Around the project Evenki (Turukhan) HPS broken a lot of copies. What is surprising — a large-scale project, the largest power plant in Russia, there are none and will no longer be a unique target. So, what is this project?
The bottom near the Tunguska alignment Evenkiyskaya HPP.
Evenkiyskaya target plant is located on the Lower Tunguska River — a major tributary of the Yenisei. This river flows in the north of the Krasnoyarsk region, in the Evenki. With the strong average water (more than 3000 m3 / s), the river flow is characterized by strong shocks (the highest among the major rivers of Russia) — in the winter costs are plummeting. In the lower and middle reaches of the river flows in a narrow and deep valley, which creates favorable conditions for the construction of a large power plant. The area is sparsely populated — the northern taiga zone of permafrost.
Target is very interesting, but is very far away — the area sparsely populated, roads and other infrastructure are not available. And consumers are far away, you need to build the longest lines. In this regard, the issue seriously construction on the Lower Tunguska engaged only in 1980, when work began on the feasibility of the project Turukhansk HPP. The project soon became the subject of lively public debate — the end of the 1980s was a difficult time for hydropower, which was accused of all mortal sins, well after the collapse of the country and the well-known economic problems of any mega-projects is not out of the question.
Option concrete dam hydro Evenkiyskaya
Under a new name — Evenk hydropower project was revived in 2001 when work began again on the justification of hydropower. According to the project on the Lower Tunguska River, 120 km is planned to build a dam height of 206 m and a crest length of over 2 km. Two variants of construction of the dam — a concrete and rock-fill, each has its advantages and disadvantages. Power station — 12 000 MW (for comparison, the largest we Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station — 6400 MW), the average annual output — 49 billion kWh Unique not only in domestic but also in the world hydroelectric plant, with a capacity of 1000 MW each — the largest in the world. The draft general much that a large and unique — penstocks diameter of 12 m, huge gates, the issuance of the current in the power system through two lines of constant current and voltage of 1500 kV length of 3500 km.
Option with rockfill dam
The new project appears important innovation — located below the main station kontrreguliruyuschaya plant, designed to smooth out uneven water discharges and reduce the size of ice-hole in the ice, well, at the same time give to the grid an additional 858 MW of capacity and 2.4 billion kWh electricity.
Unprecedented size and reservoir station — the area of 9406 km2, the total volume of 410 km3, — 101 km3. The reservoir is very long, but narrow — the length of 1229 km, width 3.5 km. And on the area, and the volume of the reservoir Evenkiyskaya plant should be the largest in the world. This significant volume of the reservoir allows the deep regulate runoff.
Section of penstocks and a machine room. Option with rockfill dam.
What gives the Evenk GES economy? A huge amount of energy, and maneuverable, and does not depend on weather conditions and river flow. Ability to create a state energy reserve — per meter reservoir drawdown gives 5 billion kWh electricity, and emergency Evenki dam could provide a year 10% of energy consumption across the country. Prevented the annual burning of 32 million tons of coal, the release of huge amounts of CO2 and 535,000 tons of pollutants, storing more than 3 million tons of ash.
Regional and local budgets will get a very substantial increase. During the period of construction and operation in the Evenki will create several thousand jobs at the dam there a new, modern city of hydropower. The abundance of electricity generated during the construction of transport infrastructure and industrial capacity will develop the local industry.
The scheme of the reservoir
Improve water quality in the reservoir — saline groundwater will be crushed by a thick layer of water and earnings are reduced. There will be a vast reservoir of clean water. Supply settlements on the Lower Tunguska River, which is now carried out only during the spring flood (then the water falls and rapids occur) may be all summer (or ship lift locks are not provided, instead of them projected ports in the upper and lower pool highway Mezhuyev them).
That's a plus. What's in the red?
In a flood zone in whole or in part gets 5 small towns and the relatively large urban village Tura total population as of January 1, 2009 — 6367 people. In the late 1980s, the number of affected population was estimated at 10 million people, but has since been greatly reduced population — people leaving from Evenki in general, but also of the small towns in the district center. Thus, the population of the village Tutonchana decreased from 470 to 316 people, the population of 6 more villages that existed in 1980 and fell into a flood zone, for the past 20 years have completely moved out, settlements dismantled. Will not need to relocate more than 5,000 people (some localities affected only partially), of which the indigenous population (Evenki) — about 1,600 people.
The construction of HPPs Tucuruí had to be moved several Indian tribes.
A lot or a little? Some examples are:
Ust-Ilim hydroelectric power station, Russia, 3.8 GW — 14 thousand people resettled
GES Grand Coulee, United States, 6.8 GW — relocated about 6 thousand people, including about two thousand Indians.
