Carriers can not do without

Carriers can not do without
Now Russian Navy needed the latest least four modern ships with this air group
Konstantin Sivkov
The debate about whether to build a Russian aircraft carrier, does not stop during the whole period of existence of this class of ships. Objective analysis indicates: Navy perspective fails to perfectly solve assigned to it by the principal tasks in the distant sea and ocean areas, if the composition of his faction will not even 1st aircraft carrier, perhaps with a nuclear power plant, with 70-90 aircraft devices on board. The best amount — more than 2-to any of the oceanic fleets.

In virtually all countries of the world the answer to this question was specific: one that focused on land war, shall be removed from such ships, others seeking to expand the scope of its own dominance in the world, have increased as part of its fleet of aircraft carriers as the main amount of the military instrument of private outdoor policy.

And aircraft carriers and was not

As part Pravitelskogo Fleet aircraft carriers appeared almost directly from other countries — during the First World War. The Black and Baltic seas gidroaviatransporty been refitted two merchant ships. After the October Revolution in the Russian Navy adopted the concept of a small war in which there was no place aircraft carriers. But by the end of the 30s need to have awareness of the USSR Navy aircraft carriers there.

» Modern naval opposition groups carried out effectively only in the air «
In accordance with the shipbuilding applets by the end of the 40s as part of oceanic fleets had to be carriers. Moreover, in the late 30-ies of the sample taken by the Russian government in Germany to purchase an unfinished aircraft carrier «Graf Zeppelin». But Berlin refused the deal. Yet this particular ship became the first Russian aircraft carrier. In accordance with the sharing contract fleet of Germany «Graf Zeppelin», who was at 92 percent readiness for the commissioning was officially handed over to the Soviet Union and enlisted in the Navy. Its implementation would begin forming their carrier-based school. Great enthusiasm and this ship was from an engineering point of view, as the German shipbuilding at the time was one of the most advanced in the world. Under the influence of different trends undercover contrary views of Navy made a political decision on winding up this ship. From that time until the mid-60s to aircraft carriers in the Soviet Union had a negative attitude. Officially, they were considered a weapon in anger.

With the release of Russian Navy in the ocean, it became clear that without aircraft carriers to ensure implementation of an active foreign policy in distant parts of the world is very problematic. Well, the vast fleet groupings distances from their own bases to sustain massive air strikes without fighter escort aircraft will be very problematic. Vsepolnotsennyh started designing aircraft carriers. But again intervened incompetent, but very influential people who have gained the construction of some hybrids — aircraft carriers, juxtaposed inside properties missile cruisers and aircraft carriers vertical takeoff and landing.


Collage Andrew greyish
These were the ships of the project in 1143, which built four units. The latter was significantly different from the first 3 weapons, especially avionics. Fleet Air Arm was similar — 36 aircraft. Including one squadron of aircraft VTOL Yak-38 Yak-38M or squadron anti-submarine helicopters Ka-27PL and several search and rescue helicopters. Experience of their operation showed the ineffectiveness of such aircraft in modern warfare at sea.

Because it was planned to build a series of aircraft carriers with aircraft «normal» takeoff. All, judging by the open press, they were intended to build at least four. Two of them with an ordinary power plant. This «Russian Admiral Kuznetsov» and «Varyag». And the other two — with nuclear, the first of which was laid under the title «Ulyanovsk». «Kuznetsov» was adopted in 1990 in the Soviet Navy, and oriented to the Northern Fleet. But others were not completed due to the collapse of the country.

Beginning with adjustment against the development of aircraft carriers in our country was a campaign in the press. Several incompetent in naval dilemmas people impose population and politicians position that our country carriers are not needed. Among the first were destroyed inherited from the Soviet Union Russian aircraft carrier. By 1993, part of our fleet now only two of the five ships of this class. After the implementation of India’s aircraft carrier «Admiral Gorshkov» in the Russian Navy only one such ship — «Russian Admiral Kuznetsov».

Now, judging by the press and public statements of prominent military and political control, a particular representation — if necessary in the Russian Navy aircraft carriers — to this day does not exist. In the period from 2007 to 2012 eyes twice reversed.

