimmed with large rough gemstones.
In 1947 Teran Ferents Salash seems to flee the country and provide for themselves a secure old age, brought the crown together with other state values. But the car was intercepted South American military. In 1965, at the request of Hungary returned to the contractual value of the restitution, South American authorities denied. Say, unlike other royal property looted by the Nazis vengerskimi, crown Istvan And do not fall under Article 30 of the restitution agreement, she transferred to the benign conservation authorities of the United States. Long and difficult negotiations gave a total of only in November 1977 — 30 years Stephen crown and return to their homeland.
This case — exceptional in their own luck. Now usually talks about public values revolve around shared values, Chairman of the Department is responsible for the protection of historical and cultural heritage Vasily Abramsky:
"The fact that it is very difficult to justify how it turned out value outside the country where it was at the beginning. It’s not about where it was made. A way of moving — it is very difficult and different. Someone brought, someone had acquired and brought here — this one. Removal of the hostilities — another nuance. So every thing has some sort of their ancestry. "
But in the context of its historical pedigree — not an argument. For example, a couple of years unsuccessfully fighting for his old property in areas of Poland German citizens. For a discussion in the Polish society on the subject knows a journalist of "Gazeta Wyborcza" Andrzej Poczobut:
"Part of the territory of modern Poland before the war was German. Decision on the fact that these areas are owned by Poland, the Poles are not perceived. Decides in Poland, when it was moved limit. And this historical context — is very fragile. Fact that in Germany is the organization "Alliance expelled", uniting people who were expelled by the Yalta Agreement. Their here, obviously, remained the property, which had taken them … They appealed to the international courts to recover property that once belonged to them. but have gained nothing. Steps they do as before, but the German government not support their claims. "
Says Oleg Trusov:
— And yet the world experience restitution indicates: there is unrealizable. For the sake of all our diplomats should bother neuvvyazkami restitution. They must justify that this thing belongs here not only, for example. Polish cultural tradition, not only Russian, but first — Belarusian.
Well, for example, take Marc Chagall. We currently do not have at his unique paintings! And if we take the books, there is written: "Russian painter from the town of Vitebsk." Or at the moment the question arose with Jaime Soutine …
Because we need to be equated to all civilized peoples: this man was born on this earth — not fundamentally what it blood, nationality … The main thing is different: he created a cultural space for the people of Belarus!
This Adam Mickiewicz, and Alois Pashkevich, who Marc Chagall, etc.. Because of their heritage should be in Belarus — it can not be separated by ethnicity.
Misha Shvidkoy: "The fate of the cross Euphrosyne unknown, one can only guess. But that he was in Russian museums, that’s for sure it would be understandable."
According to the Ministry of Culture of Belarus abroad only during the second World War, removed more than 11 thousand of museum exhibits. In the midst of the most significant losses — the Cross of St. Euphrosyne of Polotsk, silver zhezal Sygizmunda III, almost three 10-ka royal charters, fifty Slutskys belts, 170 paintings and other relics.
Why is stalled on the return of state values that were once taken out of the borders of Belarus? What prevents the responsible municipal bureaucrats to start a dialogue with interested representatives of other states?
Head of State groups in returning state inheritance — Deputy Minister of Culture Vladimir Gridiushko. At this point, he was succeeded by Vice-Premier Alexander Kosinets Belarusian government, whose political weight, of course, could have more fruit in the restitution process. But the authorities decided that cultural issues should engage in "cultural" agencies and threw all the possibilities on the link that overall chain takes quite modest place.
Until two years reversing Vladimir Gridiushko expressed conviction to do catalog of the lost historical and cultural values. As head of the argument — now you can find many exhibits residence outside of Belarus and, in accordance with the norms of international law, to introduce them to scientific and cultural revolution. Interested in sovereign Gridiushko: how things?