GES Tucurui, Brazil, 8.4 GW — relocated to 35 thousand people, including several Native American tribes.
GES Belo Monte, Brazil, 11 GW — planned relocation of more than 20 thousand people.
Three Gorges power plant, China, 22.5 GW — 1.27 resettled million people.
Overall, it is clear that for a project of this scale population displacement is very low and comparable to the number of people resettled due to the same Olympic Games in Sochi.
Are people who are planning to relocate, frankly not very good. Accommodations are mostly old — for example, in the village of Nidym, where, as of 2009, all without exception habitation was in the category of dilapidated or emergency. Centralized water supply, with the exception of the
buildings in the Tour, missing, as well as sewage, as well as wastewater treatment plants. District heating is realized in part, many of the houses, especially in small towns, have a stove heating. Natural result — high morbidity, including tuberculosis, significantly above the average index.
Kislokan village — one of the affected reservoir.
Municipalities periodically waterlogged and partially flooded in high floods — documented cases of rising water in the river for 30 (!) Meters. The water in the Lower Tunguska River in times of low water does not meet drinking water for a number of indicators, which is associated with the specific features of the terrain.
The region is deeply depressed and subsidized — revenues of the local budget consists of various subsidies by 95%. The population there is largely due to the work in the public sector, various allowances, hunting, fishing and gathering berries. Existed in Soviet times, agricultural production, including reindeer, almost completely eliminated in the early to mid-1990s due to unprofitability complete. The population of the villages gradually moved to the Tour, where living conditions are somewhat better.
Urban village Tour.
When relocation is planned to build new settlements above the level of the reservoir — from modern accommodation, a central water supply, heating and sanitation, the full range of infrastructure (schools, hospitals, gyms, etc.). Opponents of the project a lot of exaggerated topic Evenki, agreed almost on the "genocide" of the whole nation (though the Evenk Russia 35 thousand and most of them do not even live in the Evenki and in Yakutia). And for those who are resettled, life does not crash — opportunities to engage in traditional activities (primarily hunting) remain after the filling of the reservoir, while the far-nge all Evenki now engaged in these fisheries (almost two thirds of them live in round, where hunting is not the main source of income).
Plan to transfer the settlement Tutonchana
Reservoir area, in absolute figures is striking, but the area of the Evenk district of Krasnoyarsk region is only 1.2%. In the reservoir flooded to 59 million m3 of timber, rather poor quality, which has no commercial value — take it from there is difficult and not cost-effective, therefore, cut it exclusively for local consumption. Will compensate for the loss of forest plantations in the south of the Krasnoyarsk region, local logging and fire scars.
Mining operations in the flood zone is not (there is a small deposit of coal, much of the stock of which is planned to complete the construction work), large deposits have been identified.
Peled — one of the whitefish, which well take root in the reservoirs.
Of course, there will be significant changes in the quantitative and qualitative state of fish stocks. Generally Lower Tunguska has no commercial value of fishing, fish actively catches the local population for their needs. In the reservoir fish would be in absolute terms larger reservoir will have a commercial value, but the whitefish will replace mainly roach, perch, pike and burbot. The productivity of the reservoir in both quantitative and qualitative terms can significantly increase the targeted formation of the commercial stock of lake whitefish — peled and cisco.
Much speculation has been around in an area flooded area of nuclear explosions. There were three, they were held from 1977 to 1981 for the purpose of seismic sounding. Their thickness is small — up to 10 kt, the depth of 600-700 m, the radius of the formed cavities in rocks — about 30 meters Wells tightly concreted, the detection of such a project will need to re-concreted. In general, the Soviet Union actively using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes, including the creation of dams and even the capacity of the reservoir.
It looks like the area above an underground nuclear explosion. However, this is not Evenkiya and Ivanovo region.
Finally, the cost. The project is estimated at $ 20 billion. Is it much? In specific terms — about $ 1700 per kW for hydropower very good indicator. This is significantly lower than the cost of plant and approaching the value of heat generation. In absolute numbers — the cost of the Olympics in Sochi are estimated at one trillion rubles (more than $ 30 billion), and it's only budget. FIFA World Cup 2018 seems to cost even more.
Evenk plant — a unique, highly cost-infrastructure project of national importance, which will serve as our grandchildren and great-grandchildren. The decision on its implementation rests with the government.
PS Not much kick, article one, though blatantly and cynically steal. I will consider all the comments. I wanted to publish in the section "Will we have done," but as yet no exact solution, published in the blog.