Scenarios peacetime

Without going into details, all tasks of the Russian Navy can be reduced to the principal — the protection of municipal interests by military means in peacetime, including the support of Russian diplomacy and its own people, reflecting anger with offshore destinations — in wartime.

Geography of Russia’s interests, first of economic, very large enough and extends to a large part of the world’s oceans. This development of economic relations within BRICS extraction of seafood, including remote areas of our coast, mining of minerals and energy on the sea and the ocean of days, cargo transportation and much more.


Increment
Among the main tasks requiring verbovaniya for their effective solutions carriers need to emphasize the role in peacekeeping operations, the protection of people of in the war zones and evacuation of them, also from the areas of man-made and natural disasters. Allocated to meet these challenges, especially in conflict zones, groups of naval forces must be able to reflect the limited unexpected blows small groups and individual boats or small warships and submarines, as warplanes and missiles. This may be necessary for the defense of naval forces, protect civilian aircraft Russian or foreign affiliation and different ground objects, human security attacks of of aggressive military formations (mostly irregular) in the process of evacuation.

The latter can be implemented as a concrete landing on ships and boats in the port either unequipped coast and by air — helicopters and transport aircraft. Their safety will also need to ensure that both the ground-based air defense threats and possible attacks from fighters. Without role combat aircraft, these tasks can not in principle be solved, especially those related to anti aircraft and ground troop formations deep in the foreign country more than a few miles.

To cover the evacuation of, defense of naval forces, protect civilian aircraft Russian or foreign affiliation and different ground objects from unexpected attacks of individual combat aircraft and missiles or small groups will need to patrol in pairs and functioning fighters defended area with one or two planes and AWACS W. Depending on the distance from the aircraft carrier patrolling the area needed around the clock from 12-15 to 24-30 fighter aircraft and from 4 to eight AWACS aircraft and W.

Can not be excluded in the criteria and the possibility of adverse attack large groups of aviation priemuschestvenno compounds against surface ships, especially the principal objects or clusters of large masses of people. Number of such groups can reach 30 units. For their reflections will need to allocate an appropriate amount of fighter aircraft — 12-18 machines and maybe additional AWACS aircraft and W.

To control the underwater environment in the area of ​​finding ship group for the timely detection of submarines before leaving them to attack missiles or short-range torpedo weapon will need in threatened areas more than 2 uh — 4 helicopters. To do this, you will need to have in the carrier air group of more than 12 helicopters.

To counter groups of ground troops and irregulars also need naval aviation. Acts of small groups of irregulars, causing unexpected blows counteracted only timely guidance on their groups of aviation duty status in the air. Similarly reflected unexpected attack small groups of boats, especially missile. Because at least one strike team of naval aviation strength of two — four aircraft should patrol the air space. Forces outfit — also from 12-15 to 24-30 aircraft.

Critical evacuation of people from unsafe areas in depth areas can claim verbovaniya for this 10-ka and more than transport helicopters. Under unfavorable criteria groups provide their fighter and attack aircraft, four — eight cars. Apart from this, we need to ensure planes — one or two — EW and at least one — AEW and Y. In the absence of such cover these tasks can claim huge diplomatic efforts, accompanied by real and significant political losses and even, perhaps, victims or bolshennymi be impossible.

So makarom for benign incarnation foreign policy activities of in peacetime need quite a powerful aircraft carrier as part of our fleet.

In wartime

One of the important tasks of the Russian Navy will be defeating the missile carrier battle groups and opponents. The main areas of recent fighting — a distant land and ocean marine areas distant from our coast to 400-600 km. Hence, they will strike at targets in areas of our country, and ships at sea and on the bases.

It is well known that an advantage of the sea is impossible without merit air supremacy. Modern naval opposition groups actually performed only in the air. Attempts anti-ship missiles and strike aircraft are recognized fighters and anti-aircraft firepower ships. Small groups and single surface ships are attacked 2— 4 cruise missiles or aircraft. In attacks on large surface ships compounds can be used 30-40 and more than RCC with rocket ships and submarines or aircraft to 40-50 deck or tactical aircraft.

