Autonomic dysfunction (vegetative-vascular dystonia)

Autonomic dysfunction.  Anxiety.  Drawing from the site www.howard-gallery.com

What is it?

Vegetative-vascular dystonia (VVD, it — cardiopsychoneurosis, NDCs) — is peculiar to the domestic medicine obsolete names autonomic dysfunction. This syndrome includes a variety of origin and manifestations of autonomic violations (relating to the operation of the internal organs) functions due to a disorder of the nervous regulation.

Meets vegetative-vascular dystonia often — as in children (12-25%), and adults (70%). This is a consequence of the increasing pace of modern life requires the full commitment of internal resources and effort in the process of study and work, increases the rate of stressful situations.

Why did this happen?

The cause of autonomic dysfunction may include:
  • genetic factors (as a rule, they appear during childhood)
  • diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system (particularly the hypothalamus, limbic system, brain stem)
  • some chronic diseases (mainly edokrinnoy, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems)
  • Chronic stress, overwork and overexertion.

Most often, this condition occurs in the form of somatoform disorders — neurosis, the main or only manifestation of which are violations that mimic the symptoms of chronic diseases. The general mechanism of somatoform disorder looks like this: as a result of severe stress or emotions (especially against the background of psychological strain or exhaustion) the human psyche as it displaces a traumatic situation, which is not able to process it. This "crowding out" experience gives rise to various neurotic symptoms, often of his "targets" are precisely the internal organs.

Contribute to this development the initial imperfection of autonomic regulation, socio-cultural factors, psychological traits (especially alexithymia — the inability to verbally express their emotional experiences). The situation may further worsen comorbid depression, hysteria, emotional instability, anxiety, hypochondria, smoking and alcohol abuse.

What is shown?

The manifestations of autonomic dysfunction can affect a variety of organs and systems, individually or together. The following are the most common of these syndromes.

1. Cardiovascular (cardiovascular) syndrome. It can manifest cardiac arrhythmias (tachycardia, bradycardia, extrasystoles), variability of blood pressure, cardiovascular reactions (pallor or "marble" skin, tides, chilliness of the hands and feet). Kardialgichesky syndrome often occurs — aching, pricking or pulsating trudnoopisuemy pain or discomfort in the heart, which, unlike angina, not related to the physical load and tested for nitroglycerin.

2. Hyperventilation syndrome. Manifested rapid breathing, feeling of suffocation, incompleteness, or delays breathing difficulties. In this case, the blood becomes too much carbon dioxide, which leads to alkalization and its oppression of the respiratory center. As a result, develop muscle spasms, sensory loss in the perioral area, hands and feet, dizziness.

3. Irritable bowel syndrome. Manifested spastic and aching in the lower abdomen, frequent urging to stool, bloating, stool instability. Other disorders of the digestive tract may include a violation of appetite, nausea and vomiting, dysphagia (violation of the act of swallowing), pain and discomfort in the stomach — all in the absence of organic disease (eg, stomach ulcers).

4. Violation of sweating. Typically takes the form of hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating) most of the palms and soles.

5. Cystalgia — frequent painful urination without evidence of disease urinary system and changes in the urine.

6. Sexual Disorders. Manifest violations of erection and ejaculation in men, vaginismus and anorgasmia in women. In this case, the libido (sex drive) can be saved or reduced.

7. Violation of thermoregulation. Expressed as a persistent low-grade fever, chills. And the fever is easily tolerated, sometimes higher in the first half of the day, may be increased asymmetrically in the armpits. It occurs mainly in children.

Diagnosis and treatment

The first step is to exclude organic disease of the corresponding system using specialized professionals and their assigned research. Further diagnostic and treatment conducts search neuropsychiatrist, helping to work out the psychological material, which led to the development of the autonomic dysfunction. In this case, no constraint should not be here — it is important to understand that most unpleasant of these manifestations can and should get rid of. Remember the statistics at the beginning of this article — hardly a large part of the population — "abnormal." Moreover, that neurosis — it's not schizophrenia and similar in severity of the disease, administered by psychiatrists.

To maintain the success of the treatment and prevention of autonomic dysfunction can recommend learning breathing exercises, mastering one of the relaxation techniques (yoga, qigong, etc. — to your taste), to give up smoking and regular use of alcohol. And, of course, in everyday life we must not forget to alternate work with walks, relaxation and socializing with interesting people you.

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