Types of injuries

First aid for injuries.

With injuries once in my life come across everyone. Someone zapped someone burned with boiling water or frostbite ears someone broken leg or arm, roller skating or just falling out of the blue. Someone wounds, bruises and abrasions, battered in street fights or in the professional ring. The mass of options.

Naturally, in such situations it is necessary to contacttrauma surgeon or call the "Fast" (03). And while professional help is still on the way, the person needs to give first help. After all, this may depend not only his speedy recovery, but life itself. Therefore, it is desirable and at home, and long journeys to bring a set of pervyazochnyh materials — just in case.

Sprains and ligament ruptures

Guess that a person has problems with the ligaments can be on a sharp pain in the affected joint. If the joint swelling or blue in the face, it is difficult to move, and when feeling the pain becomes unbearable — it looks like a sprain or ligament rupture (though possible and fracture, see below). Do not delay, apply a bandage over the affected joint, which will limit its movement, from top to apply ice or a cold compress. The victim put the limb on the rise.

At dislocations

Learn dislocation one can by unnatural position of the limbs and almost complete immobility of the joint. Of course, injured feels the pain. May arise joint swelling and bleeding therein. Reduce a dislocated itself by no means impossible! Dislocated limb to try to fix in the most comfortable position for the victim (dressing) And apply ice.

For bruises

At the site of injury, place a cold compress can not hurt and fixing dressing.

When fractures

Understand exactly break it or not, can only be on the X-ray image. As long as you only have a suspicion of it, be careful. Urgent (and at the same time carefully) impose on the affected limb improvised splint and elastic bandage or normal. Necessary to restrict movement of the bone injury, and it is desirable to fix not only affected bone, but also upstream and downstream joints. Open fractures before application to the wound first bus impose a sterile bandage.

If you suspect afracture spine affected by putting on a hard flat surface: shield or board. When fractures and dislocations of the cervical vertebrae bones are fixed with wire bus, which is applied from the back.

At wounds

If wound deep, wash it thoroughly with running water (about 5 l). It is not necessary to remove from the wound deeply immersed foreign bodies. Stabilize the foreign body with the bulk dressings and immobilize the tire as needed.

If heavy bleeding, try to stop it: press a damaged vessel upstream from the wound, apply a pressure bandage or a tourniquet. Do not forget that in the warmer months, you can not remove the wiring for 1.5 h, and in the cold — 1 pm After this time, loosen the tourniquet for 5 minutes, after pressing a finger damaged vessel above the wound, and then re-tighten.

Handle the edges of the wound with sterile gauze or a cotton ball soaked in hydrogen peroxide or alcohol (vodka, cologne). Thoroughly clean the skin around the wound. After that lubricate the edge of iodine, without touching the wound itself. Apply a clean, dry bandage.

Light abrasions and scratches can be entirely peroxide or rubbing alcohol solution and lubricated with iodine, and then impose bandage.

When compression of the

As quickly as possible free the victim from the rubble, debris of the vehicle. Constricted at the base of the limb tourniquet. Secure the limb bandage, using the means at hand, and give her exalted position. The patient is required to drink plenty — mineral water or soda.

If frostbite

How quickly warm the frostbitten area, but in any case, do not rub it with snow — so one can only increase the risk of total necrosis of tissues. It should not be warm frostbitten areas with dry heat, it is best to dip them in warm water (just above 40 degrees). Smaller touch the skin of the affected areas.

In case of burns

If there is a sharp pain to the victim give pain medicine (analgin). Burned limb can be lowered flowing cold water. For the relief of pain in the burn area is well sprayed Panthenol spray, With light burns can use the ointment "Rescue". If you suspect a serious burn should immediately call "ambulance."

When electric shock

First of all, the victim must be freed from the electric "captivity". The safest — quickly turn off the power grid, or at least move the bare wire from the body with the help of improvised non-conductive materials (stick or board).

Then the victim to be laid, heat shield or grind cologne, give a warm drink. To the burn area of the body electric apply a sterile bandage (clean cloth moistened with water). If the victim is conscious, give him a sniff of ammonia and squirt in the face with cold water. If you lost your breath, immediately begin to do artificial — "mouth to mouth." If the heartbeat is lost — do chest compressions.

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