Only the ship’s air defense, no matter how massive they are, reflect such attacks virtually impossible. In particular, if suitable means of air attack almost immediately, and hide behind the aircraft EW strike antiship missiles preceded actions aircraft fire destruction of air defense.

Fighter aircraft not only destroys part of the attacking enemy aircraft, and disorganize their attack. Ultimately, the latter is stretched in time — means of air attack fit relatively small groups that successfully destroys the ship’s air defense. Tseleraspredelenie broken in the shock group opponents, thwarted his trial to cover up their air assault means electronic jamming and anti-radar missiles to suppress the ship’s defenses.

Specifically disorganization groups attacking aircraft is a major contribution of fighter aircraft in defense of naval forces in repelling enemy tactical and carrier aviation opponent.

Can make a noticeable contribution to the air defense fighters and naval forces in repelling cruise missiles, destroying more unsafe goals beyond the reach of the ship’s air defense systems.

To reflect the large groups or tactical aircraft carrier-based aircraft will need to select from 24 to 32 fighter aircraft, most of which will act from duty status at the airport (on deck) while ensuring their control AWACS aircraft and W. Outside 100-150 miles from the shore it can only be from an aircraft carrier.

Not counting the larger ship groups in order of battle shock compound are small groups and single ships, solve different puzzles provide. To cover them also need fighter aircraft, which will be able to cover them from unexpected bumps small groups of air attack, priemuschestvenno of duty status in the air.

Has several advantages compared with cruise missiles and the introduction of naval aviation to attack on the United large surface ships. Surpassing cruise missiles in range of action (and more than 800 km to 450-500 against long-range missiles), a group of naval aviation, having in its composition except drums aircraft electronic warfare, reconnaissance, and AWACS have also fighters, able to ensure the highest reliability over identification designated targets and hit them. Breakthrough to success target of attack aircraft and missiles reached their oppression of enemy air defenses and attack his reflection fighters.

Very important naval fighter jets and shock action to cover distant groups (naval missile-carrying) aircraft against aircraft carrier and other large naval forces of the enemy in a distant sea and ocean areas. Accompanying them will allow naval fighter if not remove the danger from deck and shore enemy fighters, then the latest least minimize the loss of their actions to the applicable level. With all of this effectiveness of our aircraft will increase substantially.

Hopefully view

Factions of the Russian Navy will solve puzzles and in peacetime and in wartime far beyond the reach of fighter and bomber aircraft land-based aviation. Maybe you solve these tasks without the support of shore-based aircraft, fighter and ground attack first? With aircraft carriers — yes. They are not a whim sailors, but an urgent necessity.

The analysis indicates that the Russian aircraft carrier air group should be quite plentiful. For the full range of its composition will need to have more than 40-60 aircraft capable of beating with surface and ground targets, also against enemy aircraft, including cruise missiles. Not considering them as part of the air group must have four — eight AWACS aircraft and have two — four aircraft EW and two — four reconnaissance aircraft, as at least 12 anti-submarine and two search and rescue helicopter. Total of 70 to 90 aircraft. In other words, it’s a huge aircraft carrier class, full displacement of 75-85 thousand tons, maybe with a nuclear power plant. Its air defense system must include a means of self-defense, capable of reflecting small groups IOS (up to 4 units) in the interference criteria. For this air defense system on each side must have motivated more than eight channels of short-range air defense missile systems and two — four-channel small-caliber artillery.

In addition to the complex of means of self-defense ship means necessary to provide protection and anti-torpedo EW GOS capable of suppressing anti-ship missiles.

CICS and other electronic equipment as an important requirement must allow operational control problems compound, naval aviation and interacting through the entire depth of its implementation in the interests of the ship connection.

Such ships need to have more than 2-to each of the ocean Fleet. This will allow taking into account of the planned repairs and other measures to support these ships in combat readiness to always have more than 1 battle-ready aircraft carrier in each of the ocean theater.

Konstantin Sivkov,
First vice-president of the Academy of Geopolitical problems, Doctor of Military Sciences

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