The first of the existence of myopia guessed the Greek philosopher Aristotle in the IV century BC. He noticed that some people are struggling to distinguish between distant objects and a better view, narrows his eyes. Aristotle called this phenomenon "miops" that
Nearsightedness (myopia) — Blurred vision, in which one can clearly see objects situated at a short distance, and bad — things that have been deleted from it. Occurs myopia extremely common: according to statistics, it suffers every third inhabitant of the earth. The disease usually begins to develop between the ages of 7 and 15 years old, and then either exacerbated or maintained at the same level.
Contribute to the development of myopia:
- a genetic predisposition;
- excessive strain on the eyes: reading in a moving vehicle or in the dark, long sitting at the computer and watching TV;
- weakening or overvoltage eye muscles;
- birth trauma and brain injury.
What's going on?
In people with 100% vision images of objects passing through the optical system of the eye focuses on the retina. With myopia ideal image point is in front of it (inside the eye), and up to the retinal image already comes in the form of a slightly blurred. This situation occurs only when the eye fall into parallel light rays, i.e. when looking into the distance.
Rays coming from near objects are not parallel, and a little apart. With these rays myopic eye cope after their refractive index in the optical system, an image falls directly on the retina. It turns out that for myopia man good vision and difficulty seeing near distance.
Most often, the image of distant objects on the retina does not reach two reasons:
- in the case of irregular (elongated) shape of the eyeball;
- optical system of the eye refracts rays too.
Sometimes it happens and combined version: a combination of both defects eyeball one person.
- In addition to being short-sighted person sees badly distant objects, it can also disrupt night vision: in the evening short-sighted people find it difficult to navigate the streets and driving.
- With a constant eye strain from short-sighted person causing severe headaches, he tires easily.
- The most serious complication of myopia — a detached retina. In this vision starts to fall, down to absolute blindness.
Diagnosis and treatment
The diagnosis of myopia sets
With myopia should regularly visit an ophthalmologist as corrective lenses and glasses need to be changed periodically. If necessary, the physician may prescribe medical or surgical treatment.
To date, there three ways to correct myopia: Glasses, contact lenses and surgical procedures, of which the most progressive — Laser.
Glasses and contact lenses from myopia will not help, but it will help people to better see and slow the progression of the disease. Do not expect that the glasses you will eagle vigilance. As corrective lenses should not interfere with train eye muscles, points are selected so that the person can see them in the (maximum) eighth in the table. Glasses and contact lenses are selected individually depending on visual acuity and related diseases of the eye, and is indicated for the temporary or permanent wear.
Surgical treatment— Virtually the only way to fully restore vision in myopia, stop progressive elongation of the eyeball and prevent complications. In severe progressive myopia doctor can additionally assign a course of vitamins and medicines that improve the nutrition of the retina.
It is important to timely detect vision problems. From early childhood, must undergo an annual eye exams, and in the presence of short-sightedness — properly and timely treat it. It is also important to observe the rules of hygiene (sufficient lighting for the place, proper planting in reading and writing, etc.), alternate work and rest, do special exercises to train the muscles of the eyes, to carry out restorative procedures.