"While small shifts, to be honest. Catalog as such even as if no interdepartmental commission created. Other words, while all in the process. General, it is not such a common thing. And now it no longer goes to work together to use a legacy that there is also outside our country. conference, which was held on the initiative of UNESCO, particularly in the direction and draws conclusions. This also applies to the use of what is delayed at the border. Incidentally, the last good example — Slutsky zones: there is says — to "deposit", and later will have to talk to change at any equivalent exhibits. "
Now, as the Vladimir Gridiushko about some fruit to work together with respect to the lost values can be read in the address of Poland. With this state operates a contract on cooperation in the field of historical and cultural values. Mined signing similar agreements with Lithuania and Ukraine. Since Russia itself is not even in the plans:
"When we were in Poland joint Belarusian-Polish advisory committee for the protection of historical and cultural heritage, directed attention to the fact that there is a large collection of portraits of Radziwill, who were transferred to the Polish side in the 1950s, our government. And offered in the coming together use them. Indeed reverse pass no pass, but instead use these portraits can be. Either, in the latter case, at least electronic copies. "
Not only for Bug
at different times went Belarusian values. More caravans deliver the loot and expropriated by the East. According to experts, the main national shrine Belarusians — cross Euphrosyne — you need to find specifically in Russia. While asking his whereabouts at the discussions going. Certainly different: in Russia a large collection Slutskys belts.
During his own last visit to Minsk as the control of the Federal Agency for Culture Russian Federation Mikhail Shvydkoi answered the question about the ability of Radio Liberty Belarusian return values, exported to Russia. Namely: Is there a possibility of returning Cross Euphrosyne and collection Slutskys belts?
The Emperor gave Shvydkoj realize that information concerning the cross is not. But Slutsk belts, he said, — completely legitimate acquisition of pre-revolutionary Sergei Mikhailovich Tratsyakova. Bureaucrat stressed that this is allowed to keep a huge collection Slutskys belts. By the way, the belt, as previously mentioned, and Vladimir Gridiushko, these days are exhibited in Minsk. Against such "lease" method, words Misha Shvydkoi Russian side has nothing:
"Especially since we actually live in the common customs area, which automatically makes certain procedures. Well, in the framework of our relations, especially relations in the field of culture, I think we can do everything to the Belarusian public on the basis of unchanged could get acquainted with those artifacts that are important to the state’s history. Regarding the cross Euphrosyne I have nothing to add — his fate is unknown, one can only guess. But that he was in Russian museums, that’s for sure it would be understandable. "
In connection with the restructuring of the government of Prime Minister Vladimir Putin’s Federal Agency for Culture was abolished and Shvydkoj to reach retirement age fixed in retirement. Agree about the "rent", seems to have other members of the Russian government.
At the Municipal Customs Committee of Belarus in the last year started working exhibition "On the protection of cultural heritage." Exposure, as none in the country, constantly rebuilt — first due care Belarusian customs. Most of the exhibits — seized from smugglers Russian Orthodox icons XVIII-XIX centuries. Specifically, they are considered experts at in the future may become the main arguments for Belarusian trade relics, once exported to Russia.
Says Oleg Trusov:
Incidentally, Kurapaty — is an element of restitution of our values, who wanted to kill the Bolsheviks. In other words, they indicate the return of historical memory. Folk memory Kurapaty brought it into their own pantheon.
And so it is necessary to treat each value: otstraivaya Mir Castle — need to return the items, that were there otstraivaya Shults — you need to put a question to the Polish government to collection Radziwill at least a year arrived there as Slutsk belts in Minsk.
We will make new history textbooks, there should be an illustration of our values. Including lost.
If we return a lost first in your soul, then at some point they actually return.
I have no doubt that the cross Euphrosyne expects own return to Belarus.
As you know, on Wednesday will mark the anniversary with a day or birthday Vasil Bykov, and on Sunday — another anniversary of his death. Because once the public editor Ryhor Baradulin instructed reporters RL cook gear theme which defined such makarom: "Bulls and Peace"