Botulism

Botulism.  Photo from www.nosoweb.org

What is it?

Botulism— Is deadly infectious and toxic disease.

This infection — a microbe related to clostridia (Clostridium botullini). Domiciled Clostridium botulinum — the intestines of many animals and the soil where they fall in the feces and that can persist for many years. From the soil microbe enters the food area.

The absence of air (in canned or dense — such as sausage — products) Clostridium botulinum begin to produce botulinum toxin — one of the strongest poisons known. He is 375,000 times stronger than a rattlesnake venom.

In 95% of cases, the cause of botulism are canned mushrooms homemade. In the same pot botulinum toxin accumulates nests — contaminated sites scattered around the jar. Therefore, not all people who consumed canned foods from the same banks that fall ill.

Botulinum toxin causesviolationnerve impulse conduction and paralysis of the muscles around the body of the patient.

What's going on?

The disease develops very quickly — within 2-24 hours. The first symptoms: diarrhea (3-5 time, without any mixture of blood), vomiting, low-grade fever, pain in the abdomen.

The first specific manifestations of botulism are disturbances in visual acuity (fog in the eyes, poor differentiation of nearby objects), double vision, strabismus (eye muscles are the first to respond to the bowel after botulinum toxin). Then joins violation speech, weakness, dry mouth, violation swallowing, voice changes, etc. The temperature is normal or slightly increased, consciousness is kept.

When the first symptoms of this kind of urgent need to call "fast" as the patient required hospitalization. Without treatment, the patient is progressing muscle weakness and death occurs from paralysis of the respiratory muscles.

Due to national specificities, in Russia, where home canning mushrooms are commonly used as a snack with spirits, at the initial stage of the symptoms of botulism can be taken as signs of severe intoxication. This factor complicates the timely detection of the disease.

Diagnosis andtreatment

The diagnosis of botulism infection disease is established on the basis of symptoms (clinical) and confirmed by bacteriological examination of food debris after eating that develop the disease.

Treatment Botulism is carried out only in the infectious diseases hospital. First of all, from the patient's intestine removed the remains of botulinum toxin poisoned food used excessive gastric lavage. Specific treatment of botulism is the urgent introduction protivobotulinicheskoy serum neutralizing the toxin.

Terms hospital can compensate for damage caused by botulinum toxin — to carry out artificial feeding through a tube in violation of swallowing, administer artificial respiration in case of failure of respiratory muscles. Length of stay in botulism — about three weeks.

Immunity in botulism does not develop, that is, the disease can be hurt repeatedly.

Prevention of botulism is to thoroughly heat-treated foods, strict compliance with health standards preparation, storage and consumption of food.

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